Rybachy Peninsula

Rybachy Peninsula (Russian: полуо́стров Рыба́чий, poluostrov Rybachy; Northern Sami: Giehkirnjárga; Norwegian: Fiskerhalvøya; Finnish: Kalastajasaarento) is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Its name is translated as "Fisher Peninsula". It is connected with the Sredny Peninsula, "Middle Peninsula" by a thin isthmus. So the peninsula is in fact nearly completely surrounded by water. Administratively, it is included into Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast and is within several hours of ride from Murmansk.

Main occupations of the population are reindeer herding and (since 2003) petroleum drilling.

Coordinates: 69°42′N 32°36′E / 69.7°N 32.6°E

Fisher Peninsula
Rybachy Peninsula is the most northeastern part of Pechengsky District


Historical map of the Petsamo region. The green area is the Finnish part of the Rybachi peninsula (Kalastajasaarento) which was ceded to the Soviet Union after the Winter War.
Защитникам полуострова Рыбачий (crop)
Memorial to defenders of the peninsula

The peninsula lies in an area where borders were marked relatively late; the Norwegian-Russian border was drawn in 1826, leaving Rybachiy on the Russian side of the border. At the time, several Norwegian settlers lived on the peninsula.

After the Russian Revolution, the western parts of Sredny and Rybachy were ceded to Finland. After the Winter War of 1939–1940, Finland ceded them to the Soviet Union by the Moscow Peace Treaty.[1] The Norwegian settlers became "trapped" in Soviet Russia after the revolution; some of their descendants were allowed Norwegian citizenship after the fall of the Iron Curtain.

During the World War II for three years it was an arena of a positional war between Germans and Soviets. The peninsula covered the access to Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, which were the main gates for the Lend-Lease. The front split the peninsula in two parts, both sides having heavily fortified positions.

Before the dissolution of the Soviet Union the territory was heavily militarized because of the immediate vicinity of Norway, a NATO member. Now the military is removed, but as of 2005 the territory is still closed to foreigners.

Мыс Скоробеевский

Dilapidated building in Skorbeevsky Cape (Мыс Скорбеевский), former military garrison

Бухта Озерко, губа Бол. Мотка

Ozyorko bay

Цып-Наволок, вид на мыс с маяка

Tsypnavolok, on the east side



  1. ^ Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 53


  • Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области. (1995). Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области (1920-1993 гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север".

External links

33rd meridian east

The meridian 33° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 33rd meridian east forms a great circle with the 147th meridian west.

Hans Kotzsch

Hans Kotzsch (24 April 1901, Dresden (Loschwitz) - 25 July 1950 Dresden (Blasewitz)) was a German entomologist who specialised in Lepidoptera.

From 1925 Kotzsch owned the entomological dealership "Hermann Wernicke" in Dresden. From here he sold insects collected on his many collecting trips (Rybachy Peninsula (1933), Armenia (1934), Hindu Kush (1936), Iran and Afghanistan (1939) Turkey and China. Many of his specimens are in Museum Alexander Koenig in Bonn and in Museum für Naturkunde Berlin.

In 1948 two years before his death he purchased the business collection "Staudinger" - Bang-Haas from the widow of Otto Bang-Haas. Like most dealers of his time Kotzsch described many new subspecies of "exotic" butterflies, particularly from South America. Most are these are unsound but his taxonomic work on Palaearctic fauna is much better.


In north European geology, Jotnian sediments are a group of Precambrian rocks more specifically assigned to the Mesoproterozoic Era (Riphean), albeit some might be younger. Jotnian sediments include the oldest known sediments in the Baltic area that have not been subject to metamorphism. Stratigraphically, Jotnian sediments overlie the rapakivi granites and other igneous and metamorphic rocks and are often intruded by younger diabases.

List of isthmuses

This list of isthmuses is an appendix to the article isthmus. The list is sorted by the region of the world in which the isthmus is located. An isthmus ( or ; plural: isthmuses, or occasionally isthmi; from Ancient Greek: ἰσθμός, translit. isthmos, lit. 'neck') is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water that otherwise separates them. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar.


Nikel (Russian: Ни́кель, lit. nickel; Finnish: Nikkeli) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lake Kuets-Yarvi 196 kilometers (122 mi) northwest of Murmansk and 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) from the Norwegian border on . Population: 12,756 (2010 Census); 16,534 (2002 Census); 21,838 (1989 Census); 18,000 (1973).

Operation Benedict

Operation Benedict (29 July – 6 December 1941) was the establishment during the Second World War of a fighter wing (Force Benedict) of the Royal Air Force (RAF) with the units of the Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS, Soviet Air Forces) in north Russia, against the Luftwaffe (German air force) and the Suomen Ilmavoimat (Finnish Air Force) over the Arctic Ocean. The British were to train Soviet pilots and ground crews on the British equipment, to leave them capable of operating and maintaining Hawker Hurricane fighters, their engines and equipment.

Operation Strength, the delivery of 24 Hurricanes direct to Vaenga in flyable condition by HMS Argus, was a success but the Operation Dervish was sent another 400 mi (640 km) beyond Murmansk to Archangelsk and the fifteen crated Hurricanes for 151 Wing carried in the convoy had to be assembled at Keg Ostrov airstrip. Despite primitive conditions, the re-assembly was completed in nine days, with excellent co-operation from the Russian authorities; the aircraft flew to Vaenga on 12 September.

In five weeks of operations, No. 151 Wing RAF claimed 16 victories, four probables and seven aircraft damaged. The winter snows began on 22 September and converting pilots and ground crews Soviet Naval Aviation (Aviatsiya voyenno-morskogo flota) of the Soviet Air Forces (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily) to Hurricanes began in mid-October. In late November, the RAF party returned to Britain, less various signals staff, arriving on 7 December and 151 Wing was disbanded. The British and Russian governments gave Benedict much publicity and four members of 151 Wing received the Order of Lenin.

Operation Platinum Fox

Operation Platinum Fox (German: Unternehmen Platinfuchs; Finnish: operaatio Platinakettu) was a German and Finnish military offensive launched during World War II. Platinum Fox took place on the Eastern Front and had the objective of capturing the Barents Sea port of Murmansk. It was part of a larger operation, called Operation Silver Fox (Silberfuchs; Hopeakettu).

Operation Silver Fox

Operation Silver Fox (German: Silberfuchs; Finnish: Hopeakettu) from 29 June to 17 November 1941, was a German–Finnish military operation during World War II. The objective of the offensive was to cut off and capture the key Soviet Port of Murmansk through attacks from Finnish and Norwegian territory.

The operation had three stages, in Operation Reindeer (Rentier) German forces advanced from Norway to secure the area around Petsamo and its nickel mines. Operation Platinum Fox (Platinfuchs; Platinakettu) was an attack from the north by Mountain Corps Norway as XXXVI Mountain Corps and units from the Finnish III Corps, attacked from the south in Operation Arctic Fox (Polarfuchs; Napakettu) to cut off and capture Murmansk by a pincer movement. The German–Finnish forces took some ground but Murmansk was not cut off or captured and operated throughout the war.

P-70 radar

The P-70 or "Lena-M" was a static 2D VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.

Pechengsky District

Pechengsky District (Russian: Пе́ченгский райо́н; Finnish: Petsamo; Norwegian: Peisen; Northern Sami: Beahcán; Skolt Sami: Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Pechengsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast, on the coast of the Barents Sea (by the Rybachy Peninsula, which is a part of the district) and borders Finland in the south and southwest and Norway in the west, northwest, and north. The area of the district is 8,662.22 square kilometers (3,344.50 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality (an urban-type settlement) of Nikel. Population: 38,920 (2010 Census); 46,404 (2002 Census); 59,495 (1989 Census). The population of Nikel accounts for 32.8% of the district's total population.

Perseus (Soviet ship)

Perseus (Russian: Персей) was the first Soviet research ship. (It was not the first Russian research ship, that being the Imperial Russian ship Saint Andrew, which undertook expeditions under the direction of fisheries research pioneer Nikolai Knipovich (and later L. L. Breytfus) from 1899 to 1907.)

Perseus was constructed as a sealer (seal hunting ship) by industrialist E. V. Mogučim at Onega, Russia on the White Sea in 1916. In 1919 (political conditions and thus ownership having changed) it was towed to Archangel where on January 10 of 1922 the Council of Labor and Defense transferred it to PINRO (Russian: ПИНРО), the Nikolai M. Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, which equipped it as a research vessel under supervision of the ship's master V. F. Gostev and the first director of the Institute, Ivan Illarionovich Mesjacev. The work was done by shipbuilders and future famous scientists Lev Zenkevich, Vasily Shuleikin, Maria Klenova, and Nikolay Zubov (who later became a Rear Admiral), all of whom later participated in voyages on Perseus.

On November 7, 1922, the national flag of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was raised at the stern of Perseus, and on February 1, 1923 the vessel's unique flag – a blue pennant with the seven stars of the Perseus constellation – was first flown from the mast. (Since then, this pennant has become the emblem of PINRO.) On 19 August 1923, Perseus began its first scientific voyage.

Over the years of its voyages, Perseus undertook many expeditions (between 80 and 99, according to various estimates) in the northern seas – the Barents Sea, Greenland, the Kara Sea, and the coasts of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard. It took part in the international search for the airship Italia of Umberto Nobile's ill-fated second North Pole expedition. The ship conducted hydrological, scientific, and commercial research, including programs of the second International Polar Year (1932-1933). Through its study of the arms of the Arctic Ocean, Perseus led the way for later Soviet expeditions to all the world's oceans.

On July 10, 1941 (during the opening weeks of the Russian Campaign of World War II (called, in Russia, the Great Patriotic War)), the Luftwaffe sank Perseus in Motovsky Gulf, in shallow water just south of the Rybachy Peninsula, while she carried supplies to the garrisons there.Soviet scientist Sergei Obruchev (son of Vladimir Obruchev) wrote a hymn "Perseus" which contains this quatrain:

A memorial stele was erected to Perseus in the town of Onega in 1979.

Later vessels were named in Perseus's honor. Perseus 2 was a converted minesweeper (built in 1944) received as German war reparations. After 176 voyages (mainly in the Barents Sea), that introduced many new technologies and greatly advanced Soviet fishery science, it was retired in 1967. In 1969 a much larger purpose-built research ship, Perseus III, began service with PINRO. Perseus III was transferred from PINRO to Vega (an R&D organization supporting Russian fisheries) in 1991 and decommissioned in 2007.


Rybachy (masculine), Rybachya (feminine), or Rybachye (neuter) may refer to:

Rybachy Peninsula, a peninsula in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Rybachy, Russia (Rybachya, Rybachye), several rural localities in Russia

Rybachy Island, an island in Tyuleny Archipelago, Kazakhstan

Rybachye, former name of the town of Balykchy, Kyrgyzstan

Rybache (Rybachye), a rural locality under administrative jurisdiction of the town of Alushta in Crimea

Sredny Peninsula

Sredny Peninsula (Russian: полуо́стров Сре́дний, lit. middle peninsula) is a peninsula at north part of continental European Russia. The peninsula is connected with the continent by a thin isthmus and with Rybachy Peninsula by a similar thin isthmus, making it nearly completely surrounded by water. Administratively, it is a part of Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast and is within several hours of ride from Murmansk.

Theodor Weissenberger

Theodor Weissenberger (21 December 1914 – 11 June 1950) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II and a fighter ace credited with 208 enemy aircraft shot down in 375 combat missions. The majority of his victories were claimed near the Arctic Ocean in the northern sector of the Eastern Front, but he also claimed 33 victories over the Western Front. He claimed eight of these victories over the Western Allies while flying the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter.

Born in Mühlheim am Main in the German Empire, Weissenberger, who had been a glider pilot in his youth, volunteered for service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany in 1936. Following flight training, he was posted to the heavy fighter squadron of Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—77th Fighter Wing) in 1941. He claimed his first aerial victory over Norway on 24 October 1941. After 23 aerial victories as heavy fighter pilot, he received the German Cross in Gold and was then posted to Jagdgeschwader 5 (JG 5—5th Fighter Wing) in September 1942. There he received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 13 November 1942 after 38 aerial victories.

In June 1943, Weissenberger was appointed Staffelkapitän of 7. Staffel of JG 5. Following his 112th aerial victory, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 2 August 1943. He was appointed Staffelkapitän of 6. Staffel in September 1943 and in March 1944 he was given command of II. Gruppe of JG 5 which was operating in Defense of the Reich missions. In June 1944 he took command of I. Gruppe of JG 5 which defended against the Invasion of Normandy. Weissenberger claimed 25 aerial victories in this theater, which included his 200th victory on 25 July 1944.

After conversion training to the Me 262 jet fighter, he was appointed commander of I. Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 7 "Nowotny" (JG 7—7th Fighter Wing), the first operational jet fighter wing in the world, in November 1944. Promoted to Major (major), he took command of JG 7 "Nowotny" as a Geschwaderkommodore in January 1945, a position he held until the end of hostilities.

He was killed in a car racing accident on 11 June 1950 at the Nürburgring.

Timanide Orogen

The Timanide Orogen (Russian: Ороген Протоуралид-Тиманид, literally: "Protouralian–Timanide Orogen") is a pre-Uralian orogen that formed in northeastern Baltica during the Neoproterozoic in the Timanide orogeny. The orogen is about 3000 km long. Its extreme points include the southern Urals in the south and the Polar Urals, the Kanin and Varanger peninsulas in the north. The Timan Ridge is the type area of the orogen. To the west, at the Varanger Peninsula, the north-west oriented Timanide Orogen is truncated by the younger Scandinavian Caledonide Orogen that has an oblique disposition. The northeastern parts of the orogen are made up of volcanic and sedimentary rocks, granitoids and few ophiolites. In contrast the southwestern part of the orogen is made up mostly of sedimentary rocks. I and A type granitoids and volcanic rocks are common in the orogen.From the Late Neoproterozoic o the Middle Cambrian the Timanide Orogen was associated to a subduction zone that existed to the northeast of it. Most studies interpret subduction as going inward (subducted plate moving southwest) albeit one suggest the opposite (subducted plate moving to the northeast).

In the Cambrian the Timanide Orogen is believed to have developed in a continental collision context as Baltica and Arctida collided between 528 and 510 million years ago. Some researchers do however dissent from this view suggesting there was never such a collision.Erosion of the Timanide Orogen have produced sediments that are now found in the East European Platform, including the Cambrian Sablino Formation near Lake Ladoga. Studies of sediments points that its likely that the erosion of the orogen was beginning in the Cambrian and then became stronger in Ordovician.The first geologists to study the orogen where Wilhelm Ramsay and Feodosy Tschernyschev who published works in 1899 and 1901 respectively. Hans Reusch compiled the existing knowledge on the orogen in 1900.

Timeline of the Winter War

The timeline of the Winter War is a chronology of events leading up to, culminating in, and resulting from the Winter War. The war began when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on 30 November 1939 and it ended 13 March 1940.


Tsypnavolok or Tsyp-Navolok (Russian: Цыпнаволок, Цып-Наволок) is a rural locality (an inhabited locality) in Pechengsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Rybachy Peninsula by Cape Tsypnavolok, by the Barents Sea.

Walter Schuck

Walter Schuck (30 July 1920 – 27 March 2015) was a German military aviator who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until the end of World War II. As a fighter ace, he claimed 206 enemy aircraft shot down in over 500 combat missions, eight of which while flying the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter. Schuck was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, the highest award in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.

Born in the Saargebiet (Territory of the Saar Basin), Schuck volunteered for service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany in 1936 and was accepted in 1937. After a period of training at various pilot and fighter pilot schools, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 5 (JG 5—5th Fighter Wing), operating on the most northern section of the Eastern Front, the Arctic Front, in April 1942. In April 1944 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for 84 aerial victories. Following his 171st aerial victory he was injured in combat and received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves during his convalescence. In early 1945 Schuck transferred to Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7—7th Fighter Wing) which operated the then revolutionary jet fighter Me 262. Claiming a further eight aerial victories, he was forced to bail out when his aircraft was shot down by a P-51 Mustang on 10 April 1945. Schuck sustained minor injuries preventing him from flying further combat missions.

Winter War

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland. It began with a Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, three months after the outbreak of World War II, and ended three and a half months later with the Moscow Peace Treaty on 13 March 1940. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the organisation.

The conflict began after the Soviets sought to obtain some Finnish territory, demanding among other concessions that Finland cede substantial border territories in exchange for land elsewhere, claiming security reasons—primarily the protection of Leningrad, 32 km (20 mi) from the Finnish border. Finland refused, and the USSR invaded the country. Many sources conclude that the Soviet Union had intended to conquer all of Finland, and use the establishment of the puppet Finnish Communist government and the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact's secret protocols as evidence of this, while other sources argue against the idea of the full Soviet conquest. Finland repelled Soviet attacks for more than two months and inflicted substantial losses on the invaders while temperatures ranged as low as −43 °C (−45 °F). After the Soviet military reorganised and adopted different tactics, they renewed their offensive in February and overcame Finnish defences.

Hostilities ceased in March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland ceded 11 percent of its territory representing 30 percent of its economy to the Soviet Union. Soviet losses were heavy, and the country's international reputation suffered. Soviet gains exceeded their pre-war demands and the USSR received substantial territory along Lake Ladoga and in Northern Finland. Finland retained its sovereignty and enhanced its international reputation. The poor performance of the Red Army encouraged Adolf Hitler to think that an attack on the Soviet Union would be successful and confirmed negative Western opinions of the Soviet military. After 15 months of Interim Peace, in June 1941, Nazi Germany commenced Operation Barbarossa and the Continuation War between Finland and the USSR began.

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