Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681)

The Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681, a war between the Tsardom of Russia and Ottoman Empire, caused by Turkish expansionism in the second half of the 17th century.

Russo-Turkish War (1676-1681)
Czehryn, by Jan Jansson, circa 1663
Date1676-81
Location
Result Indecisive[1]
Treaty of Bakhchisarai[2]
Belligerents

Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Autonomous Republic of Crimea Crimean Khanate
Cossack Hetmanate Cossack Hetmanate of Petro Doroshenko
Russia Russian Tsardom
Cossack Hetmanate Cossack Hetmanate of Ivan Samoylovych
Commanders and leaders
Ottoman Empire Kara Mustafa Pasha
Autonomous Republic of Crimea Selim I Giray
Cossack Hetmanate Petro Doroshenko
Cossack Hetmanate Yuri Khmelnitsky
Russia Ivan Samoilovich
Russia Grigory Romodanovsky
Strength
120-130,000 (maximum value, 1678 campaign) 70-80,000 + 11,700 Chyhyryn garrison (maximum value, 1678 campaign)
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

Prelude

After having captured and devastated the region of Podolia in the course of the Polish–Turkish War of 1672–1676, the Ottoman government strove to spread its rule over all of the Right-bank Ukraine with the support of its vassal (since 1669), Hetman Petro Doroshenko. The latter’s pro-Turkish policy caused discontent among many Ukrainian Cossacks, which would elect Ivan Samoilovich (Hetman of the Left-bank Ukraine) as a sole Hetman of all Ukraine in 1674.

Despite this, Doroshenko continued to keep Chyhyryn. He cleverly maneuvered between Moscow and Warsaw and used the support of the Turkish-Tatar army. Finally, the Russian and Ukrainian forces under the command of Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky besieged Chyhyryn and forced Doroshenko to surrender in 1676. Leaving a garrison in Chyhyryn, the Russian and Ukrainian armies retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper.

1677 Campaign

The Turkish Sultan appointed Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine, who had been the Sultan’s prisoner at that time. In July 1677, the Sultan ordered his army (45,000 men) under the command of Ibrahim Pasha to advance towards Chyhyryn.[3] July 30, 1677 at the fortress appeared advanced detachments, and on August 3 - the main forces of the Turks. Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky's forces joined on August 10, and only on August 24 they crossed the Sula River on the way to Chyhyryn. On August 26–27, a skirmish between their and Ottoman troops removed Ottoman observation posts and allowed the rest of the Muscovite and Ukrainian forces to cross the river under the cover of artillery fire. Turkish attempts to drop back into the river the first crossing detachment under the command of Major-General Shepelev were repulsed. Muscovite and Ukrainian cavalry attacked and overwhelmed Turkish-Tatar army camp, on the August 28, inflicting heavy casualties. The following day, Ibrahim Pasha lifted the siege of Chyhyryn and hastily retreated to the Inhul River and beyond.[4] Samoilovich and Grigory Romodanovsky relieved Chyhyryn on September 5. The Ottoman Army had lost 20,000 men and Ibrahim was imprisoned upon his return to Constantinople and Crimean Khan Selim I Giray lost his throne.[5][6]

1678 Campaign

Chyhyryn-3-eng
Map-scheme of the Chigirin fortress on the eve of the siege of 1678
I - Central bastion or "bulwark" of the New Castle
II - Bastion ("dungeon") of Doroshenko
III - Bastion with the Crimean Tower
IV - The Spassky Gate with a wooden tower and a double ravelin in front of them
V - Wooden tower on a stone foundation, "New Goat Horn"
VI - Tower and the well
VII - Stone corner baction
VIII - Stone round tower
IX - The Kiev Tower with a gate to the bridge
X - Noname tower (just built in 1678)
XI - The Korsun or Mill Tower
XII - Gate to the Lower Town

In July 1678, the Turkish army (approx. 70,000 men) of the Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa with Crimean Tatar army (up to 50,000 men) besieged Chyhyryn once again.[5] The Russian and Ukrainian armies (70-80,000) broke through the fortified position of the Turkish covering force and turned them into the flight. Then they entrenched on the left bank of the Tiasmyn River opposite the fortress with the siege Turkish-Crimean army on the other bank. The crossings were destroyed and it was difficult to attack the Turks. The troops could freely enter the Chyhyryn, but it was already surrounded by well-equipped siege positions and was heavily bombarded; his fortifications were badly damaged. When the Turks broke into the Lower Town of Chyhyryn on August 11, Romodanovsky ordered to leave the citadel and withdraw troops to the left bank. The Russian army retreated beyond the Dnieper, beating off the pursuing Turkish army, which would finally leave them in peace. Later the Turks seized Kanev and established the power of Yuri Khmelnitsky on the Right-bank Ukraine, but did not dare to go to Kiev, where the Russian troops were stationed.[7]

In 1679–1680, the Russians repelled the attacks of the Crimean Tatars and signed the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty on January 3, 1681, which would establish the Russo-Turkish border by the Dnieper.[2]

Notes

  1. ^ David R. Stone, A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, (Greenwood Publishing, 2006), 41.
  2. ^ a b John Paxton and John Traynor, Leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union, (Taylor & Francis Books Inc., 2004), 195.
  3. ^ Brian Davies, Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century, (Bloomsbury Academic, 2013), 9.
  4. ^ Brian L. Davies, Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500-1700, (Routledge, 2007), 160.
  5. ^ a b Brian L. Davies, Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500-1700, 161.
  6. ^ Яфарова 2017, pp. 163-174.
  7. ^ Яфарова 2017, pp. 271-284.

References

  • Brian Davies, Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe: Russia's Turkish Wars in the Eighteenth Century, Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.
  • Brian L. Davies, Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea steppe, 1500-1700, Routledge, 2007.
  • John Paxton and John Traynor, Leaders of Russia and the Soviet Union, Taylor & Francis Books Inc., 2004.
  • Яфарова, Мадина (2017). Русско-Османское противостояние в 1677-1681 гг. // Диссертация на соискание ученой степени кандидата исторических наук (PDF). Moscow: Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования «Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова».
1670s

The 1670s decade ran from January 1, 1670, to December 31, 1679.

== Events ==

=== 1670 ===

==== January–June ====

January 21 – French-born highwayman Claude Duval is executed at Tyburn, in London.

April 29 – Pope Clement X succeeds Pope Clement IX, as the 239th pope.

May 2 – The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in England, to operate in Canada.

May 26 – At Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, ending hostilities between their kingdoms. Louis will give Charles 200,000 pounds annually. In return Charles will relax the laws against Catholics, gradually re-Catholicize England, support French policy against the Dutch, and convert to Catholicism himself.

June 1 – In Dover, England, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

June 15 – The first stone of Fort Ricasoli is laid down in Malta.

==== July–December ====

July 18 (July 8, O.S.) – Treaty of Madrid (1670): Spain recognises Jamaica and the Cayman Islands as English possessions.

August – Spanish frigates attack Charleston, South Carolina.

September 1–5 – William Penn and William Mead are tried in London, after a Quaker sermon.

November 24 – Louis XIV of France authorises work to commence on the construction of Les Invalides, a veterans' hospital in Paris, France.

December 15 – Welsh privateer in English service, Henry Morgan, recaptures Santa Catalina Island, Colombia.

December 27 – Henry Morgan captures Fort San Lorenzo, on Panama's Caribbean coast.

==== Date unknown ====

Stenka Razin begins the rebellion of Cossacks in Ukraine.

Niani, capital of the Mali Empire, is sacked by the Bambara people of the emerging Segou Empire.

The first French settlers arrive on the Petite Côte, of modern-day Senegal.

=== 1671 ===

==== January–June ====

April – Battle of Saraighat: Ahom general Lachit Borphukan defeats the Mughal forces on the outskirts of present day Guwahati, of then sovereign Assam.

April 2 – In Rome, Pope Clement X canonizes Rose of Lima, making her the first Catholic saint of the Americas.

May 9 – Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom from the Tower of London. He is immediately caught, because he is too drunk to run with the loot. He is later condemned to death, and then mysteriously pardoned and exiled by King Charles II.

June 22 – The Ottoman Empire declares war on Poland.

==== July–December ====

December – The first Seventh Day Baptist church in America is founded at Newport, Rhode Island.

December 30 – The Académie royale d'architecture is founded by Louis XIV of France in Paris, France (the world's first school of architecture).

==== Undated ====

First Jewish families settle in Berlin, moving from Vienna at the invitation of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

=== 1672 ===

==== January–June ====

March – The Synod of Jerusalem brings together bishops and representatives from the whole of Eastern Orthodox Christendom, to discuss Orthodox dogma against the challenge of Protestantism.

March 15 – Charles II of England issues the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, suspending execution of Penal Laws against Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics in his realms; this will be withdrawn the following year under pressure from the Parliament of England.

March 17 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: The Kingdom of England declares war on the Dutch Republic.

April 8 – France declares war on the Dutch Republic, invading the country on April 29.

May 2 – John Maitland becomes Duke of Lauderdale and Earl of March.

June 1 – Münster and Cologne begin their invasion of the Dutch Republic; hence 1672 becomes known as het rampjaar ("the disaster year") in the Netherlands.

June 7 – Third Anglo-Dutch War – Battle of Solebay: An indecisive sea battle results, between the Dutch Republic, and the joined forces of England and France.

June 12 – French forces under king Louis XIV cross the Rhine into the Netherlands. The city of Utrecht is occupied by the French Army.

==== July–December ====

July 4 – William III of Orange is appointed Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland.

August 20 – Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holland and his brother Cornelis de Witt are slaughtered by a mob in The Hague.

September – Raimondo Montecuccoli and the Great Elector assemble at Halberstadt, to attack the French and the bishops of Münster and Cologne in their back. Bernard von Galen withdraws from the city of Groningen slowly to the south.

October – Spain begins construction on the masonry fort that will become Castillo de San Marcos, designed to protect St. Augustine, Florida.

October 18 – The Treaty of Buchach between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is signed.

==== Undated ====

Richard Hoare becomes a partner in the London goldsmith's business which, as private banking house C. Hoare & Co., will survive through to the 21st century.

Foundation of the Chorina Comedy, the first theater in Russia.

=== 1673 ===

==== January–June ====

January 22 – Impostor Mary Carleton is hanged at Newgate Prison in London, for multiple thefts and returning from penal transportation.

February 10 – Molière's comédie-ballet The Imaginary Invalid premiers in Paris. During the fourth performance, on February 17, the playwright, playing the title rôle, collapses on stage, dying soon after.

March 29 – Test Act: Roman Catholics and others who refuse to receive the sacrament of the Church of England cannot vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities or assemble for meetings in England. On June 12, the king's Catholic brother, James, Duke of York, is forced to resign the office of Lord High Admiral because of the Act.

April 27? – Jean-Baptiste Lully's first opera, Cadmus et Hermione, is premièred in France.

May 17 – In America, trader Louis Joliet and Jesuit missionary-explorer Jacques Marquette begin exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes.

June 7 – First Battle of Schooneveld: In a sea battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, fought off the Netherlands coast, the Dutch Republic fleet (commanded by Michiel de Ruyter) defeats the allied Anglo-French fleet, commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine.

June 14 – The Dutch fleet again defeats the jointed Anglo-French fleet in the Second Battle of Schooneveld.

June 17 – French explorers Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet reach the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descend to Arkansas.

==== July–December ====

July 6 – French troops conquer Maastricht.

July 11 – The Netherlands and Denmark sign a defense treaty.

July 24 – Edmund Halley enters The Queen's College, Oxford, as an undergraduate.

August 8 – In the American colonies, a Dutch battle fleet of 23 ships demands the surrender of New York.

August 9 – Dutch forces under Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge recapture New York from the English; the city is known as New Orange until regained by the English in 1674).

August 21 – Battle of Texel (Kijkduin): The Dutch fleet under Michiel de Ruyter defeats the English and French fleet. This prevents England's Blackheath Army from landing in Zeeland.

August 30 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Netherlands and the Lutherans form an anti-French covenant.

September 12 – William, Prince of Orange occupies Naarden, Netherlands.

November 9 – King Charles II of England removes Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, from his position as Lord Chancellor.

November 11 – Battle of Khotyn: Polish and Lithuanian military units, under the command of soon-to-be-king Jan Sobieski, defeat the Turkish army. In this battle, rockets of Kazimierz Siemienowicz are successfully used.

November 13 – Dutch troops commanded by Raimondo Montecuccoli and William, Prince of Orange conquer Bonn.

November 14 – Christopher Wren is knighted in England.

November 23 – James, Duke of York, marries Mary of Modena; they meet for the first time immediately before the ceremony in Dover.

==== Date unknown ====

France begins its expedition against Ceylon.

Chelsea Physic Garden, the second oldest botanic garden in England, is founded by the Society of Apothecaries, for the study of medicinal and other plants.

The Mitsui family's trading and banking house is founded in Japan.

The stalactic grotto of Antiparos (Aegean Sea) is discovered.

Archpriest Petrovich Avvakum writes his Zhitie (Life), as the first Russian autobiography.

=== 1674 ===

==== January–June ====

February 19 – England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster, ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Its provisions come into effect gradually – see November 10.

March 14 – Third Anglo-Dutch War: Battle of Ronas Voe – The English Royal Navy captures the Dutch East India Company ship Wapen van Rotterdam in Shetland.

May 21 – John III Sobieski is elected by the nobility, as King of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (to 1696).

June 6 – Shivaji is crowned as Chatrapati Shivaji, at Raigad Fort in India.

==== July–December ====

August 11 – The French army under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé defeats the Dutch–Spanish–Austrian army under William III of Orange in the Battle of Seneffe.

November 10 – As provided in the Treaty of Westminster of February 19, the Dutch Republic cedes its colony of New Netherland to England. This includes the colonial capital, New Orange, which is returned to its English name of New York. The colonies of Surinam, Essequibo and Berbice remain in Dutch hands.

December 4 – Father Jacques Marquette founds a mission on the shores of Lake Michigan, to minister to the Illinois Confederation (which will in time grow into the city of Chicago).

==== Date unknown ====

The British East India Company arranges a trading treaty with the Maratha Empire, that has recently been founded by Shivaji Bhonsle in central India.

The first Dutch West India Company is dissolved.

Two skeletons of children are discovered at the White Tower (Tower of London), and believed at this time to be the remains of the Princes in the Tower.

=== 1675 ===

==== January–June ====

January 5 – Franco-Dutch War: In Turckheim, Alsace, France, the French defeat Austria and Brandenburg in the Battle of Turckheim.

January 29 – John Sassamon, an English-educated Native American Christian, dies at Assawampsett Pond, an event which will trigger a year-long war between the English American colonists of New England, and the Algonquian Native American tribes.

March 30 – The guild organisation Maîtresses couturières is founded in Paris.

April – English merchant Anthony de la Roché, blown off course after rounding Cape Horn eastabout, makes the first discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence, landing on South Georgia and (probably) Gough Island.

June 8 – John Sassamon's alleged murderers are executed at Plymouth.

June 11 – Armed Wampanoags are reported traveling around Swansea, Massachusetts.

June 14–25 – Colonial authorities of Rhode Island, Plymouth, and Massachusetts attempt a negotiation with Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Wampanoags, and seek guarantees of fidelity from the Nipmuck and Narragansett tribes.

June 24 – King Philip's War breaks out, as the Wampanoags attack Swansea.

June 26 – Massachusetts troops march to Swansea, to join the Plymouth troops.

June 26–29 – Wampanoags assault Rehoboth and Taunton; the natives elude colonial troops and leave Mount Hope for Pocasset, Massachusetts. The Mohegan tribe travels to Boston, in order to side with the English colonists against the Wampanoags.

June 28 – Brandenburg defeats the Swedes in the Battle of Fehrbellin.

==== July–December ====

July 15 – The Narragansett tribe signs a peace treaty with Connecticut.

July 16–24 – An envoy from Massachusetts attempts to negotiate with the Nipmuck tribe.

August 2–4 – The Nipmucks attack Massachusetts troops and besiege Brookfield, Massachusetts.

August 10 – King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London; construction begins.

August 13 – The Massachusetts Council orders that Christian Indians are to be confined to designated praying towns.

September 1–2 – While Wampanoags and Nipmucks attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, Captain Samuel Moseley commands Massachusetts troops in an attack on the Pennacook tribe.

September 12 – English colonists abandon Deerfield, Squakeag, and Brookfield due to a coalition of Indian attacks.

September 15 – The Bremen-Verden Campaign of the Northern Wars begins, with the invasion of Amt Wildeshausen by the Münster army, and their advance on Verden via the city of Bremen.

September 18 – The Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston; meanwhile, Massachusetts troops are ambushed near Northampton, Massachusetts.

September 20 – In England, a fire destroys most of the town of Northampton. According to a contemporary account, "the market place (which was a very goodly one), the stately church of Allhallows, 2 other parish churches and above three-fourth parts of the whole town was consumed and laid in ashes.".

October 5 – The Pocomtuc tribe attacks and destroys Springfield, Massachusetts.

October 13 – The Massachusetts Council convenes and agrees that all Christian Indians should be ordered to move to Deer Island.

October 29 - Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz makes the first use of the long s (∫) as a symbol of the integral in calculus.

November 2–12 – Commissioners of the Thirteen Colonies organize a united force to attack the Narragansett tribe.

November 11

Guru Teg Bahadur, ninth of the Sikh gurus, is executed by Mughal rulers; he prefers execution, to defend the right of Hindus to practice their own religion. He is succeeded by Guru Gobind Singh as tenth Guru.

Gottfried Leibniz uses infinitesimal calculus on a function.

December 19 – United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Fight.

==== Date unknown ====

Cassini discovers Saturn's Cassini Division.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek begins to use a microscope for observing human tissues and liquids.

=== 1676 ===

==== January–June ====

January – Six months into King Philip's War, Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Algonquian tribe known as the Wampanoag, travels westward to the Mohawk nation, seeking an alliance with the Mohawks against the English colonists of New England; his efforts in creating such an alliance are a failure.

January 29 – Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia.

February 10 – After the Nipmuc tribe attacks Lancaster, Massachusetts, colonist Mary Rowlandson is taken captive, and lives with the Indians until May.

February 14 – Metacomet and his Wampanoags attack Northampton, Massachusetts; meanwhile, the Massachusetts Council debates whether a wall should be erected around Boston.

February 23 – While the Massachusetts Council debates how to handle the Christian Indians they had exiled to Deer Island on October 13, 1675, a coalition of Indians led by Metacomet attacks colonial settlements just 16 km (9.9 mi) outside of Boston.

March 29 – Providence, Rhode Island is attacked and destroyed by Native Americans.

May 2–3 – Mary Rowlandson is released from captivity, and returns to Boston.

May 19 – Peskeomskut Massacre – Battle of Turner's Falls: Captain William Turner leads a raid at first light, on an encampment consisting mainly of women and children. An estimated 300-400 lives are taken in less than half an hour, first from gunshot directly into the sleeping tents, then by sword and by drowning as the victims try to flee. This incident happens on the west bank of the Connecticut River, just above the falls known as Turner's Falls in Gill, Massachusetts.

May 26 – A fire destroys the town hall and 624 houses in Southwark, England.

May 31 – The Massachusetts Council finally decides to move the Christian Indians from Deer Island to Cambridge, Massachusetts (approximate date).

June – Bacon's Rebellion begins in the Virginia Colony. On July 30, Nathaniel Bacon and his followers issue the Declaration of the People of Virginia.

June 1 – Battle of Öland: A combined fleet of the Dutch Republic and Denmark–Norway decisively defeats the Swedish Navy, which loses its flagship Kronan.

June 12 – The Indian coalition attacks Hadley, Massachusetts, but are repelled by Connecticut troops.

June 19 – Massachusetts issues a declaration of amnesty, to any Indian who surrenders.

==== July–December ====

July 2 – Major John Talcott and his troops begin sweeping Connecticut and Rhode Island, capturing large numbers of Native Americans from Algonquian tribes and exporting them out of the Thirteen Colonies as slaves.

July 4 – Captain Benjamin Church and his soldiers begin sweeping Plymouth Colony, for any remaining Wampanoag tribesmen.

July 11 – The Wampanoags attack Taunton, Massachusetts, but are repelled by colonists.

July 17 – In France, Madame de Brinvilliers is executed for poisoning her father and brothers. The case also scares King Louis XIV into starting a series of investigations about possible poisonings and witchcraft (later called the Affair of the Poisons).

July 27 – Nearly 200 Nipmuc tribesmen surrender to the English colonists in Boston.

August 2 – Captain Benjamin Church captures Metacomet's wife and son.

August 12 – King Philip (Metacomet), chief of the Wampanoags that had waged a war throughout southern New England that bore his name, is killed by an Indian named Alderman, a soldier led by Captain Benjamin Church.

August 17 – Sweden gains a decisive victory over Denmark–Norway in the Battle of Halmstad (fought at Fyllebro).

August 28 – Irish Donation of 1676 is shipped from Dublin to relieve Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

September 19

The Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) begins, with Russo-Ukrainian troops forcing pro-Ottoman Hetman Ivan Samoylovych to surrender Chyhyryn.

Bacon's Rebellion: Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon.

September 21 – Pope Innocent XI succeeds Pope Clement X, as the 240th pope.

October 13 – Trunajaya defeats the Mataram Sultanate in the Battle of Gegodog.

October 17 – The Treaty of Żurawno is signed, between the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

November 16 – A prison is founded on Nantucket Island, in the English colony of Massachusetts.

November 27 – A fire in Boston, Massachusetts, is accidentally set by a careless and sleepy apprentice, who drops a lighted candle, or leaves it too near some combustible substance; this is the largest fire known at this time in the district. The Rev. Increase Mather’s church, dwelling and a portion of his personal library are destroyed.

December 4 – Scanian War: Sweden defeats the forces of Denmark in the Battle of Lund.

December 7 – Ole Rømer makes the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

==== Date unknown ====

Emperor Yohannes I of Ethiopia decrees that Muslims must live separately from Christians throughout his realm.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek discovers microorganisms.

An Åbo Lantdag (assembly) meets in Turku, Finland.

The French East India Company founds its principal Indian base at Pondicherry, on the Coromandel Coast.

=== 1677 ===

==== January–June ====

January 1 – Jean Racine's tragedy Phèdre is first performed, in Paris.

January 21 – The first medical publication in America (a pamphlet on smallpox) is produced in Boston.

February – The first arrest is made in the case that will develop into the "Affair of the Poisons" in France.

March 17 – Franco-Dutch War: Siege of Valenciennes (1676–77) in the Spanish Netherlands ends with surrender of the town to the French.

April 6 – Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor visits the University of Innsbruck.

April 11 – Franco-Dutch War: Battle of Cassel – A French force under Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, defeats a combined Dutch-Spanish force under William of Orange in French Flanders.

April 16 – The Statute of Frauds is passed into English law.

May 29 – The Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

May 31 – Scanian War: Battle of Møn – Danish ships clash with a Swedish fleet under Niels Juel, between Fehmarn and Warnemünde; the Danish defeat the Swedish and capture a number of ships.

June 25–26 – Scanian War: Siege of Malmö – Danish attackers fail to take the town from the Swedish.

==== July–December ====

July 14 – Sweden defeats the Danes in the Battle of Landskrona.

August – The French guild of the Maitresses bouquetieres is founded in Paris.

October 29 – Michel le Tellier becomes Chancellor of France.

November 4 – The future Mary II of England marries William of Orange.

November 16 – French troops occupy Freiburg.

==== Date unknown ====

The Second London Baptist Confession of Faith is written (published in 1689).

Spinoza's Ethics (Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata) is published as part of his Opera Posthuma in Amsterdam.

Elias Ashmole gifts the collection that begins the Ashmolean Museum to the University of Oxford in England.

Charles II of England makes Henry Purcell his court musician.

Jules Hardouin Mansart begins la place Vendôme in Paris (it is completed in 1698).

Francis Aungier, 3rd Baron Aungier of Longford, is created 1st Earl of Longford in the Peerage of Ireland.

The John Roan School is established in Greenwich, London.

Belgian missionary Louis Hennepin observes and describes the Niagara Falls, thus bringing them to the attention of Europeans.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz gives a complete solution to the tangent problem.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa under the microscope.

The use of male impotence is ended as a factor in French divorce proceedings.

Ice cream becomes popular in Paris.

The population of Paris first exceeds 500,000.

=== 1678 ===

==== January–June ====

January 27 – The first fire engine company (in what will become the United States) goes into service.

February 18 – The first part of English nonconformist preacher John Bunyan's Christian allegory, The Pilgrim's Progress, is published in London.

May 11 – French admiral Jean d'Estrees runs his whole fleet aground in Curaçao.

June – French buccaneer Michel de Grammont leads 6 pirate ships and 700 men in a daring raid on Spanish-held Venezuela, reaching inland as far as Trujillo.

June 25 – Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia becomes the first woman to be awarded a university degree, a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Padua.

==== July–December ====

August–December – Kediri campaign: Mataram and Dutch East India Company forces defeat the Trunajaya rebellion in eastern Java.

August 3 – Robert LaSalle builds the Le Griffon, the first known ship built on the Great Lakes.

August 10 – The Treaties of Nijmegen end the Franco-Dutch War. The County of Burgundy is ceded to the Kingdom of France.

August 14–15 – The Battle of Saint-Denis is fought after the peace was signed between France and the Dutch Republic in the Treaties of Nijmegen on 10 August.

September 6 – Titus Oates begins to present allegations of the Popish Plot, a supposed Roman Catholic conspiracy to assassinate king Charles II of England. Oates applies the term Tory to those who disbelieve his allegations.

October 17 – English magistrate Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey is found murdered in Primrose Hill, London. Titus Oates claims it as a proof of his allegations.

December 3 – The Test Act provides that members of both the House of Lords and House of Commons of England must swear an anti-Catholic oath, before taking office.

==== Date unknown ====

Rebellion breaks out in southern China.

About 1,200 Irish families sail from Barbados, to Virginia and the Carolinas.

In Ireland, the vacant Bishopric of Leighlin is given to the Bishop of Kildare, to form the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kildare and Leighlin.

The first chrysanthemums are planted in Europe.

=== 1679 ===

==== January–June ====

January 24 – King Charles II of England dissolves the "Cavalier Parliament", after nearly 18 years.

March 6–May 27 – In England, the "Habeas Corpus Parliament" (or "First Exclusion Parliament") meets. It is dissolved on July 12, while in recess, by royal prerogative, to prevent it from passing a bill excluding the king's brother, the Catholic James, Duke of York, from the succession to the English throne, as part of the Exclusion Crisis.

May 27 – The Parliament of England passes the Habeas Corpus Act, "for the better securing the liberty of the subject".

June 1 – Scottish Covenanters defeat a small government force in the Battle of Drumclog.

June 4 – Armenia earthquake: A tremor with an estimated surface wave magnitude of 6.4 takes place, in the Yerevan region of the Persian Empire.

June 22 – Battle of Bothwell Bridge, Scotland: Royal forces led by James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth and John Graham of Claverhouse subdue the Scottish Covenanters.

==== July–December ====

August 7 – The brigantine Le Griffon, commissioned by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes.

September 2 – The 8.0 Mw Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake devastates Beijing and Hebei in China with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X ("Extreme").

September 18 – New Hampshire becomes a county of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

November 27 – A fire in Boston, Massachusetts, burns all of the warehouses, 80 houses, and all of the ships in the dockyards.

==== Date unknown ====

The Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War (1679–84) begins with the Tibetan invasion of Ladakh.

French explorer Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, explores the Saint Louis River; the city of Duluth, Minnesota, will take its name from him.

Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb reimposes jizya.

Malpas Tunnel on the Canal du Midi in Hérault, France, Europe's first navigable canal tunnel, is excavated by Pierre-Paul Riquet (165 metres (541 ft), concrete lined).

1676

1676 (MDCLXXVI)

was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1676th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 676th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1676, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Chyhyryn

Chyhyryn (Ukrainian: Чигири́н, pronounced [tʃɪɦɪˈrɪn]) is a city and historic site located in the Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. From 1648 to 1669 the city was a Hetman residence. After a forced relocation of the Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan see from Kiev in 1658, it became a full-fledged capital of the Cossack Hetmanate. Chyhyryn also became a traditional place for the appointment to the office of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host. Chyhyryn serves as administrative center of Chyhyryn Raion.

Expansion of Russia 1500–1800

The steppe and forest-steppe of Ukraine and southern Russia is good agricultural land, but it was traditionally held by pastoral nomads. Any state that could drive off the nomads and fill the land with tax-paying peasants would expand its power enormously. During the period 1500–1800, this region was taken under Russian control.

"The history of Russia is the history of a country being colonized....migration and colonization of the country have been fundamental facts of our history.." Vasily Klyuchevsky, Kurs russkoy istorii, I, 20–21.

In the absence of a good map, locations will be given as approximately so many kilometers directly south of Moscow, and then so many kilometers east or west of that line. Thus, Kiev is about 600 south and 500 west, while Perekop at the head of the Crimean peninsula is 1100s and 250w. For contrast, France is not quite 1,000 kilometers from north to south and Moscow is about 1,000 kilometers south of the White Sea. Since these numbers are estimates, they should not be cited or copied.

Grigory Romodanovsky

Prince Grigory Grigoryevich Romodanovsky (Russian: Григорий Григорьевич Ромодановский) was a controversial figure of the Russian foreign policy as a member of the Razryadny Prikase, playing a key role in pursuing leaders of the Little Russian Cossack officers into the union with the Muscovy state. During the Russo-Polish war, he was a leading Russian general of Tsar Alexis's reign who promoted the Tsar's interests in Ukraine.

Romodanovsky belonged to the Rurikid clan of Romodanovsky. He took part in the Pereyaslav Rada of 1654 and led his Streltsy against the Poles during Russo-Polish War (1654–1667). On 9 May 1656, after being appointed as Okolnichiy, Romodanovsky was also appointed the Voivode of Belgorod Razryad created in the Sloboda Ukraine. In 1659 while assisting the Prince Alexei Trubetskoi in his expedition against Ivan Vyhovsky suffered notable defeat at the battle of Konotop after number of easy victories in the same region.

During the 1660s and 1670s, he was instrumental in spreading Muscovite influence in the Cossack Hetmanate, sometimes openly interfering into election of the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host and promoting the candidates backed up by Moscow. In 1670 along with Cossacks of Demian Mnohohrishny successfully defended against insurgents of Stepan Razin.

Romodanovsky was in charge of the Russian army during the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), but his rivalry with a cousin, Prince Vasily Galitzine, stymied his later career. Prince Grigory Romodanovsky was killed by the mob during the Moscow Uprising of 1682.

Index of articles related to Crimean Tatars

Below is the list of articles related to Crimean Tatars

List of Russian people

This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.

Regardless of ethnicity or emigration, the list includes famous natives of Russia and its predecessor states, as well as people who were born elsewhere but spent most of their active life in Russia. For more information, see the articles Rossiyane, Russians and Demographics of Russia. For specific lists of Russians, see Category:Lists of Russian people and Category:Russian people.

List of treaties

This list of treaties contains known agreements, pacts, peaces, and major contracts between states, armies, governments, and tribal groups.

Outline of the Ottoman Empire

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Ottoman Empire:

The Ottoman Empire was a Muslim empire that lasted from c. 1299 to 1922. It was also known by its European contemporaries as the Turkish Empire or Turkey after the principal ethnic group. At its zenith from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries it controlled Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia and North Africa.

Territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire

This is the territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire during a timespan of seven centuries.

The Ruin (Ukrainian history)

The Ruin (Ukrainian: Руїна, romanized: Ruyína) is a historical term introduced by the Cossack chronicle writer Samiylo Velychko (1670–1728) for the political situation in Ukrainian history during the second half of 17th century.

The timeframe of the period varies among historians:

Some historians such as Nikolay Kostomarov define the period between 1663 and 1687, associating it with the three Moscow-appointed hetmans of the Left-bank Ukraine (Briukhovetsky, Mnohohrishny and Samoylovych).

Other historians interpret the period between 1660 and 1687 from the Chudniv Treaty that led to division among the Cossack community.

Borys Krupnytsky considered the timeframe as 1657–1687, from the death of hetman Bohdan Khmelnitsky in 1657, particularly the Pushkar-Barabash Mutiny, until the ascension of hetman Ivan Mazepa in 1687.The period was characterised by continuous strife, civil war, and foreign intervention by neighbours of Ukraine. A Ukrainian saying of the time, "Від Богдана до Івана не було гетьмана" (From Bohdan to Ivan there was no hetman [in between]), accurately summarises the chaotic events of this period.

Timeline of Russian history

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. See also the list of leaders of Russia.

Dates before 31 January 1918, when the Bolshevik government adopted the Gregorian calendar, are given in the Old Style Julian calendar.

Treaty of Bakhchisarai

The Treaty of Bakhchisarai (Russian: Бахчисарайский мирный договор; Turkish: Bahçesaray Antlaşması) was signed in Bakhchisaray, which ended the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), on 3 January 1681 by Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Crimean Khanate. They agreed to a 20-year truce and had accepted the Dnieper River as the demarcation line between the Ottoman Empire and Moscow's domain. All sides agreed not to settle the territory between the Southern Bug and Dnieper rivers. After the signing of the treaty, the Nogai hordes still retained the right to live as nomads in the southern steppes of Ukraine, while the Cossacks retained the right to fish in the Dnieper and its tributaries; to obtain salt in the south; and to sail on the Dnieper and the Black Sea. The sultan then recognized Muscovy's sovereignty in the Left-bank Ukraine region and the Zaporozhian Cossack domain, while the southern part of the Kiev region, the Bratslav region, and Podolia were left under Ottoman control.

The Bakhchisaray peace treaty once again redistributed land between neighboring states. The treaty was also of great international significance and stipulated the signing of “ Eternal Peace” in 1686 between Russia and Poland.

Uman Regiment

The Uman Regiment (Ukrainian: Уманський полк) was one of the seventeen territorial-administrative subdivisions of the Hetman State. But after the division of the Hetman State the regiment became part of the Right-bank Ukraine. The Regiment consisted of 10 sotnias.

The regiment's capital was the city of Uman, now in Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine.

The regiment was established in 1648 at the outbreak of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. When the Ruin occurred the regiment was placed under the control of Right-bank Ukraine hetmans. The regiment was split during the 1670s as a result of factional fighting between its colonel, Mykhailo Khanenko, and Hetman Petro Doroshenko. Which caused half of the troops to join forces with invading Left-bank Ukraine Cossacks. The regiment was eventually disbanded in 1686.

The regiment was recreated in 1704 under Ivan Mazepa who reunited both banks under his rule during the Great Northern War, but was dissolved in 1712 when the territory was returned to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Yurii Khmelnytsky

Yuri Khmelnytsky (Ukrainian: Юрій Хмельницький, Polish: Jerzy Chmielnicki, Russian: Юрий Хмельницкий) (1641–1685), younger son of the famous Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and brother of Tymofiy Khmelnytsky, was a Zaporozhian Cossack political and military leader. Although he spent half of his adult life as a monk, he also was Hetman of Ukraine on several occasions — in 1659-1660 and 1678–1681 and starost of Hadiach. For background see The Ruin (Ukrainian history).

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