Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to confront the Ottoman Empire. The larger European conflict was known as the Great Turkish War.

The Russo–Turkish War began after the Tsardom of Russia joined the European anti-Turkish coalition (Habsburg Austria, Poland–Lithuania, Venice) in 1686, after Poland-Lithuania agreed to recognize Russian incorporation of Kiev and the left-bank of the Ukraine.[2]

Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)
Part of Great Turkish War
Azov

Capture of Azov by Russian emperor Peter the Great (on horseback)
Date1686–1700
(14 years)
Location
Result

Russian victory

Belligerents
Tsardom of Russia
Austria
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Crimean Khanate
Commanders and leaders
Peter the Great
Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn
Ottoman Empire Elmas Mehmed Pasha
Ottoman Empire Amcazade Köprülü Hüseyin Pasha
Selim I Giray
Strength
330,000 (Only Crimean front)
Total: Unknown
14,000 (Only Crimean front)
Total: Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

War

During the war, the Russian army organized the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 both which ended in Russian defeats.[3] Despite these setbacks, Russia launched the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696, and after raising the siege in 1695[4] successfully occupied Azov in 1696.[5]

Peace treaty

In light of preparations for the war against the Swedish Empire, Russian Tsar Peter the Great signed the Treaty of Karlowitz with the Ottoman Empire in 1699.[6] The subsequent Treaty of Constantinople in 1700, ceded Azov, the Taganrog fortress, Pavlovsk and Mius to Russia and established a Russian ambassador in Constantinople, and secured the return of all prisoners of war.[7] The Tsar also affirmed that his subordinates, the Cossacks, would not attack the Ottomans, while the Sultan affirmed his subordinates, the Crimean Tatars, would not attack the Russians.

References

  1. ^ Treaty of Constantinople (1700), Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 250.
  2. ^ William C. Fuller, Strategy and Power in Russia 1600-1914, (MacMillan Inc., 1992), 16.
  3. ^ Lindsey Hughes, Sophia, Regent of Russia: 1657 - 1704, (Yale University Press, 1990), 206.
  4. ^ Brian Davies,Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500–1700, (Routledge, 2007), 185.
  5. ^ The Crimean Tatars and the Austro-Ottoman Wars, Dan D.Y. Shapira, The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718, ed. Charles W. Ingrao, Nikola Samardžić, Jovan Pesalj, (Purdue University Press, 2011), 135.
  6. ^ Robert Bideleux and Ian Jeffries, A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change, (Routledge, 1998), 86.
  7. ^ Treaty of Constantinople (1700), Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. 1, 250.
Azov campaigns (1695–96)

The Azov campaigns of 1695–96 (Russian: Азо́вские похо́ды, Azovskiye Pokhody), were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov (garrison - 7,000 men), which had been blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea. Since the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 had failed because of the difficulty of moving a large army across the steppe, Peter decided to try a river approach.

Battle of Batin

The Battle of Batin took place on 9 September 1810 near the small town of Batin, north Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War of 1806 to 1812. The conflict involved an attack by Russian forces on a defensive position held by a numerically stronger Ottoman Turk force. The outcome was a Russian victory which enabled their ongoing Balkan campaign to proceed unhindered.

Battle of Suzdal

The Battle of Suzdal or the Battle of the Kamenka River was fought of July 7, 1445 between Russians under Vasily II and Tatars troops of Oluğ Möxämmäd, invaded the principality of Nizhny Novgorod. Russians were defeated by troops of beg Mäxmüd, who became Mäxmüd of Kazan after the battle. Vasily was taken prisoner and was set free only after the enormous ransom was paid. He also promised restitution of the lands of Mishar Yurt, that were bought from Tokhtamysh in 1343. Qasim Khanate was founded there to become a buffer state and the vassal of Muscovy later.

Battle on Pyana River

The Battle on Pyana River took place on August 2, 1377 between the Blue Horde Khan Arapsha (Arab-Shah Muzaffar) and joint Russian troops under Knyaz Ivan Dmitriyevich, made up of the Pereyaslavl, Yaroslavl, Yuryev, Nizhny Novgorod and Murom warlords.The joint Russian army, being drunken, was almost entirely routed by small forces of Arapsha, while Ivan Dmitriyevich had drowned together with druzhina and staff. The river's name Pyana, translated as "drunken" from Russian, is derived from those events. The corresponding events are further recorded in the medieval Russian Chronicle On The Slaughter at Pyana River.

Bitch Wars

The Bitch Wars or Suka Wars (Russian: Сучьи войны, romanized: Suchyi voyny or in singular: Russian: Сучья война, romanized: Suchya voyna) occurred within the Soviet labor-camp system between 1945 and around the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.

Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689

The Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (Russian: Крымские походы, Krymskiye pokhody) were two military campaigns of the Tsardom of Russia against the Crimean Khanate. They were a part of the Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700) and Russo-Crimean Wars. These were the first Russian forces to come close to Crimea since 1569. They failed due to poor planning and the practical problem of moving such a large force across the steppe but nonetheless played a key role in halting the Ottoman expansion in Europe. The campaigns came as a surprise for the Ottoman leadership, spoiled its plans to invade Poland and Hungary and forced it to move significant forces from Europe to the east, which greatly helped the League in its struggle against the Ottomans.Having signed the Eternal Peace Treaty with Poland in 1686, Russia became a member of the anti-Turkish coalition ("Holy League" — Austria, the Republic of Venice and Poland), which was pushing the Turks south after their failure at Vienna in 1683 (the major result of this war was the conquest by Austria of most of Hungary from Turkish rule). Russia's role in 1687 was to send a force south to Perekop to bottle up the Crimeans inside their peninsula.

Great Turkish War

The Great Turkish War (German: Großer Türkenkrieg) or the War of the Holy League (Turkish: Kutsal İttifak Savaşları) was a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League consisting of the Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia. Intensive fighting began in 1683 and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. The war was a defeat for the Ottoman Empire, which for the first time, lost large amounts of territory. It lost lands in Hungary and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as well as part of the western Balkans. The war was also significant in that it marked the first time Russia was involved in a western European alliance.

Grigory Dmitriyevich Yusupov

Grigory Dmitriyevich Yusupov ( 17 ( 27 ) November 1676 - 2 ( 13 ) September 1730, Moscow ) was a Russian nobleman and member of the Yusupov family. He was father of Boris Grigoryevich Yusupov.

Index of articles related to Crimean Tatars

Below is the list of articles related to Crimean Tatars

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376)

The Muscovite-Volga Bulgars War of 1376 was organized by Russian Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow, and Dmitry Konstantinovich of Vladimir-Suzdal. The Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod combined army was led by Moscow Governor Dmitry Mikhailovich Bobrok Volynskyy, and sons Dmitry Suzdal Vasily and Ivan. Volga Bulgaria, which was at the time an ulus of the Golden Horde (who had converted to Islam in 1313), was ruled by emir Hassan Khan (in Russian chronicles - Assan) and Horde Protégé Muhammad Sultan (Sultan Mahmat).

Red Army invasion of Armenia

The Red Army invasion of Armenia, also known as the Russian-Armenian war or Sovietization or Soviet invasion of Armenia, Soviet occupation of Armenia, was a military campaign carried out by the 11th Army of Soviet Russia from September to 29 November 1920 to install a new Soviet government in the First Republic of Armenia, a former territory of the Russian and Ottoman Empires. The invasion coincided with the anti-government insurrection staged by the local Armenian Bolsheviks in the capital, Yerevan, and other cities and populated place over the country. The invasion led to the dissolution of the First Republic of Armenia and the establishment of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Rostislav Stratimirovic

Rostislav Stratimirovic (Bulgarian: Ростислав Стратимирович; Russian: Ростислав Страшимирович; fl. 1683–88) was a Bulgarian rebel leader who led the Second Tarnovo Uprising against the Ottoman Empire in 1686. He claimed the title Prince of Tarnovo, as a claimed descendant of the medieval Bulgarian ruler Ivan Stratsimir.

Russian conquest of Bukhara

The Russian conquest of Bukhara was a series of wars, invasions, and the subsequent conquest of the Central Asian Emirate of Bukhara by the Russian Empire.

Skirmish at Bender

The Skirmish at Bender (Swedish: Kalabaliken i Bender and Finnish: Benderin kalabaliikki) was devised to remove Charles XII of Sweden from the Ottoman Empire after his military defeats in Russia. It took place on 1 February 1713 on Ottoman territory, in what is now the town of Bender, Moldova.

Treaty of Constantinople

Treaty of Constantinople or Treaty of Istanbul may refer to the following treaties signed in Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey):

Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (907), signed in Constantinople, ended the Rus'–Byzantine War (907)

Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (911), signed in Constantinople

Rus'–Byzantine Treaty (945), signed in Constantinople, ended the Rus'–Byzantine War (941)

Byzantine–Venetian Treaty of 1082, signed in Constantinople, as a trade and defense pact

Nicaean–Venetian Treaty of 1219, signed in Constantinople, as a trade and defense pact

Treaty of Constantinople (1454), between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice

Treaty of Constantinople (1479), between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, ended the Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)

Treaty of Constantinople (1533), between the Ottoman Empire and the Archduchy of Austria, as a result of the Battle of Mohacs

Treaty of Constantinople (1570), between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia

Treaty of Constantinople (1590), between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia, ended the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590)

Treaty of Constantinople (1700), between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, ended the Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

Treaty of Constantinople (1724), between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, dividing large parts of Persia amongst themselves

Treaty of Constantinople (1736), between the Ottoman Empire and Afsharid Persia, ending the Afsharid-Ottoman War (1730–1735)

Treaty of Constantinople (1782), between the Ottoman Empire and Spain

Treaty of Constantinople (1800), approval of the 1st Constitution of the Septinsular Republic (as a tributary state to the Ottoman Empire) by the Ottoman Sultan

Treaty of Constantinople (1832), between the Ottoman Empire and the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia)

Treaty of Constantinople (1881), between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece

Convention of Constantinople, treaty signed in 1888, relating to the control of the Suez Canal

Treaty of Constantinople (1897), between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Greece, ending the Greco-Turkish War (1897)

Treaty of Constantinople (1913), between the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, after the Second Balkan War

Treaty of Constantinople (1914), between the Ottoman Empire and Serbia

Treaty of Constantinople (1700)

The Treaty of Constantinople or Istanbul was signed on 13 July 1700 between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire. It ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1686-1700. Russian tsar Peter the Great secured possession of the Azov region and freed his forces to participate in the Great Northern War. The treaty was superseded by the Treaty of the Pruth in 1711, after the Ottoman Empire became involved in this war.

Treaty of Perpetual Peace (1686)

A Treaty of Perpetual Peace (also "Treaty of Eternal Peace" or simply Perpetual Peace, Russian: Вечный мир, Lithuanian: Amžinoji taika, Polish: Pokój wieczysty, in Polish tradition Grzymułtowski Peace, Polish: Pokój Grzymułtowskiego) between the Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was signed on 6 May 1686 in Moscow by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth envoys: voivod of Poznań Krzysztof Grzymułtowski and chancellor (kanclerz) of Lithuania Marcjan Ogiński and Russian knyaz Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn These parties were moved to cooperate after a major geopolitical intervention in Ukraine on the part of the Ottoman Empire.The treaty confirmed the earlier Treaty of Andrusovo of 1667. It consisted of a preamble and 33 articles. The treaty secured Russia's possession of Left-bank Ukraine plus the right-bank city of Kiev. 146,000 rubles were to be paid to Poland as compensation for the loss of the Left Bank. The region of Zaporizhian Sich, Siverian lands, cities of Chernihiv, Starodub, Smolensk and its outskirts were also ceded to Russia, while Poland retained Right-bank Ukraine. Both parties agreed not to sign a separate treaty with the Ottoman Empire. By signing this treaty, Russia became a member of the anti-Turkish coalition, which comprised Poland, the Holy Roman Empire and Venice. Russia pledged to organize a military campaign against the Crimean Khanate, which led to the Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700).

The treaty was a major success for Russian diplomacy. Strongly opposed in Poland, it was not ratified by the Sejm (parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) until 1710. The legal legitimacy of its ratification has been disputed. According to Jacek Staszewski, the treaty was not confirmed by a resolution of the Sejm until the Convocation Sejm (1764).It marked a turning point in Russo-Polish relations and played a big part in the struggle of Eastern European peoples against the Turkish-Tatar aggression. Subsequently, it facilitated Russia's struggle with Sweden for access to the Baltic Sea.The borders between Russia and the Commonwealth established by the treaty remained in effect until the First Partition of Poland in 1772.

Uryankhay Krai

Uryankhay Krai (Russian: Урянхайский край, Urjanchajskij kraj) was a short lived Russian protectorate that was proclaimed on 17 April 1914. It was later annexed in 1914 by the Russian Empire and became part of the Yeniseysk Governorate.

Vasilisa Kozhina

Vasilisa Kozhina (1780? — 1840?) — a hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.

Armed conflicts involving Russia (incl. Imperial and Soviet times)
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