Ryukyu Kingdom

The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: 琉球國 Ruuchuu-kuku; Japanese: 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.[note 1] The kings of Ryukyu unified Okinawa Island and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, and the Sakishima Islands near Taiwan. Despite its small size, the kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East and Southeast Asia, especially the Malacca Sultanate.

Ryukyu Kingdom

琉球國
1429–1879
Anthem: Ishinagu
石投子之歌
Ryukyu orthographic
Status
CapitalShuri
Common languagesRyukyuan (native languages), Classical Chinese, Classical Japanese
Religion
Ryukyuan religion, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
GovernmentMonarchy
King (國王) 
• 1429–1439
Shō Hashi
• 1477–1526
Shō Shin
• 1587–1620
Shō Nei
• 1848–1879
Shō Tai
Sessei (摂政) 
• 1666–1673
Shō Shōken
Regent (國師, Kokushi) 
• 1751–1752
Sai On
LegislatureShuri cabinet (首里王府), Sanshikan (三司官)
History 
• Unification
1429
April 5, 1609
• Reorganized into Ryukyu Domain
1875
• Annexed by Japan
March 27 1879
Area
2,271 km2 (877 sq mi)
CurrencyRyukyuan, Chinese, and Japanese mon coins[1]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Hokuzan
Chūzan
Nanzan
Empire of Japan
Satsuma Domain
Ryukyu Domain
Today part ofJapan

History

Origins of the Kingdom

Ryukyu Kingdom Seal
Royal seal of the Ryukyu Kingdom (首里之印)

In the 14th century, small domains scattered on Okinawa Island were unified into three principalities: Hokuzan (北山, Northern Mountain), Chūzan (中山, Central Mountain), and Nanzan (南山, Southern Mountain). This was known as the Three Kingdoms, or Sanzan (三山, Three Mountains) period. Hokuzan, which constituted much of the northern half of the island, was the largest in terms of land area and military strength but was economically the weakest of the three. Nanzan constituted the southern portion of the island. Chūzan lay in the center of the island and was economically the strongest. Its political capital at Shuri, Nanzan was adjacent to the major port of Naha, and Kume-mura, the center of traditional Chinese education. These sites and Chūzan as a whole would continue to form the center of the Ryukyu Kingdom until its abolition.

Many Chinese people moved to Ryukyu to serve the government or to engage in business during this period. At the request of the Ryukyuan King, the Ming Chinese sent thirty-six Chinese families from Fujian to manage oceanic dealings in the kingdom in 1392, during the Hongwu emperor's reign. Many Ryukyuan officials were descended from these Chinese immigrants, being born in China or having Chinese grandfathers.[2] They assisted the Ryukyuans in advancing their technology and diplomatic relations.[3][4][5] On 30 January 1406, the Yongle Emperor expressed horror when the Ryukyuans castrated some of their own children to become eunuchs to serve in the Ming imperial palace. Emperor Yongle said that the boys who were castrated were innocent and did not deserve castration, and he returned them to Ryukyu, and instructed the kingdom not to send eunuchs again. According to statements by Qing imperial official Li Hongzhang in a meeting with Ulysses S. Grant, China had a special relationship with the island and the Ryukyu had paid tribute to China for hundreds of years, and the Chinese reserved certain trade rights for them in an amicable and beneficial relationship.[6]

These three principalities (tribal federations led by major chieftains) battled, and Chūzan emerged victorious. The Chūzan leaders were officially recognized by Ming dynasty China as the rightful kings over those of Nanzan and Hokuzan, thus lending great legitimacy to their claims. The ruler of Chūzan passed his throne to King Hashi; Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1416 and Nanzan in 1429, uniting the island of Okinawa for the first time, and founded the first Shō Dynasty. Hashi received the surname "Shō" (Chinese: "Shang") 尚 from the Ming emperor in 1421, becoming known as Shō Hashi (Chinese: Shang Bazhi) 尚巴志.

Shō Hashi adopted the Chinese hierarchical court system, built Shuri Castle and the town as his capital, and constructed Naha harbor. When in 1469 King Shō Toku, who was a grandson of Shō Hashi, died without a male heir, a palatine servant declared he was Toku's adopted son and gained Chinese investiture. This pretender, Shō En, began the Second Shō Dynasty. Ryukyu's golden age occurred during the reign of Shō Shin, the second king of that dynasty, who reigned from 1478 to 1526.

The kingdom extended its authority over the southernmost islands in the Ryukyu archipelago by the end of the 15th century, and by 1571 the Amami Ōshima Islands, to the north near Kyūshū, were incorporated into the kingdom as well.[7] While the kingdom's political system was adopted and the authority of Shuri recognized, in the Amami Ōshima Islands, the kingdom's authority over the Sakishima Islands to the south remained for centuries at the level of a tributary-suzerain relationship.[8]

Golden age of maritime trade

For nearly two hundred years, the Ryukyu Kingdom would thrive as a key player in maritime trade with Southeast and East Asia.[9][10] Central to the kingdom's maritime activities was the continuation of the tributary relationship with Ming dynasty China, begun by Chūzan in 1372,[7][note 2] and enjoyed by the three Okinawan kingdoms which followed it. China provided ships for Ryukyu's maritime trade activities,[11] allowed a limited number of Ryukyuans to study at the Imperial Academy in Beijing, and formally recognized the authority of the King of Chūzan, allowing the kingdom to trade formally at Ming ports. Ryukyuan ships, often provided by China, traded at ports throughout the region, which included, among others, China, Đại Việt (Vietnam), Japan, Java, Korea, Luzon, Malacca, Pattani, Palembang, Siam, and Sumatra.[12]

Qing Seal for King of Ryukyu
Seal from Qing China giving authority to the King of Ryukyu to rule
Naha Shuri Castle16s5s3200
The main building (Seidan) of Shuri Castle

Japanese products—silver, swords, fans, lacquerware, folding screens—and Chinese products—medicinal herbs, minted coins, glazed ceramics, brocades, textiles—were traded within the kingdom for Southeast Asian sappanwood, rhino horn, tin, sugar, iron, ambergris, Indian ivory, and Arabian frankincense. Altogether, 150 voyages between the kingdom and Southeast Asia on Ryukyuan ships were recorded in the Rekidai Hōan, an official record of diplomatic documents compiled by the kingdom, as having taken place between 1424 and the 1630s, with 61 of them bound for Siam, 10 for Malacca, 10 for Pattani, and 8 for Java, among others.[12]

The Chinese policy of haijin (海禁, "sea bans"), limiting trade with China to tributary states and those with formal authorization, along with the accompanying preferential treatment of the Ming Court towards Ryukyu, allowed the kingdom to flourish and prosper for roughly 150 years.[13] In the late 16th century, however, the kingdom's commercial prosperity fell into decline. The rise of the wokou ("Japanese pirate") threat among other factors led to the gradual loss of Chinese preferential treatment;[14] the kingdom also suffered from increased maritime competition from Portuguese traders.[7]

Japanese invasion and subordination

Around 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi asked the Ryukyu Kingdom to aid in his campaign to conquer Korea. If successful, Hideyoshi intended to then move against China. As the Ryukyu Kingdom was a tributary state of the Ming dynasty, the request was refused. The Tokugawa shogunate that emerged following Hideyoshi's fall authorized the Shimazu familyfeudal lords of the Satsuma domain (present-day Kagoshima Prefecture)—to send an expeditionary force to conquer the Ryukyus. The subsequent invasion took place in 1609, but Satsuma still allowed the Ryukyu Kingdom to find itself in a period of "dual subordination" to Japan and China, wherein Ryukyuan tributary relations were maintained with both the Tokugawa shogunate and the Chinese court.[7]

Occupation occurred fairly quickly, with some fierce fighting, and King Shō Nei was taken prisoner to Kagoshima and later to Edo (modern-day Tokyo). When he was released two years later, the Ryukyu Kingdom regained a degree of autonomy; however, the Satsuma domain seized control over some territory of the Ryukyu Kingdom, notably the Amami-Ōshima island group, which was incorporated into the Satsuma domain and remains a part of Kagoshima prefecture, not Okinawa prefecture, to this day.

The kingdom was described by Hayashi Shihei in Sangoku Tsūran Zusetsu, which was published in 1785.[15]

Tributary relations

Ryukyuan mission in Edo
A early period Ryukyuan embassy in Edo, Japan. Ryukyuans wear the clothes which were near to the Chinese Hanfu.
Traditional clothes of Ryukyu
Traditional Ryukyuan clothes in late period, which were much more close to the Japanese Kimono.

In 1655, tribute relations between Ryukyu and Qing dynasty (the dynasty that followed Ming in 1644) were formally approved by the shogunate. This was seen to be justified, in part, because of the desire to avoid giving Qing any reason for military action against Japan.[16]

Since Ming China prohibited trade with Japan, the Satsuma domain, with the blessing of the Tokugawa shogunate, used the trade relations of the kingdom to continue to maintain trade relations with China. Considering that Japan had previously severed ties with most European countries except the Dutch, such trade relations proved especially crucial to both the Tokugawa shogunate and Satsuma domain, which would use its power and influence, gained in this way, to help overthrow the shogunate in the 1860s.

The Ryukyuan king was a vassal of the Satsuma daimyō, but his land was not considered as part of any han (fief): up until the formal annexation of the islands and abolition of the kingdom in 1879, the Ryukyus were not truly considered part of Japan, and the Ryukyuan people were not considered to be Japanese. Though technically under the control of Satsuma, Ryukyu was given a great degree of autonomy, to best serve the interests of the Satsuma daimyō and those of the shogunate, in trading with China. Ryukyu was a tributary state of China, and since Japan had no formal diplomatic relations with China, it was essential that China not realize that Ryukyu was controlled by Japan. Thus, Satsuma—and the shogunate—was obliged to be mostly hands-off in terms of not visibly or forcibly occupying Ryukyu or controlling the policies and laws there. The situation benefited all three parties involved—the Ryukyu royal government, the Satsuma daimyō, and the shogunate—to make Ryukyu seem as much a distinctive and foreign country as possible. Japanese were prohibited from visiting Ryukyu without shogunal permission, and the Ryukyuans were forbidden from adopting Japanese names, clothes, or customs. They were even forbidden from divulging their knowledge of the Japanese language during their trips to Edo; the Shimazu family, daimyōs of Satsuma, gained great prestige by putting on a show of parading the King, officials, and other people of Ryukyu to and through Edo. As the only han to have a king and an entire kingdom as vassals, Satsuma gained significantly from Ryukyu's exoticness, reinforcing that it was an entirely separate kingdom.

Japan ordered tributary relations to end in 1875 after the tribute mission of 1874 was perceived as a show of submission to China.[17]

Annexation by the Japanese Empire

In 1872, Emperor Meiji unilaterally declared that the kingdom was then Ryukyu Domain.[18][19][20] At the same time, the fiction of independence was maintained for diplomatic reasons[21] until the Meiji Japanese government abolished the Ryukyu Kingdom when the islands were incorporated as Okinawa Prefecture on 27 March 1879.[22] The Amami-Ōshima island group which had been integrated into Satsuma Domain became a part of Kagoshima Prefecture.

The last king of Ryukyu was forced to relocate to Tokyo, and was given a compensating kazoku rank as Marquis Shō Tai.[23][24] His death in 1901 diminished the historic connections with the former kingdom.[25] The Sho family now lives normally in Japan.[26] Many royalists fled to China.[27]

Major events

List of Ryukyuan kings

Kings of Ryukyu Islands
Name Chinese characters Reign Line or Dynasty Notes
Shunten 舜天 1187–37 Tenson Lineage
Shunbajunki 舜馬順熈 1238–48 Tenson Lineage
Gihon 義本 1249–59 Tenson Lineage
Eiso 英祖 1260–99 Eiso Lineage
Taisei 大成 1300–08 Eiso Lineage
Eiji 英慈 1309–13 Eiso Lineage
Kings of Chūzan
Tamagusuku 玉城 1314–36 Eiso Lineage
Seii 西威 1337–54 Eiso Lineage
Satto 察度 1355–97 Satto Lineage
Bunei 武寧 1398–1406 Satto Lineage
Shō Shishō 尚思紹 1407–21 First Shō Dynasty
Shō Hashi 尚巴志 1422–29 First Shō Dynasty as King of Chūzan
Kings of Ryukyu
Name Chinese characters Reign Line or Dynasty Notes
Shō Hashi 尚巴志 1429–39 First Shō Dynasty as King of Ryukyu
Shō Chū 尚忠 1440–42 First Shō Dynasty
Shō Shitatsu 尚思達 1443–49 First Shō Dynasty
Shō Kinpuku 尚金福 1450–53 First Shō Dynasty
Shō Taikyū 尚泰久 1454–60 First Shō Dynasty
Shō Toku 尚徳 1461–69 First Shō Dynasty
Shō En 尚円 1470–76 Second Shō Dynasty AKA Kanemaru Uchima
Shō Sen'i 尚宣威 1477 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Shin 尚真 1477–1526 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Sei 尚清 1527–55 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Gen 尚元 1556–72 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Ei 尚永 1573–86 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Nei 尚寧 1587–1620 Second Shō Dynasty ruled during Satsuma invasion; first king to be Satsuma vassal
Shō Hō 尚豊 1621–40 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Ken 尚賢 1641–47 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Shitsu 尚質 1648–68 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Tei 尚貞 1669–1709 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Eki 尚益 1710–12 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Kei 尚敬 1713–51 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Boku 尚穆 1752–95 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō On 尚温 1796–1802 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Sei (r. 1803) 尚成 1803 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Kō 尚灝 1804–28 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Iku 尚育 1829–47 Second Shō Dynasty
Shō Tai 尚泰 1848 – March 11, 1879 Second Shō Dynasty last King of Ryukyu (then Japanese Marquis 1884–1901)

In popular culture

In the videogame Europa Universalis IV there is an achievement called The Three Mountains, which is achieved by conquering the world as the Ryukyu Kingdom. It is considered to be one of the hardest in-game achievements, thought to be an impossible one for a long time, due to Ryukyu's limited resources and isolation.

See also

Location of the Ryukyu Islands
Location of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Kingdoms of Sanzan era
Hokuzan, Chūzan, Nanzan

Notes

  1. ^ Although the Ryukyuan king was a vassal of the Satsuma Domain, the Ryukyu Kingdom was not considered part of any Han due to trade relations with China.
  2. ^ Nanzan and Hokuzan also entered into tributary relationships with Ming China, in 1380 and 1383 respectively.[11]

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Ryuukyuuan coins". Luke Roberts at the Department of History – University of California at Santa Barbara. 24 October 2003. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017.
  2. ^ Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (1996). The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-7914-2687-4. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  3. ^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2007). Schottenhammer, Angela (ed.). The East Asian maritime world 1400–1800: its fabrics of power and dynamics of exchanges. Volume 4 of East Asian economic and socio-cultural studies: East Asian maritime history (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz. p. xiii. ISBN 3-447-05474-3. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  4. ^ Deng, Gang (1999). Maritime sector, institutions, and sea power of premodern China. Contributions in economics and economic history. 212 (illustrated ed.). Greenwood. p. 125. ISBN 0-313-30712-1. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  5. ^ Hendrickx, Katrien (2007). The Origins of Banana-fibre Cloth in the Ryukyus, Japan (illustrated ed.). Leuven University Press. p. 39. ISBN 90-5867-614-5. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  6. ^ Grant, Ulysses Simpson (2008). Simon, John Y (ed.). The Papers. 29: October 1, 1878 – September 30, 1880 (illustrated ed.). SIU Press, Ulysses S. Grant Association. p. 165. ISBN 0-8093-2775-9. Retrieved 2011-01-11.
  7. ^ a b c d e Matsuda 2001, p. 16.
  8. ^ Murai 2008, pp. iv–v.
  9. ^ Okamoto 2008, p. 35.
  10. ^ Okinawa Prefectural reserve cultural assets center (2012). "東南アジアと琉球". Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
  11. ^ a b Okamoto 2008, p. 36.
  12. ^ a b Sakamaki, Shunzō (1964). "Ryukyu and Southeast Asia". Journal of Asian Studies. 23 (3): 382–384. doi:10.2307/2050757.
  13. ^ Murai 2008, p. iv.
  14. ^ Okamoto 2008, p. 53.
  15. ^ Klaproth, Julius (1832), San kokf tsou ran to sets, ou Aperçu général des trois royaumes [San kokf tsou ran to sets, or General overview of the three kingdoms] (in French), pp. 169–180.
  16. ^ Kang 2010, p. 81.
  17. ^ Kerr 1953, p. 366-367.
  18. ^ Matsuo, Kanenori Sakon (2005). The Secret Royal Martial Arts of Ryukyu, p. 40, at Google Books.
  19. ^ Kerr 1953, p. 175.
  20. ^ Lin, Man-houng. "The Ryukyus and Taiwan in the East Asian Seas: A Longue Durée Perspective", Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. October 27, 2006, translated and abridged from Academia Sinica Weekly, No. 1084. August 24, 2006.
  21. ^ Goodenough, Ward H. Book Review: "George H. Kerr. Okinawa: the History of an Island People...", The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, May 1959, Vol. 323, No. 1, p. 165.
  22. ^ Kerr 1953, p. 381.
  23. ^ a b Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph (2003), "Sho", Nobiliare du Japon [Nobility of Japan] (PDF@60) (in French), p. 56.
  24. ^ Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph (1906), Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon [Dictionary of History & Geography of Japan] (in French).
  25. ^ Kerr 1953, p. 236.
  26. ^ "Forgotten Dynasty".
  27. ^ 论战后琉球独立运动及琉球归属问题- 百度文库
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Hamashita, Takeshi. Okinawa Nyūmon (沖縄入門, "Introduction to Okinawa"). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 2000, pp. 207–13.

Sources

External links

Coordinates: 26°12′N 127°41′E / 26.200°N 127.683°E

Administrative divisions of the Ryukyu Kingdom

The administrative divisions of the Ryukyu Kingdom were a hierarchy composed of districts, magiri, cities, villages, and islands established by the Ryukyu Kingdom throughout the Ryukyu Islands.

Bingata

Bingata (Okinawan: 紅型, literally "red style") is an Okinawan traditional resist dyed cloth, made using stencils and other methods. It is generally brightly colored and features various patterns, usually depicting natural subjects such as fish, water, and flowers. Bingata is worn during traditional Ryūkyū arts performances and historical reenactments.

Bingata dates from the Ryūkyū Kingdom period (c. 14th century), when the island of Okinawa experienced an influx of foreign goods and manufacturing techniques. It is believed to have developed as a synthesis of Indian, Chinese, and Javanese dying processes.

Chūzan

Chūzan (中山) was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century. Okinawa, previously controlled by a number of local chieftains or lords, loosely bound by a paramount chieftain or king of the entire island, split into these three more solidly defined kingdoms within a few years after 1314; the Sanzan period thus began, and would end roughly one hundred years later, when Chūzan's King Shō Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1419 and Nanzan in 1429.

The united Okinawan state was called the Ryūkyū Kingdom, but would continue to be referred to as "Chūzan" in various official documents of the Ryukyuan royal government, and those of many other states in the region.

Chūzan Seifu

Chūzan Seifu (中山世譜, lit. Genealogy book of Chūzan) was an official history of the Ryūkyū Kingdom compiled between 1697 and 1701 by a group of scholar-officials led by Sai Taku. It was a Kanbun translated version of Chūzan Seikan.

Later, it was rewritten into Classical Chinese by Sai Taku's famous son Sai On in 1725, and expanded each year until 1876.

Genealogy of the Shō Dynasties

The First Shō Dynasty and Second Shō Dynasty ruled the Ryukyu Kingdom in 1406–1469 and 1470–1879, respectively. In spite of the names, they were unrelated. Abbreviated genealogies of the two dynasties follow here.

Hokuzan

Hokuzan (北山) was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century. Okinawa, previously controlled by a number of local chieftains or lords, loosely bound by a paramount chieftain or king of the entire island, split into these three more solidly defined kingdoms within a few years after 1314; the Sanzan period thus began, and would end roughly one hundred years later, when Chūzan's King Shō Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1416 and Nanzan in 1429.

Imperial Chinese missions to the Ryukyu Kingdom

Imperial Chinese missions to the Ryukyu Kingdom were diplomatic missions which were intermittently sent by the Yuan, Ming and Qing emperors to Shuri, Okinawa in the Ryukyu Islands. These diplomatic contacts were within the Sinocentric system of bilateral and multinational relationships in East Asia.

Some missions were sent to perform investiture ceremonies for the King of Ryukyu, formally acknowledging him as King on behalf of the Chinese Imperial Court, and as a tributary subordinate.

List of monarchs of Ryukyu Islands

The list of monarchs of the Ryukyu Islands extends from chief Shunten in the 12th century to the last king in the 19th century.

Nanzan

Nanzan (南山), sometimes called Sannan (山南), was one of three kingdoms which controlled Okinawa in the 14th century. Okinawa, previously controlled by a number of local chieftains or lords, loosely bound by a paramount chieftain or king of the entire island, split into these three more solidly defined kingdoms within a few years after 1314; the Sanzan period thus began, and would end roughly one hundred years later, when Chūzan's King Shō Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1419 and Nanzan in 1429.

Okinawan martial arts

Okinawan martial arts refers to the martial arts, such as karate, tegumi and Okinawan kobudō, which originated among the indigenous people of Okinawa Island. Due to its central location, Okinawa was influenced by various cultures with a long history of trade and cultural exchange, including Japan, China and Southeast Asia, that greatly influenced the development of martial arts on Okinawa.

Pechin

Pechin (親雲上, Peechin), or Pekumi (親雲上, Peekumi), was a rank among the Yukatchu class of the former Ryukyu Kingdom (modern-day Okinawa, Japan), above the rank of Satunushi and below the rank of Ueekata. As scholar-officials, they often served in administrative positions in the Ryukyuan government. Placed in the upper class, the Pechin would often travel with a servant at their side.

There were three ranks of Pechin: Chikudun Pechin, Satunushi Pechin, and Pekumi or Pechin.

Ryukyu Domain

The Ryukyu Domain (琉球藩, Ryūkyū han) was a short-lived domain of Japan, lasting from 1872 to 1879, before becoming the current Okinawa Prefecture and other islands at the Pacific edge of the East China Sea.

When the domain was created in 1872, Japan's feudal han system had developed in unique ways. The domain was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

Ryukyuan missions to Edo

Over the course of Japan's Edo period, the Ryūkyū Kingdom sent eighteen missions to Edo (琉球江戸上り, ryūkyū edo nobori, "lit. 'the going up of Ryūkyū to Edo'), the capital of Tokugawa Japan. The unique pattern of these diplomatic exchanges evolved from models established by the Chinese, but without denoting any predetermined relationship to China or to the Chinese world order. The Kingdom became a vassal to the Japanese feudal domain (han) of Satsuma following Satsuma's 1609 invasion of Ryūkyū, and as such were expected to pay tribute to the shogunate; the missions also served as a great source of prestige for Satsuma, the only han to claim any foreign polity, let alone a kingdom, as its vassal.

Ryukyuan mon

The Ryukyuan mon (琉球文, Ryūkyū mon, Okinawan: Ruuchuu mun) was the currency of the Ryukyu Kingdom from 1454 to 1879, when the kingdom was annexed by the Empire of Japan and the currency was replaced by the Japanese yen. The Chinese character for mon is 文, which was widely used in the Chinese-character cultural sphere, e.g. Chinese wén, Vietnamese văn, and Korean mun. The Ryukyuans produced their own coins until the 15th century, but became dependent on Chinese coins until the 19th century when they briefly minted their own coins again. From 1862 the minting was outsourced to Kagoshima City, Satsuma Domain and were based on the Japanese mon (specifically on the "Kan'ei Tsūhō" copper coins). All of the Kagoshima-minted coins bear the phrase "Ryūkyū Tsūhō" (琉球通寳) (circulating treasure of Ryukyu); this phrase was written in Seal script on the half shu (248 mon) coin. Despite the annexation of the Ryukyu Kingdom in 1879, these coins continued to circulate within Okinawa Prefecture well into the 1880's as the Ryukyuans were initially unwilling to use Japanese yen coins.

Shō Shōken

Shō Shōken (向 象賢, 1617 -1675), also known as Haneji Wōji Chōshū (羽地 王子 朝秀), was a Ryukyuan scholar and served as sessei, a post often translated as "prime minister," from 1666 to 1673. Shō wrote the first history of the Ryukyu Kingdom, Chūzan Seikan (中山世鑑, "Mirror of Chūzan"), and enacted a number of practical political reforms aimed at improving Ryukyu's prosperity and dignity in the eyes of China and Japan.

Tsuboya ware

Tsuboya ware (壺屋焼, Tsuboya-yaki) is a type of Ryukyuan pottery traditionally from Tsuboya, presently a part of Naha, in the former Ryukyu Kingdom.

Ueekata

Ueekata (親方) , in the Okinawan language, was the highest rank in the yukatchu aristocracy of the former Ryukyu Kingdom (modern-day Okinawa, Japan), though it was still below the aji nobility. Members of the Council of Three (三司官, Sanshikan), a very high-ranking governmental body, were chosen from among the ueekata.

Ueekata rank was generally obtained as the last step in a progression from shii (子) rank to satonushi (里之子), then to peekumi (親雲上), and finally to ueekata. As with other Ryukyuan aristocratic titles, a member would often be referred to by their title, along with an associated placename. For example, royal government official Tei Dō (1549-1611) is equally well known by the title Jana Ueekata, or "ueekata of Jana," Jana (謝名) being an area (specifically, an azana) within what is today the city of Ginowan, Okinawa.

Holders of ueekata rank wore purple hachimachi headbands, the color being a symbol of rank.

Wangjin

Wangjin is a kind of traditional headband worn by adult men in Chinese Ming Dynasty, Korean Joseon period, Vietnam Later Lê dynasty to Nguyễn dynasty and Ryukyu Kingdom to hold their hair in place after the topknot is done. It is usually made by weaving dyed horsehair.

Yukatchu

Yukatchu (良人) were the aristocracy of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The scholar-bureaucrats of classical Chinese studies living in Kumemura held the majority of government positions.

Shunten Dynasty
Eiso Dynasty
Sanzan period
First Shō Dynasty
Second Shō Dynasty

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