Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.
Secale fragile M.Bieb.
Rye is one of a number of species that grow wild in central and eastern Turkey and in adjacent areas. Domesticated rye occurs in small quantities at a number of Neolithic sites in (Asia Minor) Turkey, such as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Can Hasan III near Çatalhöyük, but is otherwise absent from the archaeological record until the Bronze Age of central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BCE. It is possible that rye traveled west from (Asia Minor) Turkey as a minor admixture in wheat (possibly as a result of Vavilovian mimicry), and was only later cultivated in its own right. Although archeological evidence of this grain has been found in Roman contexts along the Rhine, Danube, and in Ireland and Britain, Pliny the Elder was dismissive of rye, writing that it "is a very poor food and only serves to avert starvation" and spelt is mixed into it "to mitigate its bitter taste, and even then is most unpleasant to the stomach".
Since the Middle Ages people have cultivated rye widely in Central and Eastern Europe. It serves as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands.
Claims of much earlier cultivation of rye, at the Epipalaeolithic site of Tell Abu Hureyra in the Euphrates valley of northern Syria remain controversial. Critics point to inconsistencies in the radiocarbon dates, and identifications based solely on grain, rather than on chaff.
Winter rye is any breed of rye planted in the fall to provide ground cover for the winter. It grows during warmer days of the winter when sunlight temporarily warms the plant above freezing, even while there is general snow cover. It can be used to prevent the growth of winter-hardy weeds, and can either be harvested as a bonus crop or tilled directly into the ground in spring to provide more organic matter for the next summer's crop. It is sometimes used in winter gardens and is a common nurse crop.
The nematode Ditylenchus dipsaci, leaf beetle, fruit fly, gout fly, cereal chafer, dart moth, cereal bug, Hessian fly, and rustic shoulder knot are among insects which can seriously affect rye health.
|Top ten rye producers||2016
Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America (Canada and the United States), in South America (Argentina, Brazil and Chile), in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China.
Production levels of rye have fallen in most of the producing nations, as of 2012. For instance, production of rye in Russia fell from 13.9 million metric tons (t) in 1992 to 2.1 t in 2012. Corresponding figures for other countries are as follows: Poland – falling from 5.9 t in 1992 to 2.9 t in 2005; Germany – 3.3 t to 3.9 Mt; Belarus – 3.1 t to 1.1 t; China – 1.7 t to 0.7 t. Most rye is consumed locally or exported only to neighboring countries, rather than being shipped worldwide.
Poland consumes the most rye per person at 32.4 kg/capita (2009). Nordic and Baltic countries are also very high. The EU in general is around 5.6 kg/capita. The entire world only consumes 0.9 kg/capita.
Rye is highly susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism. Ergotism can cause both physical and mental harm, including convulsions, miscarriage, necrosis of digits, hallucinations and death. Historically, damp northern countries that have depended on rye as a staple crop were subject to periodic epidemics of this condition. Such epidemics have been found to correlate with periods of frequent witch trials, such as the Salem witch trials in Massachusetts in 1692. Modern grain-cleaning and milling methods have practically eliminated the disease, but contaminated flour may end up in bread and other food products if the ergot is not removed before milling.
Rye grain is refined into a flour. Rye flour is high in gliadin but low in glutenin. It therefore has a lower gluten content than wheat flour. It also contains a higher proportion of soluble fiber. Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present in high amounts in the bran layer (e.g. pericarp, testa and aleurone layers) of wheat and rye (0.1–0.3% of dry weight). Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is made using rye flour and is a widely eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe. Rye is also used to make crisp bread.
Rye grain is used to make alcoholic drinks, like rye whiskey and rye beer. Other uses of rye grain include kvass and an herbal medicine known as rye extract. Rye straw is used as livestock bedding, as a cover crop and green manure for soil amendment, and to make crafts such as corn dollies.
Physical properties of rye affect attributes of the final food product such as seed size and surface area, and porosity. The surface area of the seed directly correlates to the drying and heat transfer time. Smaller seeds have increased heat transfer, which leads to lower drying time. Seeds with lower amounts of porosity also have lower tendencies to lose water during the process of drying.
Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially valuable crop in regions where the soil has sand or peat. Rye plants withstand cold better than other small grains do. Rye will survive with snow cover that would otherwise result in winter-kill for winter wheat. Most farmers grow winter ryes, which are planted and begin to grow in autumn. In spring, the plants develop and produce their crop.
Fall-planted rye shows fast growth. By the summer solstice, plants reach their maximum height of about a 120 cm (4 ft) while spring-planted wheat has only recently germinated. Vigorous growth suppresses even the most noxious weed competitors and rye can be grown without application of herbicides.
Rye is a common, unwanted invader of winter wheat fields. If allowed to grow and mature, it may cause substantially reduced prices (docking) for harvested wheat.
Secale cereale can thrive in subzero environments. The leaves of winter S. cereale produce various antifreeze polypeptides. (These are different to the antifreeze polypeptides produced by some fish and insects.)
Along with Secale cereale's relationship and impact on the environment, it is also a valuable species because of its expansive diversity and uses. In northern Portugal, fourteen different populations of S. cereale were analyzed in order to better understand their differences. It was discovered that the storage proteins are very diverse and possess a lot of overall genetic variation as well, which is useful information to know because scientists can use its diversity in breeding to produce the most efficient cultivar of S. cereale, or rye. Moreover, the beneficial characteristics of S. cereale can also be used to improve certain characteristics of other useful plants, like wheat. The pollination abilities of wheat were vastly improved when there was cross-pollination with S. cereale. The addition of the rye chromosome 4R increased the size of the wheat anther along with increasing the number of pollen grains present. Along with improved wheat, the optimal characteristics of S. cereale can also be combined with another perennial rye, specifically S. montanum Guss, in order to produce S. cereanum, which has the beneficial characteristics of each. The hybrid rye (S. cereanum) can be grown in all environments, even with less than favorable soil and protects some soils from erosion. In addition, the plant mixture has improved forage and is known to contain digestible fiber and protein. Information about the diversity, the genome and S. cereanum’s ability to cross fertilize with other species is useful information for scientists to know as they attempt to come up with various plant species that will be able to feed humanity in the future without leaving a negative footprint on the environment.
The harvesting of rye is similar to that of wheat. It is usually done with combine harvesters, which cut the plants, thresh and winnow the grain, and either gather the straw onto wagons or release it to the field as soil amendment. The resultant grain is stored in local silos or transported to regional grain elevators and combined with other lots for storage and distant shipment. Before the era of mechanised agriculture, rye harvesting was a manual task performed with scythes or sickles. The cut rye was often shocked for drying or storage, and the threshing was done by manually beating the seed heads against a floor or other object.
Like wheat, barley, and their hybrids and derivatives, rye contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy, among others. Nevertheless, some wheat allergy patients can tolerate rye or barley.
Ergotism is an illness that can result from eating rye and other grains infected by ergot fungi (which produce LSD-25-like toxins in infected products). Although it is no longer a common illness because of modern food safety efforts, it was common before the 20th century, and it can still happen today if food safety vigilance breaks down.
Angela Rye (born October 26, 1979) is an American attorney and the Principal and CEO of IMPACT Strategies, a political advocacy firm in Washington, DC. She is a liberal political commentator on CNN and an NPR political analyst.She served as the executive director and general counsel to the Congressional Black Caucus for the 112th Congress.She currently is running the boards of the Congressional Black Caucus Institute, Congressional Black Caucus Political Action Committee, Seattle University School of Law Alumni, and Women in Entertainment Empowerment Network. She serves as a senior advisor to the Government Technology and Services Coalition and is a member of the Links, Incorporated.Canadian whisky
Canadian whisky is a type of whisky produced in Canada. Most Canadian whiskies are blended multi-grain liquors containing a large percentage of corn spirits, and are typically lighter and smoother than other whisky styles. When Canadian distillers began adding small amounts of highly-flavourful rye grain to their mashes, people began demanding this new rye-flavoured whisky, referring to it simply as "rye". Today, as for the past two centuries, the terms "rye whisky" and "Canadian whisky" are used interchangeably in Canada and (as defined in Canadian law) refer to exactly the same product, which generally is made with only a small amount of rye grain.Church of the Resurrection (Rye, New York)
The Church of the Resurrection is a Roman Catholic church located in Rye, New York. The parish was founded in 1880, and the current church building was completed in 1931.J. D. Salinger
Jerome David Salinger (; January 1, 1919 – January 27, 2010) was an American writer known for his widely read novel The Catcher in the Rye. He was raised in Manhattan and began writing short stories while in secondary school. His father urged him to learn about the meat-importing business; he went to work in Europe but was so disgusted by the slaughterhouses that he decided to embark on a different career path. He left Austria one month before it was annexed by Nazi Germany on March 12, 1938. In 1942, he started dating Oona O'Neill, daughter of playwright Eugene O'Neill. He found her self-absorbed, yet he called her often and wrote her long letters. Their relationship ended when Oona began seeing Charlie Chaplin, whom she eventually married.
In 1948, his story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New Yorker magazine, which also published much of his later work. The Catcher in the Rye was published in 1951 and became an immediate popular success. Many adolescent readers appreciated his depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in protagonist Holden Caulfield. The novel remains widely read and controversial, selling around 250,000 copies a year. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public attention and scrutiny, and Salinger became reclusive and led an obsessively private life for more than a half-century. He published his final work in 1965, and gave his last interview in 1980. He died of natural causes on January 27, 2010 at his home in Cornish, New Hampshire.List of whisky brands
This is a list of whisky brands arranged by country of origin and style. Whisky (or whiskey) is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and corn. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casks, made generally of charred white oak.National Register of Historic Places listings in southern Westchester County, New York
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in southern Westchester County, New York, excluding the cities of New Rochelle and Yonkers, which have separate lists of their own.
This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in the southern half of Westchester County, New York, United States. The following communities comprise this region:
Town of Eastchester, including the villages of Bronxville and Tuckahoe, and the hamlet of Crestwood
Town of Greenburgh, excluding Tarrytown but including the villages of Ardsley, Dobbs Ferry, Elmsford, Hastings-on-Hudson, and Irvington, and the hamlets of Edgemont and Hartsdale
Village and town of Harrison
Town of Mamaroneck, including the villages of Larchmont and Mamaroneck
City of Mount Vernon
Town of Pelham, which is the villages of Pelham and Pelham Manor
City of Rye
Town of Rye, including the villages of Port Chester and Rye Brook
Village and town of Scarsdale
City of White PlainsLatitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register properties and districts; these locations may be seen together in a Google map.Of the 230 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, 87, including six National Historic Landmarks (NHLs), are on this list. Two, the Bronx River Parkway and Old Croton Aqueduct, the latter an NHL, are linear listings included on both this list and the northern Westchester list.
This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted May 17, 2019.Nick Kroll
Nicholas Kroll (born June 5, 1978) is an American actor, comedian, writer and producer.
Kroll is best known for his role as Nick Hedge in the short-lived ABC sitcom Cavemen, the Netflix series Big Mouth, The Oh, Hello Show, playing Rodney Ruxin on the FX/FXX comedy series The League, and for creating and starring in the Comedy Central series Kroll Show. As a film actor, Kroll has had supporting roles in I Love You, Man, Date Night, Get Him to the Greek, and Dinner for Schmucks, as well as more prominent roles in Adult Beginners, Sausage Party, Loving, Sing, Captain Underpants: The First Epic Movie, The House, Uncle Drew, and Operation Finale.Pastrami on rye
Pastrami on rye is a classic sandwich made famous in the Jewish kosher delicatessens of New York City. It was first created in 1888 by Sussman Volk, who served it at his deli on Delancey Street in New York City.Peckham Rye
Peckham Rye is an open space and road in the London Borough of Southwark in London, England. The roughly triangular open space, managed by Southwark Council, consists of two congruent areas, with Peckham Rye Common to the north and Peckham Rye Park to the south. The road Peckham Rye forms the western and eastern perimeter of the open space. Peckham Rye is also Cockney rhyming slang for tie (necktie).Reuben sandwich
The Reuben sandwich is an American grilled sandwich composed of corned beef, Swiss cheese, sauerkraut, and Russian dressing, grilled between slices of rye bread.Rye, East Sussex
Rye is a small town and civil parish in the Rother district, in East Sussex, England, two miles from the sea at the confluence of three rivers: the Rother, the Tillingham and the Brede. In medieval times, as an important member of the Cinque Ports confederation, it was at the head of an embayment of the English Channel, and almost entirely surrounded by the sea.
At the 2011 census, Rye had a population of 4,773. Its historical association with the sea has included providing ships for the service of the King in time of war, and being involved in smuggling. The notorious Hawkhurst Gang used its ancient inns The Mermaid Inn and The Olde Bell Inn, which are said to be connected to each other by a secret passageway.
Those historic roots and its charm make it a tourist destination, with hotels, guest houses, B&Bs, tea rooms, and restaurants. It has a small fishing fleet, and Rye Harbour has facilities for yachts and other vessels.Rye, Jura
Rye is a commune in the Jura department in region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.Rye, New York
Rye is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is separate from the town of Rye, which has more land area than the city. Rye city, formerly the village of Rye, was part of the town until it received its charter as a city in 1942. The population was 15,720 at the 2010 census. Rye is the youngest city in New York state. No other city has been chartered anywhere in New York state since 1942.
Located in the city are two National Historic Landmarks: the Boston Post Road Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1993; its centerpiece is the Jay Estate, the childhood home of John Jay, a Founding Father and the first Chief Justice of the United States.
Playland, a historic amusement park designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, is also located in Rye. Playland features one of the oldest wooden roller coasters in the Northeast, the Dragon Coaster.
Of note are two 200-plus-year-old milestones labeled 24 and 25 on the Boston Post Road, oldest thoroughfare in the United States. The concept of mile markers to measure the distance from New York City was originated in 1763 by Benjamin Franklin during his term as Postmaster General. These sandstone markers likely date from 1802 when the Westchester Turnpike was configured. Rye is also home to a rare 1938 WPA mural by realist Guy Pene du Bois which is located within the city's Post Office lobby and titled "John Jay at His Home."Rye Air Force Station
Rye Air Force Station (ADC ID: M-104) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station. It is located 3.1 miles (5.0 km) southeast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. It was closed in 1957.Rye House, Hertfordshire
Rye House near Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire is a former fortified manor house, located in what is now the Lee Valley Regional Park. The gatehouse is the only surviving part of the structure and is a Grade I listed building. The house gave its name to the Rye House Plot, an assassination attempt of 1683 that was a violent consequence of the Exclusion Crisis in British politics at the end of the 1670s.Rye bread
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour. It is higher in fiber than white bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor.
Dark rye bread was considered a staple through the Middle Ages. Many different types of rye grain have come from north-central and western and eastern Europe such as Scandinavia, Finland, Baltic countries, Poland, Ukraine, Russia, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria and is also a specialty in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Around 500 AD, the Saxons and Danes settled in Britain and introduced rye, which was well suited to its temperate climates.Rye whiskey
Rye whiskey can refer to two different, but related, types of whiskey:
American rye whiskey, which is similar to bourbon whiskey, but must be distilled from at least 51 percent rye grain
Canadian whisky, which is often referred to as (and often labelled as) rye whisky for historical reasons, although it may or may not actually include any rye grain in its production process.The Catcher in the Rye
The Catcher in the Rye is a story by J. D. Salinger, partially published in serial form in 1945–1946 and as a novel in 1951. It was originally published for adults but has become popular among adolescent readers for its themes of angst and alienation, and as a critique on superficiality in society. It has been translated into almost all of the world's major languages. Around one million copies are sold each year, with total sales of more than 65 million books. The novel's protagonist Holden Caulfield has become an icon for teenage rebellion. The novel also deals with complex issues of innocence, identity, belonging, loss, and connection.
The novel was included on Time Magazine's 2005 list of the 100 best English-language novels written since 1923, and it was named by Modern Library and its readers as one of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. In 2003, it was listed at number 15 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.The Rye
"The Rye" is the 121st episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. This was the 11th episode for the seventh season. It aired on January 4, 1996. It was written by American comedian Carol Leifer.