Ruyangosaurus

Ruyangosaurus (Ruyang County lizard) is a genus of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur recovered from the Early Cretaceous Haoling Formation of China. The type species is R. giganteus, described in 2009 by Lü Junchang et al.[1] Along with Huanghetitan and Daxiatitan, Ruyangosaurus is among the largest dinosaurs discovered in Cretaceous Asia.

Ruyangosaurus
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous, Aptian–Albian
Ruyangosaurus
Skeletal and life restorations
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Sauropoda
Clade: Titanosauriformes
Genus: Ruyangosaurus
Lu et al., 2009
Species

Classification

The describers of Ruyangosaurus assigned it to Andesauridae.[1] However, Andesauridae is not monophyletic and, as such, is no longer used.[2]

The most comprehensive phylogenetic dataset to include Ruyangosaurus finds it to be in a polytomy with Andesaurus and other basal titanosaurs and near-titanosaur somphospondyls, supporting the original description's assertion of phylogenetic proximity of it and Andesaurus, though not the precise taxonomic assignment.[3][4]

Macronaria

Tehuelchesaurus

Janenschia

Haestasaurus

Camarasaurus

Aragosaurus

Galveosaurus

Titanosauriformes
Brachiosauridae

Europasaurus

Vouivria

Brachiosaurus

Abydosaurus

Cedarosaurus

Giraffatitan

Lusotitan

Sonorasaurus

Venenosaurus

Somphospondyli
Euhelopodidae

Euhelopus

Erketu

Gobititan

Qiaowanlong

Phuwiangosaurus

Tangvayosaurus

Paluxysaurus

Sauroposeidon

Cloverly titanosauriform

Padillasaurus

Dongbeititan

Ligabuesaurus

Tastavinsaurus

Angolatitan

Chubutisaurus

Andesaurus

Huanghetitan liujiaxianensis

Huanghetitan ruyangensis

Ruyangosaurus

Wintonotitan

Baotianmansaurus

Dongyangosaurus

Savannasaurus

Diamantinasaurus

Daxiatitan

Xianshanosaurus

Lithostrotia

However, not all phylogenetic analyses have supported its position as a somphospondyl. A smaller phylogenetic dataset found Ruyangosaurus to be a non-titanosauriform macronarian based on additional material from the type locality.[5]

Macronaria

Camarasaurus

Europasaurus

Yunmenglong

Ruyangosaurus

Titanosauriformes
Brachiosauridae

Brachiosaurus

Giraffatitan

Abydosaurus

Paluxysaurus

Cedarosaurus

Somphospondyli

Euhelopus

Qiaowanlong

Erketu

Titanosauria

Andesaurus

Sonidosaurus

Bor Guvé titanosaur

Lithostrotia

Habitat

Ruyangosaurus shared its habitat with Xianshanosaurus, "Huanghetitan" ruyangensis, Yunmenglong, Luoyanggia, and Zhongyuansaurus. The type horizon of Ruyangosaurus was originally described as being of "early Late Cretaceous" age,[1] but recent work has assigned it an Aptian-Albian Age based on fieldwork and analysis of invertebrate and microfossil assemblages.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Lü J, Xu L, Jia S, Zhang X, Zhang J, Yang L, You H, Ji Q. (2009). "A new gigantic sauropod dinosaur from the Cretaceous of Ruyang, Henan, China". Geological Bulletin of China 28(1), 1-10.
  2. ^ Mannion, Philip D.; Calvo, Jorge O. (2011). "Anatomy of the basal titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) Andesaurus delgadoi from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-early Cenomanian) Río Limay Formation, Neuquén Province, Argentina: implications for titanosaur systematics". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 163: 155–181. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00699.x.
  3. ^ Mannion, Philip D.; Allain, Ronan; Moine, Olivier (2017). "The earliest known titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur and the evolution of Brachiosauridae". PeerJ. 5: e3217. doi:10.7717/peerj.3217. PMC 5417094.
  4. ^ Royo-Torres, Rafael; Upchurch, Paul; Kirkland, James I.; DeBlieux, Donald D.; Foster, John R.; Cobos, Alberto; Alcalá, Luis (2017). "Descendants of the Jurassic turiasaurs from Iberia found refuge in the Early Cretaceous of western USA". Scientific Reports. 7: 14311. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-14677-2. PMC 5662694.
  5. ^ Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Xu, Li; Jia, Songhai; Zhang, Jiming; Shen, Caizhi (2014). Osteology of the giant sauropod dinosaur Ruyangosaurus giganteus Lü et al., 2009. Beijing: Geological Publishing House. ISBN 978-7-116-09074-3.
  6. ^ Xu, L., Pan, Z.C., Wang, Z.H., Zhang, X.L., Jia, S.H., Lü, J.C., Jiang, B.L., 2012. Discovery and significance of the Cretaceous system in Ruyang Basin, Henan Province. Geological Review 58, 601-613.
Apatosaurinae

Apatosaurinae is the name of a subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed between 157 and 150 million years ago in North America. The group includes two genera for certain, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus, with at least five species. Atlantosaurus and Amphicoelias might also belong to this group.Below is a cladogram of apatosaurinae interrelationships based on Tschopp et al., 2015.

Argyrosauridae

Argyrosauridae is a family of large titanosaurian dinosaurs known from the late Cretaceous period of Argentina and Egypt. The group has been recovered as monophyletic, including the type genus Argyrosaurus as well as Paralititan.

Brasilotitan

Brasilotitan is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (early Maastrichtian) Adamantina Formation of Brazil. The type species is Brasilotitan nemophagus.

Cetiosauridae

Cetiosauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs. While traditionally a wastebasket taxon containing various unrelated species, some recent studies have found that it may represent a natural clade. Additionally, at least one study has suggested that the mamenchisaurids may represent a sub-group of the cetiosaurids, which would be termed Mamenchisaurinae.

Dinosaurs Alive! (attraction)

Dinosaurs Alive! is an animatronic dinosaur themed area located at several Cedar Fair parks. Kings Island was the first park to open the attraction in 2011, while the other parks opened their attraction in 2012 or 2013. The version of this attraction at Kings Island was the world's largest animatronic dinosaur park. A $5–6.00 fee is charged to enter the attraction. At Carowinds, admission is free with a Gold or Platinum Pass. Each park also features Dinostore, a gift shop filled with dinosaur toys and souvenirs. After October 27, 2019, all of the remaining Dinosaurs Alive! exhibits will be closed.The exhibits are created by Dinosaurs Unearthed. Some markets, like Toronto, have previously staged their touring exhibit at other venues. Some reviewers have noted that seeing a roller coaster in the background was an "incongruity". A sand pit allows children to "dig" for dinosaurs at an area near the end of the attraction.

Diplodocinae

Diplodocinae is an extinct subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of North America, Europe and South America, about 161.2 to 136.4 million years ago. Genera within the subfamily include Tornieria, Supersaurus, Leinkupal, Galeamopus, Diplodocus, Kaatedocus and Barosaurus.Cladogram of the Diplodocidae after Tschopp, Mateus, and Benson (2015).

Eomamenchisaurus

Eomamenchisaurus (meaning "dawn Mamenchisaurus") is a genus of mamenchisaurid sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China. The type species is E. yuanmouensis, described by Lü Junchang et al. in 2008.

Ferganasaurus

Ferganasaurus was a genus of dinosaur first formally described in 2003 by Alifanov and Averianov. The type species is Ferganasaurus verzilini. It was a sauropod similar to Rhoetosaurus. The fossils were discovered in 1966 in Kyrgyzstan from the Balabansai Formation and date to the Callovian stage of the Middle Jurassic.

Gravisauria

Gravisauria is a clade of sauropod dinosaurs consisting of some genera, Vulcanodontidae and Eusauropoda.

Huanghetitan

Huanghetitan (meaning "Yellow River titan"), is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the early Cretaceous Period. It was a basal titanosauriform which lived in what is now Gansu, China.

The type species, Huanghetitan liujiaxiaensis, was described by You et al. in 2006. It is known from fragmentary materials including two caudal vertebrae, an almost complete sacrum, rib fragments, and the left shoulder girdle, and was discovered in the eastern part of the Lanzhou Basin (Hekou group) in the Gansu Province in 2004.A second species, H. ruyangensis, was described in 2007 from the Aptian-Albian Haoling Formation of Ruyang County, China (Henan Province). A recent cladistic analysis has found that this species is (or more likely) not related to H. liujiaxiaensis and even requires a new genus name. It is known from a partial vertebral column and several ribs, the size of which (the largest approaches 3 m (10 ft)) indicate it had among the deepest body cavities of any known dinosaur. This second species, along with its local relatives Daxiatitan and Ruyangosaurus, is one of the biggest dinosaurs ever found in Asia, and possibly one of the largest in the world.

In 2007, Lü Junchang et al. created a new family for Huanghetitan, the Huangetitanidae, but this family found to be polyphyletic by Mannion et al.

Jiutaisaurus

Jiutaisaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Quantou Formation of China. Jiutaisaurus was a sauropod which lived during the Cretaceous. The type species, Jiutaisaurus xidiensis, was described by Wu et al. in 2006, and is based on eighteen vertebrae.

Malarguesaurus

Malarguesaurus is a genus of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Mendoza Province, Argentina. Its fossils, consisting of tail vertebrae, chevrons, ribs, and limb bones, were found in the late Turonian-early Coniacian-age (~89 million years old) Portezuelo Formation of the Neuquén Group. The type species, described by González Riga et al. in 2008, is M. florenciae.

Microcoelus

Microcoelus is a dubius genus of small Titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur native to Argentina. It is known from only a single dorsal vertebra. A left humerus was formerly referred to this species, but it is now considered to belong to Neuquensaurus. This species may be a synonym of the contemporary sauropod Neuquensaurus australis.It was described by British paleontologist Richard Lydekker in 1893.

Pilmatueia

Pilmatueia is a diplodocoid sauropod belonging to the family Dicraeosauridae that lived in Argentina during the Early Cretaceous.

Sibirotitan

Sibirotitan ("Siberian titan") is a genus of somphospondyl sauropod from the Ilek Formation of Russia. The type and only species is S. astrosacralis.

Tambatitanis

Tambatitanis is an extinct genus of titanosauriform dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (probably early Albian) of Japan. It is known from a single type species, Tambatitanis amicitiae. It was probably around 14 meters long and its mass was estimated at some 4 tonnes. It was a basal titanosauriform and possibly belonged to the Euhelopodidae.

Tastavinsaurus

Tastavinsaurus is a genus of sauropod dinosaur belonging to the Titanosauriformes. It is based on a partial skeleton from the Early Cretaceous of Spain. The type species is Tastavinsaurus sanzi, named in honor of the Rio Tastavins in Spain and Spanish paleontologist José Luis Sanz.

Tengrisaurus

Tengrisaurus (meaning "Tengri lizard") is a genus of lithostrotian sauropod, from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian), of the Murtoi Formation, Russia. It was described in 2017 by Averianov & Skutschas. The type species is T. starkovi.

Vulcanodontidae

The Early Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs Zizhongosaurus, Barapasaurus, Tazoudasaurus, and Vulcanodon may form a natural group of basal sauropods called the Vulcanodontidae. Basal vulcanodonts include some of the earliest known examples of sauropods. The family-level name Vulcanodontidae was erected by M.R. Cooper in 1984. In 1995 Hunt et al. published the opinion that the family is synonymous with the Barapasauridae. One of the key morphological features specific to the family is an unusually narrow sacrum.

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