Russian invasion of Manchuria

The Russian invasion of Manchuria occurred in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–5) when concerns regarding China's defeat by the Japanese and the latter's occupation of Manchuria caused the Russians to speed up their long held designs for imperial expansion across Eurasia.

With the building of the South Manchuria Railway, Mukden (now known as Shenyang) became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion.[2][3] As with all other major powers in China, Russia demanded concessions along with the railroad.

During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia became involved due to its presence in the foreign legations. Russian Cossacks formed part of the Eight Nation Alliance relief forces during the Seymour and Gaselee expeditions while Russian forces were also present inside the legations during the sieges in Beijing and Tianjin. These forces operated separately from those involved in the invasion of Manchuria, with the entire operation exclusively directed by Russians.

Campaign

The Russians invaded Manchuria during the rebellion, which was defended by Manchu bannermen. The bannermen were annihilated as they fought to the death against the Russians, each falling one at a time against a five pronged Russian invasion. The Russian anthropologist Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov reported that the Russians killed many of the Manchus, thousands of them fled south. The Cossacks looted their villages and property and then burnt them down.[4][5] Manchuria was completely occupied after the fierce fighting that occurred.[6]

Boxers attacks on Chinese Eastern Railway

The Boxers attacks on Chinese Eastern Railway during Boxer Rebellion took place at 1900. In response Russia invaded Manchuria.

Chinese Imperial troops engaged in attacks against Russians, in one incident, Chinese troops killed a cossack.[7] Another 15 Russian casualties occurred when Chinese cavalry attacked the Russians.[8] The Boxers destroyed railways and cut lines for telegraphs. The Yen-t'ai coal mines were burned by Chinese forces.[9]

Chinese used arson to destroy a bridge carrying a railway and a barracks in the 27th of July.[10]

The Boxers destroyed railways in Manchuria in a strategic manouveres to halt enemy soldiers from moving. Imperial edicts were posted which called for attacks against the Russians, the stations of the South Manchuria Railway came under Boxer control.

With the building of the South Manchurian Railway, Mukden became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion.[11][12]

After Russia invaded with regular troops, the railway came under Russian control again.

Defence of Yingkou

The Battle of Yingkou was a battle where Chinese forces battled against the invading Russian army in the Boxer Rebellion. Unlike the battles in China proper during the Boxer Rebellion, battles between Chinese and foreigners in Manchuria were exclusively between Chinese and Russians. The Russians were the sole force attacking Yingkou, at the time one of the main sea ports of Manchuria.[13]

Yingkou was divided into a foreign settlement and a Chinese city. Mishchenko had to engage his reserved troops to win the fight. When the Russians seized the city, a number of Boxers and Chinese Imperial troops managed to pull off an evacuation. A combination of a moat, precipitation, and mud hampered the movement of Russian troops and their guns.[14]

Battle of Pai-t'ou-tzu

The Battle of Pai-t'ou-tzu (Pinyin: Baitouzi) was an engagement during the Boxer Rebellion between regular Chinese Imperial forces and an outpost of Russian infantry located in Chinese territory. Even before the Boxer rising against foreign influence, an outpost of Russian troops had been located across the Chinese border near the village of Pai-t'ou-tzu, which lay close to Liaoyang. It was garrisoned by 204 Russian troops under Colonel Mishchenko. When hostilities began, the Chinese authorities advanced a guarantee of safe passage in exchange for his retreat to the south of Liaoyang. This was declined, and instead Mishchenko called for more Russian troops to reinforce his position.[15]

Before the Russian position could be reinforced, fighting broke out. During the opening stages of the ensuing battle, Chinese guns bombarded the Russian right and front flanks, resulting in 14 Russian deaths and 5 wounded. Firing from long range at high trajectories, the Chinese artillery hit their marks, but at closer range proved inaccurate. Chinese regular infantry armed with rifles advanced, crawling under cover artillery fire towards the Russian defense perimeter of about 350 square feet. When the Russian fire slackened the Chinese troops renewed their attack. Chinese forces alternated between advance and retreat until the Russian position was over-run. Losses on both sides are uncertain but the Russian detachment may have been wiped out.[16]

Battles on Amur River

Firing upon the Russian Men-of-War in Amur River

The Battles on the Amur River were border clashes between Chinese Imperial Army troops along with Boxers against Russian forces who aimed for control over the Amur River for navigation.[17]

The Chinese summoned all available men to fight, and the Chinese forces and garrisons gathered artillery and bombarded Russian troops and towns across the Amur. Despite the Cossacks repulsing Chinese army crossings into Russia, the Chinese army troops increased the amount of artillery and kept up the bombardment. In revenge for the attacks on Chinese villages, Boxer troops burned Russian towns and almost annihilated a Russian force at Tieling.[18][19]

Russian governor K. N. Gribsky ordered Cossacks to destroy all Chinese posts on Amur river, and Cossacks completed the order during July. On July 20, Russian forces (including 16 infantry companies, a hundred Cossacks and 16 cannons) crossed the Amur near Blagoveshchensk with support from the steamers Selenga and Sungari. On July 20, Russian troops captured Saghalien; on July 22, Aigun.

After the victory over the Chinese forces, the general-governor of Amur Region, Nikolai Grodekov, decided to annex the right bank of the Amur River, and sent a telegram to St. Peterburg, but Russian Minister of War Aleksey Kuropatkin forbade such an action:

Because of restoring the good relation with China in the nearest future, His Majesty decided not to annex any part of China

Russian Invasion of Northern and Central Manchuria

The Crushing of boxers in Northern and Central Manchuria was the invasion of the 100,000 strong Russian Army of Manchuria. These events form part of the period known as the Boxer Rebellion.

On June 29, the first Russian force—two rifle regiments and some Cossacks from Khabarovsk—crossed the Chinese border, followed by units from Blagoveshchensk, Nikolsk-Ussuriski, and other towns.[1]

The campaign in Manchuria was conducted by both the regular Imperial army, including Manchu Bannermen and Imperial Chinese troops, and the Boxers.

The Russians invaded Manchuria during the rebellion, which was defended by Manchu bannermen. The bannermen were annihilated as they fought to the death against the Russians, each falling one at a time against a five pronged Russian invasion. The Russians killed many of the Manchus, thousands of them fled south. The Russian Cossacks looted some of their villages and property and then burnt them to ashes, but as revenge, the Chinese Boxers and Imperial army came to a large Russian village and killed many civilians and looted and burnt all their houses as revenge and killed many Russian defenders.[20][21] Manchuria was partially occupied after the fierce fighting that occurred.[22]

Aftermath

By November 1900 most of Manchuria was secured by the Russian forces. War Minister General Kuropatkin reported that Russian losses were 22 officers and 220 men killed, along with 60 officers and 1223 men wounded. No records exist for Chinese losses, but estimates put them at much higher than Russian casualties. Lieutenant General Nikolai Linevich, for example, gave orders to destroy towns and execute Chinese in retaliation for attacks on the Russian railway in Manchuria. This policy was later changed and at least eight Cossacks were executed by hanging by a military court for crimes against civilians.[1]

Sergei Witte advised the Tsar to withdraw Russian forces from Manchuria, but Kuropatkin advocated for a continued Russian presence in Manchuria. The Russians tried to secure agreements favorable to themselves in exchange for withdrawal, but China refused.[23][24]

The Honghuzi continued to plague Manchuria despite multiple attempts aiming for their eradication and mass killings directed at them by Cossack forces. They were enlisted by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War to attack the Russians on their rear.

Russo-Japanese War

Japan was angered that Russia had not withdrawn according to the treaty it signed in the Boxer Protocol in which it promised to withdrawal from Manchuria.

See also

References

  •  This article incorporates text from The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68, by Making of America Project, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events, a publication from 1901 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ a b c d e Pronin, Alexander (7 November 2000). Война с Желтороссией (in Russian). Kommersant. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
  2. ^ The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68. NEW YORK: The Century Co. 1904. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06.(Original from Harvard University)
  3. ^ Making of America Project (1904). The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68. NEW YORK: Scribner & Co. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06.(Original from the University of Michigan)
  4. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-295-98040-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  5. ^ Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov (1924). Social organization of the Manchus: A study of the Manchu clan organization. Volume 3 of Publications, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland North-China Branch. the University of Michigan: Royal Asiatic Society. p. 4. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  6. ^ Frederick Converse Beach, George Edwin Rines (1912). The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world, Volume 18. Scientific American compiling department. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  7. ^ Eugene M. Wait (2003). Imperialism. Nova History Publications. p. 406. ISBN 1-59033-664-X. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  8. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 50. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  9. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 14. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  10. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 14. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  11. ^ The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68. NEW YORK: The Century Co. 1904. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06.(Original from Harvard University)
  12. ^ Making of America Project (1904). The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68. NEW YORK: Scribner & Co. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06.(Original from the University of Michigan)
  13. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 55. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  14. ^ Eugene M. Wait (2003). Imperialism. Nova History Publications. p. 431. ISBN 1-59033-664-X. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  15. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 18. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  16. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 24. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  17. ^ George Alexander Lensen (1967). The Russo-Chinese War. Diplomatic Press. p. 160. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  18. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events. D. Appleton. 1901. p. 105. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  19. ^ Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events. D. Appleton. 1901. p. 106. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  20. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. University of Washington Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-295-98040-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  21. ^ Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov (1924). Social organization of the Manchus: A study of the Manchu clan organization. Royal Asiatic Society. p. 4. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
  22. ^ Frederick Converse Beach, George Edwin Rines (1912). The Americana: a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc., of the world, Volume 18. Scientific American compiling department. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  23. ^ G. Patrick March (1996). Eastern destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific (illustrated ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 180. ISBN 0-275-95566-4. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
  24. ^ J. N. Westwood (1986). Russia against Japan, 1904-1905: a new look at the Russo-Japanese War. SUNY Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-88706-191-5. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
117th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The 117th Division (第117師団, Dai-hyakujūnana Shidan) was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Expansive Division (弘兵団, Gu Heidan). It was formed 10 July 1944 in Xinxiang as a type-C(hei) security division, simultaneously with the 114th, 115th and 118th divisions. The nucleus for the formation was the 14th independent infantry brigade. The division was initially assigned to the 12th army.

138th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The 138th Division (第138師団, Dai-hyakusanjūhachi Shidan) was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Immovable Division (不動兵団, Fudō Heidan). It was formed 10 July 1945 in several towns along Jilin - Shenyang railroad as a triangular division. It was a part of the 8 simultaneously created divisions batch comprising 134th, 135th, 136th, 137th, 138th, 139th, 148th and 149th divisions. The nucleus for the formation was the small parts detached from the 1st mobile brigade.

5th Siberian Rifle Division (Russian Empire)

The 5th Siberian Rifle Division (Russian: 5-я Сибирская стрелковая дивизия; 5-ya Sibirskaya Strelkovaya Diviziya) was an infantry unit of the Imperial Russian Army. The division was formed in 1904 from a brigade, fighting in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I.

79th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

The 79th Division (第79師団, Dai-nanajūkyū Shidan) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Play Division (奏兵団, So Heidan).It was created 6 February 1945 in Ranam-guyok and disbanded at Tumen, Jilin in September 1945. It was a triangular division. The men of the division were drafted through Ranam-guyok Korean mobilization district, although the divisional backbone was the men from 19th and 20th divisions.

Battle of Batin

The Battle of Batin took place on 9 September 1810 near the small town of Batin, north Bulgaria during the Russo-Turkish War of 1806 to 1812. The conflict involved an attack by Russian forces on a defensive position held by a numerically stronger Ottoman Turk force. The outcome was a Russian victory which enabled their ongoing Balkan campaign to proceed unhindered.

Battle of Suzdal

The Battle of Suzdal or the Battle of the Kamenka River was fought of July 7, 1445 between Russians under Vasily II and Tatars troops of Oluğ Möxämmäd, invaded the principality of Nizhny Novgorod. Russians were defeated by troops of beg Mäxmüd, who became Mäxmüd of Kazan after the battle. Vasily was taken prisoner and was set free only after the enormous ransom was paid. He also promised restitution of the lands of Mishar Yurt, that were bought from Tokhtamysh in 1343. Qasim Khanate was founded there to become a buffer state and the vassal of Muscovy later.

Battle on Pyana River

The Battle on Pyana River took place on August 2, 1377 between the Blue Horde Khan Arapsha (Arab-Shah Muzaffar) and joint Russian troops under Knyaz Ivan Dmitriyevich, made up of the Pereyaslavl, Yaroslavl, Yuryev, Nizhny Novgorod and Murom warlords.The joint Russian army, being drunken, was almost entirely routed by small forces of Arapsha, while Ivan Dmitriyevich had drowned together with druzhina and staff. The river's name Pyana, translated as "drunken" from Russian, is derived from those events. The corresponding events are further recorded in the medieval Russian Chronicle On The Slaughter at Pyana River.

Bitch Wars

The Bitch Wars or Suka Wars (Russian: Сучьи войны, translit. Suchyi voyny or in singular: Russian: Сучья война, translit. Suchya voyna) occurred within the Soviet labor-camp system between 1945 and around the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.

Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity that was associated with it.

It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts, also referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence. After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter.

In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian forces to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, and soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers.

Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu (Junglu), later claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before.

The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers.

The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, and 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager then sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.

Invasion of Manchuria

Invasion of Manchuria can refer to:

Russian invasion of Manchuria (1900)

Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931)

Soviet invasion of Manchuria (1945)

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376)

The Muscovite-Volga Bulgars War of 1376 was organized by Russian Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow, and Dmitry Konstantinovich of Vladimir-Suzdal. The Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod combined army was led by Moscow Governor Dmitry Mikhailovich Bobrok Volynskyy, and sons Dmitry Suzdal Vasily and Ivan. Volga Bulgaria, which was at the time an ulus of the Golden Horde (who had converted to Islam in 1313), was ruled by emir Hassan Khan (in Russian chronicles - Assan) and Horde Protégé Muhammad Sultan (Sultan Mahmat).

Red Army invasion of Armenia

The Red Army invasion of Armenia, also known as the Russian-Armenian war or Sovietization or Soviet invasion of Armenia, Soviet occupation of Armenia, was a military campaign carried out by the 11th Army of Soviet Russia from September to 29 November 1920 to install a new Soviet government in the First Republic of Armenia, a former territory of the Russian and Ottoman Empires. The invasion coincided with the anti-government insurrection staged by the local Armenian Bolsheviks in the capital, Yerevan, and other cities and populated place over the country. The invasion led to the dissolution of the First Republic of Armenia and the establishment of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Russian conquest of Bukhara

The Russian conquest of Bukhara was a series of wars, invasions, and the subsequent conquest of the Central Asian Emirate of Bukhara by the Russian Empire.

Russian invasion

Russian invasion may refer to:

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, 1783

Caucasian War, 1817–64

Russian invasion of Manchuria, 1900

Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911

Russian invasion of East Prussia (1914)

Red Army invasion of Georgia, 1921

Hungarian Revolution of 1956

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968

Russo-Georgian War, 2008

2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, 2014

War in Donbass

Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to confront the Ottoman Empire. The larger European conflict was known as the Great Turkish War.

The Russo–Turkish War began after the Tsardom of Russia joined the European anti-Turkish coalition (Habsburg Austria, Poland–Lithuania, Venice) in 1686, after Poland-Lithuania agreed to recognize Russian incorporation of Kiev and the left-bank of the Ukraine.

Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)

The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791).

Skirmish at Bender

The Skirmish at Bender (Swedish: Kalabaliken i Bender and Finnish: Benderin kalabaliikki) was devised to remove Charles XII of Sweden from the Ottoman Empire after his military defeats in Russia. It took place on 1 February 1713 on Ottoman territory, in what is now the town of Bender, Moldova.

Uryankhay Krai

Uryankhay Krai (Russian: Урянхайский край, Urjanchajskij kraj) was a short lived Russian protectorate that was proclaimed on 17 April 1914. It was later annexed in 1914 by the Russian Empire and became part of the Yeniseysk Governorate.

Vasilisa Kozhina

Vasilisa Kozhina (1780? — 1840?) — a hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.