Russo-Turkish War (1828–29)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829 was sparked by the Greek War of Independence. The war broke out after the Sultan closed the Dardanelles to Russian ships and revoked the Akkerman Convention in retaliation for Russian participation in the Battle of Navarino.[2]

Russo-Turkish War
Part of Russo-Turkish Wars, Russian conquest of the Caucasus, and Greek War of Independence
January Suchodolski - Akhaltsikhe siege

Battle of Akhalzic (1828), by January Suchodolski
Result Russian victory, Russian occupation of Danubian Principalities, Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire
Treaty of Adrianople (yielded to Russia: Danube Delta, Anapa, Sujuk-Qale (Novorossiysk), Poti, Akhaltsikhe, Akhalkalaki)
Russian Empire Russian Empire
First Hellenic Republic Greece
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Russian Empire Nicholas I
Russian Empire Peter Wittgenstein
Russian Empire Ivan Paskevich
Russian Empire Hans Karl von Diebitsch
First Hellenic Republic Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ottoman Empire Mahmud II
Ottoman Empire Reşid Mehmed Pasha
100,000[1] Unknown

Opening hostilities

At the start of hostilities the Russian army of 100,000 men was commanded by Emperor Nicholas I, while the Ottoman forces were commanded by Hussein Pasha. In April and May 1828 the Russian commander-in-chief, Prince Peter Wittgenstein, moved into Romanian Principates Wallachia and Moldavia. In June 1828, the main Russian forces under the emperor crossed the Danube and advanced into Dobruja.

Action of 26 May 1829, by Nikolay Krasovsky.

The Russians then laid prolonged sieges to three key Ottoman citadels in modern Bulgaria: Shumla, Varna, and Silistra.[1] With the support of the Black Sea Fleet under Aleksey Greig, Varna was captured on 29 September. The siege of Shumla proved much more problematic, as the 40,000-strong Ottoman garrison outnumbered the Russian forces. As the latter were harassed by Turkish troops and ill-equipped, many of its soldiers died of disease or exhaustion. Russia then had to withdraw to Moldavia with heavy losses without having captured Shumla and Silistra.[3]

Changing fortunes

As winter approached, the Russian army was forced to leave Shumla and retreat back to Bessarabia. In February 1829 the cautious Wittgenstein was replaced by the more energetic Hans Karl von Diebitsch, and the Tsar left the army for St Petersburg. On 7 May, 60,000 soldiers led by Field Marshal Diebitsch crossed the Danube and resumed the siege of Silistra. The Sultan sent a 40,000-strong contingent to the relief of Varna, which was defeated at the Battle of Kulevicha on 30 May. Three weeks later on 19 June, Silistra fell to the Russians.

Kars 1828
Siege of Kars (1828), by January Suchodolski.

Meanwhile, Ivan Paskevich advanced on the Caucasian front defeated the Turks at the Battle of Akhalzic and captured Kars on 23 June and Erzurum, in north-eastern Anatolia on 27 June, the 120th anniversary of the Poltava.

On 2 July Diebitsch launched the Transbalkan offensive, the first in Russian history since the 10th-century campaigns of Svyatoslav I. The contingent of 35,000 Russians moved across the mountains, circumventing the besieged Shumla on their way to Constantinople. The Russians captured Burgas ten days later, and the Turkish reinforcement was routed near Sliven on 31 July. By 22 August, the Russians had taken Adrianople,[4] reportedly causing the Muslim population in the city to leave.[5] The Ottoman palace in Adrianople, Saray-i Djedid-i Amare, was heavily damaged by Russian troops.[5]

The Treaty of Adrianople

Faced with these several defeats, the Sultan decided to sue for peace. The Treaty of Adrianople on 14 September 1829 gave Russia most of the eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube. Turkey recognized Russian sovereignty over parts of northwest present-day Armenia. Serbia achieved autonomy and Russia was allowed to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia (guaranteeing their prosperity and full "liberty of trade") until Turkey had paid a large indemnity. Moldavia and Wallachia remained Russian protectorates until the Crimean War. The Straits Question was settled four years later, when both powers signed the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi.

Caucasus front

Although the main fighting was in the west there was significant action on the Caucasus front. Paskevich’s main aims were to tie down as many Turkish troops as possible, to capture the Turkish forts on the Black Sea coast that supported the Circassians and might be used to land troops, and to push the border west to some desirable point. Most of the Turkish side was held by the semi-independent Pasha of Akhaltsikhe and Muslim Georgian Beys who ruled the hills. Kars on an upland plain blocked the road from Akhaltsikhe to Erzerum, the main city in eastern Turkey. The Russo-Persian War (1826–28) had just ended, which removed a major danger. Since two-thirds of his troops were tied down holding the Caucasus and watching the Persians, he had only 15.000 men to fight the Turks. The Turks delayed attacking so he had time to move troops and supplies west, concentrating at Gyumri on the border.

1828, June: Kars: On 14 June[6] he set out for Kars 40 miles southwest which was held by 11.000 men and 151 guns. The capture of Kars was almost an accident. During a skirmish in the suburbs a company of riflemen under Lieutenant Labintsev made an unauthorized advance. Seeing their danger other companies rushed to the rescue. Their danger drew in more soldiers until most of the Russian force was massed at one point. The wall was breached and soon the Turks held only the citadel. At 10AM 23 June the citadel surrendered. The Turks lost 2.000 killed and wounded, 1350 prisoners and 151 guns, but much of the garrison managed to escape. The Russians lost 400 killed and wounded. Kios Pasha[7] of Erzerum was within an hour’s march of Kars, but when he heard the news he withdrew to Ardahan.

1828, July: Akhalkalaki: Paskevich feinted toward Erzerum and then marched north to Akhalkalaki. Under bombardment, the 1000-man garrison became demoralized and half of them tried to escape by letting themselves down the walls on ropes, but most were killed. The Russians used the same ropes to scale the walls and the remaining 300 men surrendered (24 July).

1828, August: Akhaltsikhe: Forty miles west was Akhaltsikhe with 10.000 men under its semi-independent Pasha. It guarded the Borjomi Gorge which led northeast to Georgia. Instead of taking the main road which went southwest to Ardahan and then north, Paskevich and 8000 men marched three days through roadless country and reached Akhaltsikhe on 3 August. The next day Kios Pasha and 30.000 men encamped four miles from the fort. Paskevich, outnumbered by an enemy on two sides, turned on Kios. After a day-long battle Kios, wounded, and 5.000 infantry fled to the fort and the remaining Turks scattered south to Ardahan. The Russians took enormous booty and lost 531 men, including a general. The siege now began. Akhaltsikhe had three lines of defense: the fortress, the citadel within and the town without. The town, with its crooked streets, ravines and bastions was almost a fortress itself. The attack began at 4PM, the citizens defended themselves as best they could and by nightfall the town was on fire. In one mosque 400 people burned to death. By dawn of the 16th the ruined town was in Russian hands. They moved artillery up to bear on the fortress walls. On 17 August Kios Pasha surrendered on the condition that he and 4000 men be allowed to withdraw with their arms and property. The Russians lost about 600 men and the Turks 6000. The next day they took the Atskhur castle which controlled the Borjomi Gorge leading from Akhaltsikhe northeast to Georgia. On 22 August the occupied Ardahan, the road junction connecting Akhaltsikhe-Akhalkalaki to the Kars-Erzerum road. Seeing no further opportunities the Russians retired to winter quarters.

On the Black Sea coast Anapa was captured on 12 June and Poti on 15 June. By September Chavchadvadze had occupied the Pashalik of Bayazid with little opposition. “And the banners of your majesty float over the headwaters of the Euphrates.” On the last day of September the Russians occupied Guria.

Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) is located in Caucasus mountains
Anapa:off map to northwest
Anapa:off map to northwest
Saganlug Pass
Saganlug Pass
Russo-Turkish War 1828-29
X=Russian Dot-yellow.svg= taken and kept;
Blue circle=Taken and returned; Blue triangle=Turkish not captured
The Armenian Front During the Crimean War, 1853-56
Crimean War map showing many of the same places

1829: Kios Pasha was replaced by Salih Pasha with Haghki (Hakki) Pasha as his deputy. In winter Paskevich went to St Petersburg with a plan for a massive invasion of Anatolia, but this was rejected. 20000 raw recruits would be sent to the Caucasus, but they would not be ready until late summer. On 30 January the Russian ambassadors to Tehran, including Alexander Griboyedov were killed by a mob. Both sides were too wise to start another war but the possibility tied up part of the Russian army. On 21 February Akhmet Beg (Ahmet Bey) of Hulo and 15000 Lazes and Adjars occupied the town of Akhaltsikhe, slaughtered the Armenian part of the population, and besieged the fortress. Twelve days later Burtsev forced the Borjomi Gorge and the Adjars fled with their loot. General Hesse drove back a Turkish advance from Batum and captured the Turkish camp of Limani south of Poti. Far to the southeast, Bayazid was besieged by the Pasha of Van. The main Turkish advance began in mid-May. Kiaghi Bek approached Ardahan, but was driven north to Adjaria where he threatened Akhaltsikhe. He was defeated at Digur south of Akhaltsikhe and the Russians went south to join Paskevich at Kars.

1829, June: Saganlug and Erzerum: On 13 June Paskevich (12340 infantry, 5785 cavalry and 70 guns) left Kars for Erzerum. The Turks had 50000 men including 30000 nizams (new-model infantry). They stood between Hasankale and Zivin on the Erzerum-Kars road. Further east on the road an advanced force (20000 under Haghki Pasha) held the Millidiuz (Meliduz) Pass over the Saganlug[8] mountain. Paskevich chose to take the inferior road to the north, place himself near Zevin between the two armies and attack Haghki Pasha from the rear. There were complex maneuvers and small actions. At 7 PM on the 19th Paskevich attacked and completely defeated the western army. Next day he turned east and captured Haghki Pasha and 19 guns, but most of his men managed to scatter. With the armies out of the way he set out for Erzerum. On 27 June that great city, which had not seen Christian soldiers within its walls for five centuries, surrendered, due, it is said to the cowardice of its citizens.

1829: After Erzerum: From Erzerum the main road led northwest through Bayburt and Hart to Trebizond on the coast, a very formidable place that could only be taken with the fleet which was now busy on the Bulgarian coast. In July Burtsev went up this road and was killed at Hart. To retrieve Russia’s reputation Paskevich destroyed Hart (28 July). He sent an army somewhere west and brought it back, went up the Trebizond road, saw that nothing could be accomplished in that direction, and returned to Erzerum. Hesse and Osten-Sacken pushed north toward Batum and returned. The Pasha of Trebizond moved against Bayburt and was defeated on 28 September, the last action of the war. The Treaty of Adrianople (1829) was signed on 2 September 1829, but it took a month for the news to reach Paskevich. In October his army began marching home. Russia kept the ports of Anapa and Poti, the border forts of Atskhur, Akhalkalaki and Akhaltsikhe fort, but returned Ardahan and the Pashaliks of Kars, Bayazid and most of Akhaltsikhe Pashalik. In 1855 and 1877 Paskevich’s work had to be done all over again. One consequence of the war the migration of 90000 Armenians from Turkish to Russian territory.

See also


  • William Edward David Allen and Muratoff, Paul, Caucasian Battlefields, 1953,2010, Chapter II
  • Michael Khodarkovsky. Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus (Cornell University Press, 2011). excerpt

In Russian

  • (in Russian) Османская империя: проблемы внешней политики и отношений с Россией. М., 1996.
  • (in Russian) Шишов А.В. Русские генерал-фельдмаршалы Дибич-Забалканский, Паскевич-Эриванский. М., 2001.
  • (in Russian) Шеремет В. И. У врат Царьграда. Кампания 1829 года и Адрианопольский мирный договор. Русско-турецкая война 1828–1829 гг.: военные действия и геополитические последствия. – Военно-исторический журнал. 2002, № 2.


  1. ^ a b A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol.III, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 1152.
  2. ^ Michael Khodarkovsky, Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus (2011)
  3. ^ Metternich and Austria: An Evaluation, Alan Sked
  4. ^ Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey:Reform, Revolution, Republic, Volume 2, (Cambridge University Press, 1977), 31.
  5. ^ a b Edirne, M. Tayyib Gokbilgin, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. II, ed. B. Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1991), 684.
  6. ^ All dates Old Style so add 12 days for the modern calendar
  7. ^ Allen-Muratoff call him Köse Mehmet. Köse means beardless so he may have been a eunuch.
  8. ^ Allen-Muratoff have Soğanli-dağ (former) and Pasinler-sira-dağ(current)
1828 in Russia

Events from the year 1828 in Russia

A Journey to Arzrum

A Journey to Arzrum (Russian: «Путешествие в Арзрум»; full title: A Journey to Arzrum during the Campaign of 1829, «Путешествие в Арзрум во время похода 1829 года») is a work of travel literature by Alexander Pushkin. It was originally written by Pushkin in 1829, partially published in 1830, reworked in 1835, and then fully published in Pushkin's journal Sovremennik in 1836.The work recounts the poet's travels to the Caucasus, Armenia, and Arzrum (modern Erzurum) in eastern Turkey at the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29). The Tsarist authorities never allowed Pushkin to travel abroad and he had only been permitted to travel as far as Tiflis (Tbilisi), capital of Georgia and Russian Transcaucasia. His unauthorized journey across the border into Turkey infuriated Tsar Nicholas I who "threatened to confine Pushkin to his estate once again."Pushkin's text challenged, though did not entirely reject, the Orientalist romanticism of his earlier Prisoner of the Caucasus. As a result, it was not popularly received by contemporary readers who expected a romantic epic poem about the Caucasus.A Journey to Arzrum was later adapted into a film during the Soviet era. Produced by Lenfilm and released on the 100th anniversary of Pushkin's passing in 1937, it was directed by Moisei Levin and starred Dmitri Zhuravlyov as Pushkin.

Ahmed-Pasha Khimshiashvili

Ahmed Bey, subsequently Ahmed Paşa (1781 – October 1836) was a Muslim Georgian nobleman of the Khimshiashvili clan from Adjara, which he ruled as an autonomous ruler (bey) under the Ottoman Empire after 1818. He played a notable role in the Caucasian theatre of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) in which he failed to recapture Akhaltsikhe for the Ottomans, but checked Russian attempts to invade Adjara. Subsequently, Ahmed abandoned his earlier clandestine diplomacy with the Russians and served loyally to the Ottoman government as a commander in Kars and Erzurum. He died fighting the Kurdish insurgents in 1836.

Battle of Akhaltsikhe

The Battle of Akhaltsikhe may refer to one of the following:

A battle under the walls of Akhaltsikhe during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 on August 9 (August 21 O.S., 1828) between 9,000 Russians under Field-Marshal Paskevich and 30,000 Turks under Kios-Mahomet-Pasha. The Russians were victorious.

Defense of the same fortress by a Russian garrison under General Nicholas Muravyov from a 20,000 Turkish force on March 4, 1829 during the same conflict.

A battle between 7,000 Russian troops consisting mostly of Georgian irregular cavalrymen under Prince Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Andronikashvili) and 18,000 Turks under Ali-Pasha during the Crimean War, on November 12, 1853. The Russians checked Turkish offensive in Transcaucasia and made them retreat to Kars.__________________________

History of Akhaltsikhe:

Akhaltsikhe is in the center of Samtskhe-Javakheti, with a population of about 20,000. Akhaltsikhe was founded in the 12th century, but the first large settlement had arrived in the 10th century by Guaram Mampal, son of a king Tao. The settlement was a family of princes who were trying to take over Georgia. The family built a fortress and named the city Akhaltsikhe, because in Georgian, “Akhaltsikhe” means “new fortress” or “new castle.” The capital and main city of Akhaltsikhe, Samtskhe-Saatabago, was ruled by a prince named Mtavari. The castle was the Samtskhe main down in the Samtskhe Atabeg region, located on the bank of the Potskhovi River. After the Treaty of Georgievsk between the kingdom of Kartli and Akhaltsikhe (another nearby kingdom) and the Russian Empire, there was a risk that Akhaltsikhe could get attacked. In 1578, Akhaltsikhe was seized by Turks of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had been trying to conquer Akhaltsikhe for a long time, and they never succeeded.

The Actual Battle:

The Battle of Akhaltsikhe was part of the Russo-Turkish war and was also known as the Siege of Akhaltsikhe in 1828. The battle started in August 9, 1828 in Akhaltsikhe, Georgia (part of Russia, near the border of Turkey (not the American state). The siege lasted three weeks. The nation of Georgia is part of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the Guam organization for Democracy and Economic Development. The city of Akhaltsikhe (a former Soviet Union republic) is at the intersection of Europe and Asia, located right next to Armenia. The Russians took over the city of Akhaltsikhe after eighteen years in 1828. Approximately 9,000 Russians under their general Count Ivan Paskevich, and 30,000 Turks under the command of Kios-Mahomet-Pasha, the Russians captured Kars, Turkey and attempted to steal the fortress of Akhaltsikhe. Akhaltsikhe fell in three weeks after heavy assault. The Russians, Turks, and Georgians all incurred heavy losses. After the Russians took Akhaltsikhe, they went into Turkey and fought for the city of Adrianople, Turkey. The first Russian attempt was to take Rabat’s fortress in 1810 and they succeeded. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1828 in the battle of Akhaltsikhe, the Turkish army retreated and surrendered the Rabati fortress. The Ottoman Empire’s motive for seizing the city was to claim more land and expand their empire. Russian troops fought for Akhaltsikhe, therefore the Turks could not claim the fortress. Since Akhaltsikhe was an important commerce route for the Circassian slave trade in the 18th century, the Russians wanted to own this land too. The complex Rabat castle survived the war, but was in very poor condition and had to be restored years later. During the war, multiple European and middle-eastern buildings occupied by communities of monks living under religious vows, or monasteries, were destroyed. The city is divided into two sections, an old city on the hill of Akhaltsikhe, and a new area on the plains. The Battle of Adrianople was one of the final battles of the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. The Rabat fortress rehabilitation project began in 2011, and the city of Akhaltsikhe has become one of the most important tourist attractions in Georgia.

Battle of Kulevicha

The Battle of Kulevicha, also known as the Battle of Kulewtscha, was fought during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 on 11 June 1829 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

The Russians were led by Hans Karl von Diebitsch (German-born general serving the Russian Empire), while the Ottomans were led by Reşid Mehmed Pasha (Georgian-born general enslaved as a child by the Ottomans) with the objective of relieving Varna. The Russians were victorious.

Borjomi Gorge

Borjomi Gorge (Georgian: ბორჯომის ხეობა) is a picturesque canyon of the Kura River in central Georgia. The gorge was formed as a result of the Kura River cutting its path through the Lesser Caucasus Mountains where the Trialeti and Meskheti Ranges meet. A significant portion of the Borjomi Gorge is covered by mixed and coniferous forests made up of oak, maple, beech, spruce, fir, and pine. A large portion of the Borjomi-Kharagauli National Park lies within the gorge, as well as the towns of Likani and Borjomi itself.

Older books call it the Borzhom or Borjom Defile. About the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) it was militarily important since it was the natural route southwest through the mountains from Russian-controlled Georgia to the Turkish Pashalik of Akhaltsikhe. It was guarded by a fort or castle called Atskhur.

Danubian Principalities

Danubian Principalities (Romanian: Principatele Dunărene, Serbian: Дунавске кнежевине, translit. Dunavske kneževine) was a conventional name given to the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, which emerged in the early 14th century. The term was coined in the Habsburg Monarchy after the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) in order to designate an area on the lower Danube with a common geopolitical situation. The term was largely used then by foreign political circles and public opinion until the union of the two Principalities (1859). Alongside Transylvania, the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia became the basis for the Kingdom of Romania, and by extension the modern Romanian nation-state.In a wider context, the concept may also apply to the Principality of Serbia as one of The Principalities of the Danube which came under the suzerainty (alongside Wallachia and Moldavia) of the Porte from 1817.

Dmitri Osten-Sacken

Dmitri Yerofeyevich Osten-Sacken (Russian: Дми́трий Ерофе́евич О́стен-Са́кен) (24 April 1789 – 4 March 1881) was a Russian general of Baltic German/Russian descent, member of the State Council, commander in charge of military settlements in the South of Russia during the Crimean War.He participated in Napoleonic wars, Russo-Persian War (1826–28), Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), suppression of the November Uprising in Poland, Russian conquest of Caucasus, and the Crimean War, overall 15 campaigns and over 90 battles and skirmishes. Serving over 50 years in various ranks of General, he was recipient of many military awards. He is also the author or a number of literary works and memoirs related to military.

Dmitry Bagration-Imeretinsky

Prince Dmitry Bagration-Imeretinsky (Georgian: დიმიტრი გიორგის ძე ბაგრატიონ-იმერეტინსკი) (1799–1845) was a Georgian royal prince (batonishvili) of the royal Bagrationi dynasty of Imereti. He was born to Prince George of Imereti and Princess Darejan Eristavi of Racha (1779–1816).Major General of Imperial Russian Army. A graduate of the Page Corps. Participant of Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) and November Uprising in 1830. He commanded the Uhlan and Hussar troops. Since 1833 commander of Courland Dragoons. Awarded with Order of St. Anna, Order of Saint Stanislaus, Order of the Red Eagle and Order of St. Vladimir.In 1842 he married Olga Valerianovna Strzhemen-Stroinovskaya (1824–1853) and had 2 children:

Aleksandr (1843–1880)

Dmitry (1846–1885)He died on 6 November 1845 in Saint Petersburg, Russia. He is buried at Alexander Nevsky Lavra on Lazarevskoe cemetery.

Georgi Emmanuel

Count Georgi Arsenyevich Emmanuel (Russian: Георгий Арсеньевич Эммануэль; Banat of Temeswar, 13 April 1775 - Kirovohrad, 26 January 1837) was a Russian general of the Napoleonic Wars of Serbian origin.

He was promoted to major general on 26 December 1812 and after the end of the battle of Paris to general on 27 March 1814. After returning to Russia, he was put in command of the 4th Dragoon Division. On 25 June 1825 he became the supreme commander and governor of the Caucasus. He was promoted to general of the cavalry in July 1828, during the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29). In 1829 he organised and led the first Russian scientific expedition to Mount Elbrus, for which he was made a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Grigol Bagration of Mukhrani

Prince Grigol Bagration of Mukhrani (Georgian: გრიგოლ ბაგრატიონ მუხრანელი) (1787—1861) was a Georgian nobleman of the House of Mukhrani. Major-General and participant of Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), Russo-Persian War (1826–28) and Caucasian War. Recipient of Order of St. George in 1847.

Prince Grigol was son of Ioane I, Prince of Mukhrani and was born in 1787.

Prince Grigol married Princess Mariam Tsereteli but had no children. Died on 26 February 1861.

Prince Ivane Bagration of Mukhrani was his nephew.

Ioannis Kapodistrias

Count Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias (10 or 11 February 1776 – 9 October 1831), sometimes anglicized as John Capodistrias (Greek: Κόμης Ιωάννης Αντώνιος Καποδίστριας, translit. Komis Ioannis Antonios Kapodistrias; Russian: граф Иоанн Каподистрия, translit. Graf Ioann Kapodistriya; Italian: Giovanni Antonio Capodistria, Conte Capo d'Istria), was a Greek statesman who served as the Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire and was one of the most distinguished politicians and diplomats of Europe. After a long and distinguished career in European politics and diplomacy he was elected as the first head of state of independent Greece (1827–31). He is considered a founder of the modern Greek state, and the architect of Greek independence.

Ivan Kupreyanov

Ivan Antonovich Kupreyanov (Russian: Ива́н Анто́нович Купрея́нов; 1794 – 20 April 1857), also spelled in English as Kupreanof, was the head of the Russian-American Company in Russian America from 1835 to 1840. Kupreyanov entered the Sea Cadet Corps while being only 10, in 1809. Kupreyanov served on the Mirny under captain Mikhail Lazarev during a circumnavigation led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. Besides the discovery of Antarctica, island chains in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. He participated in an additional circumnavigation by Lazarev that lasted through 1822 to 1824. With the rank of Captain lieutenant Kupreyanov commanded a frigate and fought in the Black Sea against the Ottoman Navy during the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29).Kupreyanov and his wife, Yuliya Ivanovna, began a school for native girls in Sitka. It was closed at the end of his administration but was reopened later. He built the famous residence, library and museum in New Archangel called Baranof's Castle by early American settlers, who assumed that it had been built by Alexandr Baranov, Kupreyanov's predecessor by eighteen years. The residence was the site of the ceremony in which control of Russian America was transferred from Russia to the United States in 1867. Although the residence fell down in 1897, the hill where it was located is still called Castle Hill. Kupreyanov greeted the British captain Edward Belcher in 1837, who was commanding surveying expedition of two ships, HMS Sulphur and HMS Starling. Belcher recorded that "his civilities were overpowering." Departing from New Archangel on 30 September 1840 with his family, Kupreyanov continued his career in the Imperial Russian Navy. He was promoted to vice admiral in October 1852.

Ivan Paskevich

Prince (1831) Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: Ива́н Фёдорович Паске́вич; 19 May [O.S. 8 May] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Russian Imperial military leader of Ukrainian Cossack ethnicity. For his victories, he was made Count of Yerevan in 1828 and Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland in 1831. He attained the rank of field marshal in the Russian army, and later in the Prussian and Austrian armies.

Mikhail Yuzefovich

Mikhail Vladimirovich Yuzefovich (Russian: Михаил Владимирович Юзефович) (1802—1889) was the deputy commissioner of the Kiev school district, chairman of the Kiev archaeological commission, and instigator of the Ems Ukaz that severely restricted the use of Ukrainian language.Yuzefovich was known for his extreme Russian nationalist views and fierce opposition to the revival of the Ukrainian culture and language. In his 1876 report to the Russian government "On the so-called Ukrainophile movement", he characterised Ukrainian language societies as subversive and claimed they were organised by Polish and Austrian enemies of Russia. Yuzefovich's recommendations were incorporated in the Ems Ukaz, which was signed on 30 May 1876 by the Russian tsar Alexander II in the town of Bad Ems, Germany. This Ukaz also became known as the "Yuzefovich Ukaz".Yuzefovich was born in a noble Polonized family form Brest (today in Brest). His ancestors were members of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Registered Cossacks. Yuzefovich was born in Pyriatyn county of the Poltava Governorate (today in Yahotyn Raion) and was homeschooled. In 1819 he graduated the Moscow University Noble Boarding School (Russian: Московский университетский благородный пансион) receiving the 14th rank of state service (see Table of Ranks).

His military service Yuzefovich started as junker at the Chuguev Uhlan Regiment (Russian: Чугуевский 11-й уланский полк) commanded by his uncle Dmitriy Yuzefovich (Russian: Дмитрий Юзефович), a Russian hero of the 1812 Patriotic War. In 1822 Mikhail Yuzefovich was promoted to the rank of cornet. Since 1826 he served at Caucasus region and as a poruchik took part in the 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War. Yuzefovich had been distinguished at the 1828 Siege of Kars and the 1829 battle of Bayburt (both in northeast Anatolia Region). In 1830 the Yuzefovich's regiment was transferred to a garrison service and rerouted to extinguish the 1830-1831 Polish Uprising. In 1836 he resigned due to health in rank of major.

He also was in acquaintance with Russian poet Pushkin.

Since 1840 he worked for the Ministry of National Enlightenment of the Russian Empire as a inspector of budget schools in the Kiev Educational District and took part in creation of public student quarters at the district's gymnasiums. In 1843 Yuzefovich was granted the rank of court councilor (the 7th in table of ranks) and appointed an acting deputy trustee of the Kiev Educational District (confirmed in 1845).

Moscow Triumphal Gate

For a triumphal gate in Moscow, see Triumphal Arch of Moscow

The Moscow Triumphal Gate (Russian: Моско́вские Триумфа́льные воро́та, Moskovskiye Triumfalnye vorota) is a Neoclassical triumphal arch in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The monument — built mainly in cast iron — was erected in 1834–1838 to commemorate the Russian victory in the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829.


Novorossiysk (Russian: Новоросси́йск, IPA: [nəvərɐˈsʲijsk], Circassian: ЦӀэмэз) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is the country's main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for exporting grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Population: 241,952 (2010 Census); 232,079 (2002 Census); 185,938 (1989 Census).

Siege of Kars (1828)

Siege of Kars took place during the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. A Russian army, led by General Ivan Paskevich, successfully took Kars in Turkish Armenia from the Ottomans. The battle itself lasted three days, from 20 to 23 June 1828.

Siege of Varna

The Siege of Varna (July – September 29, 1828) was an episode during the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829.

Varna was held by the Ottoman army. An approach to Varna by Russian forces was first attempted on June 28, but the Russian avantgarde was met by significant Turkish forces, and the siege was postponed.

By the end of July the Black Sea Fleet under the command of Aleksey Greig approached Varna and delivered the landing forces. In mid-August the Guards Corps arrived at Varna, with Emperor Nicholas I. The siege was put under the command of Adjutant General Menshikov, with total forces of 23,000 personnel and 170 artillery pieces against the 20,000 garrison of Varna. When Menshikov being wounded the siege was entrusted to General Field Marshal Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov.

In an attempt to desiege Varna, Omer Vryonis Pasha brought an army of 20,000, but was successfully held off. At the battle of Kurtepe the Russians under prince Eugene attacked but they were defeated and retreated. However the Turks did not follow up this victory and waited 11 days at the place. In the meantime Varna capitulated.

Eventually Varna was taken with 6,900 prisoners and 140 artillery pieces. The town was surrendered by Yusuf Pasha.

However the Russians suffered big losses during the summer-autumn campaign, and withdrew from Varna and the Danube to resume the campaign in the following spring. The Russians had lost 6,000 men in the siege from battles and disease.

Russo-Turkish War1828–29
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