Ruy López de Villalobos (Spanish pronunciation: [rui̯ ˈlopeθ ðe βiʝaˈloβos]; ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spanish explorer who sailed the Pacific from Mexico to establish a permanent foothold for Spain in the East Indies, which was near the Line of Demarcation between Spain and Portugal according to the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1529. Villalobos gave the Philippines their name, after calling them Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip of Austria, the Prince of Asturias at the time, who later became Philip II of Spain. In 1542 he also discovered a Pacific group of islands, most likely Hawaii, but the Spaniard kept the discovery secret.
Ruy López de Villalobos
|Died||April 4, 1544 (aged 43–44)|
Ambon, Moluccas Islands, Indonesia
|Known for||He gave the name Las Islas Filipinas to the Philippines to honor Philip II of Spain|
López de Villalobos was commissioned in 1541 by the Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, who was the first colonial administrator in the New World, to send an expedition to the Islas del Poniente, meaning Islands of the West, now known as the Philippines. His fleet of six galleon ships, the Santiago, San Jorge, San Antonio, San Cristóbal, San Martín, and San Juan, left Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico with 370 to 400 men on November 1, 1542. The fleet first encountered the Revilla Gigedo Islands off the west coast of Mexico, among which the sighting of Roca Partida was reported for the first time. On 26 December 1542 they sighted a group of islands in the Marshalls that they called Corales (Corals in Spanish), which most probably are those of the Wotje Atoll. They thought these to be the Los Reyes islands previously charted by Álvaro de Saavedra in his 1528 expedition. They anchored at one of the islets that they named San Esteban (St. Stephen). They left on 6 January 1543 and that same day they sighted several small islands on the same latitude as the Corales, which they named Los Jardines (The Gardens), which were those of Kwajalein. On 23 January 1543 the expedition found Fais in the Carolines that they charted as Matelotes. On 26 January 1543 they charted some new islands as Los Arrecifes (The Reefs) which have been identified as the Yaps also in the Carolines.
According to Oskar Spate with Villalobos there was the pilot Juan Gaetan, credited for the discovery of Hawaii by La Perouse. Gaetan's voyage is described in similar terms, with the same sequence of islands in 1753, with no identification to any others known at the time, which is an a posteriori conjecture. In 1825, Casado Giraldes, a Portuguese geographer states that the Sandwich Islands were discovered by Gaetan in 1542, and does not even mention James Cook.
Between January 6 to 23, 1543, the galleon San Cristóbal piloted by Gines de Mafra, who was a member of the crew of the Magellan expedition in 1519-1522, was separated from the fleet during a severe storm. This ship eventually reached the island of Mazaua, a place were Magellan anchored in 1521. This was the second visit of de Mafra to the Philippines, which is identified today as Limasawa in the southern island of Leyte. The story of Limasawa was written in 1667 by a Jesuit priest, Friar Francisco Combés. His documents on "Limasawa" has been translated by historians.
On February 29, 1543, they entered Baganga Bay, which they named Malaga on the eastern coast of Mindanao. López de Villalobos named Mindanao "Caesarea Karoli" after the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Spain. The fleet stayed there for 32 days; the entire crew suffered extreme hunger. He ordered his men to plant corn but it failed. On March 31, 1543, the fleet left in search of Mazaua for food. Because of low-winds they could not sail on. After several days of struggle, they reached Sarangani.
The galleon San Cristóbal, which had been driven ashore on Limasawa Island 2 months before, appeared unexpectedly with a load of rice and other foodstuffs for the commander. On August 4, 1543, the San Juan, and San Cristóbal were sent back to Leyte and Samar for more food, with the San Juan to stock up for the Pacific crossing and to proceed to Mexico. A Portuguese contingent arrived on August 7, and delivered a letter from Jorge de Castro, governor of the Moluccas, demanding an explanation for the presence of the fleet in Portuguese territory. López de Villalobos responded, in a letter dated August 9, that they were not trespassing, and were within the Demarcation Line of the Crown of Castile.
The San Juan left for Mexico on August 27, 1543, with Bernardo de la Torre as captain. Another letter from Castro arrived in the first week of September with the same protest, and López de Villalobos wrote a reply dated September 12, 1543, with the same message as his first. He departed to Abuyog, Leyte with his remaining ships, the San Juan, and the San Cristóbal. The fleet could not make headway because of unfavorable winds. In April 1544, he sailed for Island of Amboyna. He, and his crew members then made their way to the islands of Samar, and Leyte, which he named Las Islas Filipinas (The Philippine Islands) in honour of the Prince of Spain, Philip II. Driven away by hostile natives, hunger, and a shipwreck, López de Villalobos was forced to abandon his settlements in the islands, and the expedition. He, and his crew members sought refuge in the Moluccas, where they quarrelled with the Portuguese, who imprisoned them.
López de Villalobos died on April 4, 1544, in his prison cell on the island of Amboyna, of a tropical fever, or as the Portuguese said "of a broken heart". Some 117 remaining crew members survived, among them were de Mafra, and Guido de Lavezaris. De Mafra produced one manuscript on the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation, and had this delivered to Spain by a friend on board. They sailed for Malacca, where the Portuguese put them on a ship bound for Lisbon. Thirty elected to remain, including de Mafra. His manuscript remained unrecognized for many centuries. It was discovered in the 20th century, and published in 1920.
An account of the voyage based on the recollections of a surviving Italian sailor, Juan Gaetano, was published in 1550-1559 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, an Italian historian, in his Navigationi et Viaggi ("Navigations and Travels"); a collection of explorers' first-hand accounts of their travels which also included accounts of Marco Polo, Magellan, Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca and others.
The year 1500 AD in science and technology included many events, some of which are listed here.1546 in science
The year 1546 in science and technology included a number of events, some of which are listed here.Angaur
Angaur (Japanese: アンガウル, Hepburn: Angauru) or Ngeaur is an island in the island nation of Palau. The island, which forms its own state, has an area of 8 km² (3 mi²). Its population was 130 in 2012. The state capital is the village of Ngeremasch on the western side. A second village, Rois, is immediately east of Ngeremasch.
The first sighting of Angaur, Babeldaob, Koror, and Peleliu recorded by Westerners was by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos at the end of January 1543. They were then charted as Los Arrecifes (The Reefs in Spanish). In November and December 1710, these three islands were again visited and explored by the Spanish missionary expedition commanded by Sargento Mayor Francisco Padilla on board of the patache Santísima Trinidad. Two years later they were explored in detail by the expedition of Spanish naval officer Bernardo de Egoy.From 1909 until 1954 phosphate mining took place on Angaur, originally by the Germans, then the Japanese, and finally by Americans. Angaur is the site of a major World War II battle. The Battle of Angaur was part of the larger offensive campaign called Operation Forager that ran from June to Nov 1944. Many American and Japanese battle relics remain scattered throughout the island. The 7th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion under Lieutenant colonel Henry R. Paige served as garrison forces for the remainder of the War. Angaur is the only place in Micronesia that has feral monkeys; they are descended from macaques that escaped during the period of German occupation. Thus it is also called Monkey Island.
Angaur Island is located southwest of Peleliu, and it is a popular surfing location. Angaur is accessible by boats and small planes, and Belau Air has service to Angaur Airstrip. From 1945 to 1978 the U.S. Coast Guard operated a LORAN transmitting station, LORSTA Palau, as part of the worldwide LORAN navigation system. The eastern side of the island is mostly sandy with rocky outcroppings, while the western side of the island has a small lagoon with a small fishing and transportation port.Babeldaob
Babeldaob (also Babelthuap) is the largest island in the island nation of the Republic of Palau. It is in the western Caroline Islands, and the second largest island in the Micronesia region of Oceania. Palau's capital, Ngerulmud, is located on Babeldaob, in Melekeok State.
Babeldaob is one of the most underdeveloped populated islands in the Pacific Ocean. The area of Babeldaob, 331 km2 (128 sq mi), makes up over 70% of the land area of the entire Republic of Palau. It has about 30% of the country's population, with about 6,000 people living on it.Barra de Navidad
Barra de Navidad is a small town located on the western coastline of the Mexican state of Jalisco.
The town of Barra de Navidad (Christmas Sandbar) with a population of 7000+ is a small farming and fishing community located on the east end of the Bahía de Navidad, 60 km north of Manzanillo. In recent years, the Jalisco state government has promoted Barra as a tourist attraction of the Costalegre. The beachfront fronting the sandbar arks toward San Patricio, Jalisco 4.5 kilometers to the west.
The history of "modern" Barra de Navidad dates back to the mid-16th century when the Spanish used it for ship building, repairs and a jumping off point to the Philippines. A monument has been erected as a memory to these journeys at the end of the jetty. Ruy López de Villalobos (1500–1544) fleet of six galleon ships, the Santiago, Jorge, San Antonio, San Cristobal, San Martin, and San Juan, left Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, Mexico with 370 to 400 men on November 1, 1542. On the early morning of November 21, 1564, armed with five ships and 500 soldiers, Miguel López de Legazpi and his sail-captain Andrés de Urdaneta sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico.
The large lagoon behind Barra de Navidad is criss-crossed by small fishing boats gathering scallops and transporting visitors and locals from Barra to Isla Navidad and the Grand Bay Hotel, recently voted the Number One hotel/resort in Mexico by the Travel Channel. These boats (panga taxies) also carry passengers to and from the small Colima community of Colimilla where restaurants line the shore. In 2012 many of Barra de Navidad's seaside businesses were left in ruins after Hurricane Jova. The businesses recovered despite the damage and high tide. However, the number of visiting tourists has decreased substantially ever since.Bernardo de la Torre
Bernardo de la Torre was a Spanish sailor, primarily noted for having explored parts of the Western Pacific Ocean south of Japan in the 16th century.Erikub Atoll
Erikub Atoll (Marshallese: Ādkup, [æ̯ær̪ʲ(ɛ͡ɔ)ɡʷu͡ipʲ]) is an uninhabited coral atoll of fourteen islands in the Pacific Ocean, located in the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 1.53 square kilometres (0.59 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon with an area of 230 square kilometres (89 sq mi). It is located slightly south of Wotje.Ginés de Mafra
Ginés de Mafra (1493–1546) was a Portuguese or Spanish explorer who sailed to the Philippines in the 16th century. De Mafra was a member of the expeditions of Fernão de Magalhães of 1519–1521 and Ruy López de Villalobos of 1542–1545.Leyte (province)
Leyte (also Northern Leyte; Waray: Norte san/Amihanan nga Leyte; Tagalog: Hilagang Leyte) is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region, occupying the northern three-quarters of Leyte Island. Its capital is the city of Tacloban. Leyte is situated west of Samar Island, north of Southern Leyte and south of Biliran. To the west of Leyte across the Camotes Sea is the province of Cebu.
The historical name of the Philippines, "Las Islas Felipenas", named by Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos in honor of Prince Philip of Spain, used to refer to the islands of Leyte and Samar only, until it was adopted to refer to the entire archipelago.Leyte is also known as the site of the largest naval battle in modern history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, which took place during the Second World War.
Leyte is especially prone to typhoons because of its geographic facing toward the Pacific Ocean. On 8 November 2013, the province was severely affected by Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan). The typhoon, known internationally as Haiyan, and domestically referred to as Yolanda, killed thousands of people and garnered significant international media attention. Leyte suffered similar destruction and loss of life in 1991 from Tropical Storm Thelma.Likiep Atoll
Likiep Atoll (Marshallese: Likiep, [lʲi͡ɯɡɯ͡iɛpʲ]) is a coral atoll of 65 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. It is approximately 55 kilometres (34 mi) northwest of Wotje. Its total land area is only 10.26 square kilometres (3.96 sq mi), but that encloses a deep central lagoon of 424 square kilometres (164 sq mi). Likiep Atoll also possesses the Marshall Islands' highest point, an unnamed knoll 10 metres (33 ft) above sea level. The population of Likiep Atoll was 401 in 2011.Los Jardines
Los Jardines or Los Buenos Jardines (Spanish, "the good gardens") are phantom islands supposedly located northeast of the Mariana Islands.
The islands were reportedly visited by Spanish explorers Alvaro de Saavedra (who named them Los Buenos Jardines) in 1528 and Ruy López de Villalobos (who called them Los Jardines) in 1542. Sighted again by John Marshall in 1788, they were purported to be part of an Anson Archipelago, which included other phantom islands such as Ganges Island as well as real islands such as Wake and Marcus Islands. In 1973 the International Hydrographic Organization removed them from its charts.Names of the Philippines
The name Philippines (Filipino: Pilipinas [pɪlɪˈpinɐs]; Spanish: Filipinas) derives from that of the 16th-century Spanish king Philip II, and is a truncated form of Philippine Islands. During the expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos to the region, the Spanish sailor Bernardo de la Torre bestowed the name Las Islas Filipinas on the islands of Leyte and Samar, in honor of the then Prince of Asturias (heir to the Spanish throne). Despite the existence of other names, Filipinas ("Philippines") was eventually adopted as the name of the entire archipelago.
The official name has, however, changed throughout the course of the Philippines' history. During the Philippine Revolution, the state officially called itself República Filipina, now referred to as the First Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, United States colonial authorities referred to the Philippines as the Philippine Islands, a direct translation of the original Spanish. It was during the American Period that the name Philippines began to appear, a name that was officially adopted.Roca Partida
Roca Partida (English: Split Rock) ranks as the smallest of the four Revillagigedo Islands, part of the Free and Sovereign State of Colima in Mexico. This uninhabited island encompasses an extremely small area, and many divers rank it among the most beautiful in Mexico. Divers must obtain permits from the Mexican Armed Forces to enter into this military zone.Ruy López
Ruy López may refer to:
Ruy López de Segura, 16th-century Spanish priest and early chess master
Ruy López de Villalobos, 16th-century Spanish navigator
Ruy Lopez, one of the oldest and most popular chess openings, also known as the "Spanish Opening"Trinidad (ship)
Trinidad was the flagship of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation. Unlike Elcano's Victoria, which returned to Spain sailing across the Indian Ocean, Trinidad tried and failed to sail east across the Pacific to New Spain or modern-day Mexico. Trinidad was a nao (ship) of 100 tons (or 110 tons, Morrison has both) with square sails on the fore and main masts and a lateen mizzen. Its original crew was 61. After Magellan's death and the burning of the Concepcion, Victoria and Trinidad (the San Antonio and the Santiago being lost earlier) reached Tidore on 8 November 1521. In mid-December both ships attempted to depart loaded with cloves, but Trinidad almost immediately began to leak badly. Inspection showed that the problem was serious. It was agreed that Victoria would leave for Spain and Trinidad would remain for repairs.
On 6 April 1522, Trinidad left Tidore loaded with 50 tons of cloves. Her commander was Gonzalo Gomez de Espinosa, Magellan's alguacil (master-at-arms), a good soldier, but no sailor. After ten days Trinidad put in at one of the Marianas, where three men deserted, and then headed northeast. Espinosa was apparently trying to reach the Westerlies, but did not find them, probably because of the summer monsoon. He reached 42 or 43 degrees north in increasingly bad weather. Scurvy set in, ultimately killing 30 men and leaving only 20 to sail the ship. Five months after leaving, he turned back and two months later reached the Moluccas.
The previous May a fleet of seven Portuguese ships under António de Brito reached Tidore, seeking to arrest Magellan. Espinosa sent Brito a letter begging for supplies. Brito sent an armed party to capture Trinidad, but, instead of armed resistance, they found only a ship on the verge of sinking and a crew near death. Trinidad was sailed back to Ternate where her sails and rigging were removed. The ship was caught in a storm and smashed to pieces.
Only four of the survivors got back to Europe. Juan Rodriguez escaped in a Portuguese ship. The remaining three — commander Espinosa, seaman and expedition diarist Ginés de Mafra, and Norwegian gunner Hans Vargue (or Bergen) — spent two years at hard labor before being shipped to Lisbon and more prison. Vargue died in the Portuguese prison. Espinosa is last heard of in 1543 as a Spanish inspector of ships.
De Mafra, the last to be released because of the many documents he possessed (had salvaged), in time did become a pilot -- in part because of the experience he gained with Magellan's expedition. In 1541 he was named pilot of the ″San Juan″ under Ruy López de Villalobos; two years later, wrecked on a Philippine island, he wrote about the Magellan expedition while waiting on ship repairs. Here the Magellan expedition was remembered favorably by royalty, and ultimately he with 29 other men chose to remain in the Philippines rather than resume with the failing Villalobos expedition. De Mafra's notes from his wait remained unpublished until found in 1920.Ujae Atoll
Ujae Atoll (Marshallese: Ujae or Wūjae, [u̯u͡izʲæ͡ɑɑ̯ɛ̯ɛɛ̯]) is a coral atoll of 15 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 1.86 square kilometres (0.72 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon of 185.94 square kilometres (71.79 sq mi). It is located about 122 kilometres (76 mi) west of Kwajalein Atoll.
In folklore, the Marshallese people have long considered the island to be home to timon (demons).In 2011, the population of Ujae Atoll was 364.
Its first recorded sighting was by the Spanish expedition of Álvaro de Saavedra on 21 September 1529. Another sighting was reported by the Spanish expedition of Ruy López de Villalobos in January 1543.In 1884, the Empire of Germany claimed Ujae Atoll along with the rest of the Marshall Islands. After World War I, the island came under the South Pacific Mandate of the Empire of Japan. Following the end of World War II, it came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands until the independence of the Marshall Islands in 1986.Villalobos (surname)
Villalobos is a Spanish surname (meaning town of wolves) and common in Spain, Portugal, Latin America, and Italy
Villalobos is a city in the province of Zamora in Spain which derives its name from Spanish villa "town" and lobos "wolves". The element villa was used for someone who lived in a village, as opposed to an isolated farmhouse or in the town. The word was later used of a group of houses forming a settlement. Surnames derived from place-names are divided into two broad categories; topographic names and habitation names. Topographic names are derived from general descriptive references to someone who lived near a physical feature such as an oak tree, a hill, a stream or a church. Habitation names are derived from pre-existing names denoting towns, villages and farmsteads. Other classes of local names include those derived from the names of rivers, individual houses with signs on them, regions and whole countries. In the 8th century, Spain fell under the control of the Moors, and this influence, which lasted into the 12th century, has also left its mark on Hispanic surnames. A few names are based directly on Arabic personal names. The majority of Spanish occupational and nickname surnames, however, are based on ordinary Spanish derivatives. In Spain identifying patronymics are to be found as early as the mid-9th century, but these changed with each generation, and hereditary surnames seem to have come in slightly later in Spain than in England and France. As well as the names of the traditional major saints of the Christian Church, many of the most common Spanish surnames are derived from personal names of Germanic origin. For the most part these names are characteristically Hispanic. They derive from the language of the Visigoths, who controlled Spain between the mid-5th and early 8th centuries.Arts, music, and letters
Carlos Méndez Villalobos, Mexican writer of poetry, short stories and novels
Carlos Villalobos, American composer and studio musician
Carmen Villalobos, Colombian actress
Heitor Villa-Lobos, a Brazilian classical composer
Horacio Villalobos, Argentine photographer
Horacio Villalobos, Mexican TV host, actor, model
Ligiah Villalobos, Mexican-American film producer
Guadalupe Villalobos Vélez, Mexican film actress
Osmariel Villalobos, Venezuelan model, actress, and hostess
Reynaldo Villalobos, American cinematographer and director
Ricardo Villalobos, Chilean-German electronic music producer and DJ
Yadhira Carrillo Villalobos, Mexican actress and former beauty queenAthletes
Alberth Villalobos, Costa Rican footballer
Benji Villalobos, Salvadoran footballer
Enrique Villalobos, Spanish basketball player
Joshua Villalobos, Puerto Rican Midfielder
Manuel Villalobos, Chilean footballer
Pablo Villalobos, Spanish long-distance runner
Saul Villalobos, Mexican footballerPolitics, law, and government
Celia Villalobos, Spanish politician
J. Alex Villalobos, Cuban-American Republican member of the Florida Senate
Joaquín Villalobos, Salvadoran politician
José Ángel Córdova Villalobos, Mexican politician
Juan Henríquez de Villalobos, Royal governor of Chile (1670-1682)
Lolo Villalobos, Cuban politician
Ruy López de Villalobos, Spanish explorer
Sergio Villalobos, Chilean historianFictional people
Esmeralda Villalobos, fictional character created by Quentin Tarantino in the film Pulp FictionSciences and medicine
Francisco Lopez de Villalobos, (1474-1549) Jewish convert, court physician to King Ferdinand and poetOther
Francisco Raúl Villalobos Padilla, Mexican Bishop of Diocese of Saltillo Emeritus
Jacobo Villalobos Reyes, Mexican Army and father of Guadalupe Villalobos Vélez
Rebecca Villalobos, wife of David Justice
Román Arrieta Villalobos, Costa Rican Roman Catholic ArchbishopWotho Atoll
Wotho Atoll (Marshallese: Wōtto, [ɔ̯ɔ͡ʌtˠːʌ͡ɔɔ̯]) is a coral atoll of 13 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 4.33 square kilometres (1.67 sq mi), but it encloses a lagoon of 94.92 square kilometres (36.65 sq mi). The name "Wotho" means either "entrance through the reef", or "island far away" according to different sources.
The population of Wotho Atoll was 97 in 2011.Wotje Atoll
Wotje Atoll (Marshallese: Wōjjā, [ɔ̯ɔ͡ɛtʲːææ̯]) is a coral atoll of 75 islands in the Pacific Ocean, and forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. Wotje's land area of 8.18 square kilometres (3.16 sq mi) is one of the largest in the Marshall Islands, and encloses a lagoon of 624 square kilometres (241 sq mi). The atoll is oriented east and west and is 45 kilometres (28 mi) at its longest point, and 18 kilometres (11 mi) at its greatest width. As of 2007, the population was nearly 1,000, which included about 200 teenagers who live on the island at the public boarding school, Northern Islands High School. In 2011, the resident population of the islands in atoll was 859. The Wotje Atoll includes a number of islets, including Wotje (the largest), Bodao, Enejeltalk, Ukon, Wetwirok, Kaiken, Wormej, Kimajo, Ninum, Kaben. About 125 people live on Wodmej, which is approximately 8 miles from the main island of Wotje. All other islands are uninhabited and are used only for copra production, picnics, and food gathering.
There are four churches on Wotje, Wotje: Catholic (which runs St. Thomas Elementary School), Protestant, Assembly of God, and Full Gospel. There are several stores, but the largest is Mama Store, managed by the Tomeing-Johnny family. This store has a small retail shop, restaurant and coffee window. Wotje Atoll has four schools: Wodmej Elementary School, Wotje Elementary School, St. Thomas Elementary School, and Northern Islands High School. The first three are public schools, funded by the national Ministry of Education. St. Thomas is managed by the Maryknoll Sisters of the Catholic Church.
Wotje, Wotje is serviced by ships several times a year which bring supplies like rice, flour, and sugar. In addition, the local government and senator manage a small ship, Northern Star, which makes more frequent trips. Air services are provided by Air Marshall Islands to Wotje Airport.