The Russian invasion of Manchuria occurred in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–5) when concerns regarding China's defeat by the Japanese and the latter's occupation of Manchuria caused the Russians to speed up their long held designs for imperial expansion across Eurasia.
With the building of the South Manchuria Railway, Mukden (now known as Shenyang) became a Russian stronghold, which occupied it after the Boxer Rebellion. As with all other major powers in China, Russia demanded concessions along with the railroad.
During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia became involved due to its presence in the foreign legations. Russian Cossacks formed part of the Eight Nation Alliance relief forces during the Seymour and Gaselee expeditions while Russian forces were also present inside the legations during the sieges in Beijing and Tianjin. These forces operated separately from those involved in the invasion of Manchuria, with the entire operation exclusively directed by Russians.
The Russians invaded Manchuria during the rebellion, which was defended by Manchu bannermen. The bannermen were annihilated as they fought to the death against the Russians, each falling one at a time against a five pronged Russian invasion. The Russian anthropologist Sergeĭ Mikhaĭlovich Shirokogorov reported that the Russians killed many of the Manchus, thousands of them fled south. The Cossacks looted their villages and property and then burnt them down. Manchuria was completely occupied after the fierce fighting that occurred.
Chinese Imperial troops engaged in attacks against Russians, in one incident, Chinese troops killed a cossack. Another 15 Russian casualties occurred when Chinese cavalry attacked the Russians. The Boxers destroyed railways and cut lines for telegraphs. The Yen-t'ai coal mines were burned by Chinese forces.
Chinese used arson to destroy a bridge carrying a railway and a barracks in the 27th of July.
The Boxers destroyed railways in Manchuria in a strategic manouveres to halt enemy soldiers from moving. Imperial edicts were posted which called for attacks against the Russians, the stations of the South Manchuria Railway came under Boxer control.
After Russia invaded with regular troops, the railway came under Russian control again.
The Battle of Yingkou was a battle where Chinese forces battled against the invading Russian army in the Boxer Rebellion. Unlike the battles in China proper during the Boxer Rebellion, battles between Chinese and foreigners in Manchuria were exclusively between Chinese and Russians. The Russians were the sole force attacking Yingkou, at the time one of the main sea ports of Manchuria.
Yingkou was divided into a foreign settlement and a Chinese city. Mishchenko had to engage his reserved troops to win the fight. When the Russians seized the city, a number of Boxers and Chinese Imperial troops managed to pull off an evacuation. A combination of a moat, precipitation, and mud hampered the movement of Russian troops and their guns.
The Battle of Pai-t'ou-tzu (Pinyin: Baitouzi) was an engagement during the Boxer Rebellion between regular Chinese Imperial forces and an outpost of Russian infantry located in Chinese territory. Even before the Boxer rising against foreign influence, an outpost of Russian troops had been located across the Chinese border near the village of Pai-t'ou-tzu, which lay close to Liaoyang. It was garrisoned by 204 Russian troops under Colonel Mishchenko. When hostilities began, the Chinese authorities advanced a guarantee of safe passage in exchange for his retreat to the south of Liaoyang. This was declined, and instead Mishchenko called for more Russian troops to reinforce his position.
Before the Russian position could be reinforced, fighting broke out. During the opening stages of the ensuing battle, Chinese guns bombarded the Russian right and front flanks, resulting in 14 Russian deaths and 5 wounded. Firing from long range at high trajectories, the Chinese artillery hit their marks, but at closer range proved inaccurate. Chinese regular infantry armed with rifles advanced, crawling under cover artillery fire towards the Russian defense perimeter of about 350 square feet. When the Russian fire slackened the Chinese troops renewed their attack. Chinese forces alternated between advance and retreat until the Russian position was over-run. Losses on both sides are uncertain but the Russian detachment may have been wiped out.
The Chinese summoned all available men to fight, and the Chinese forces and garrisons gathered artillery and bombarded Russian troops and towns across the Amur. Despite the Cossacks repulsing Chinese army crossings into Russia, the Chinese army troops increased the amount of artillery and kept up the bombardment. In revenge for the attacks on Chinese villages, Boxer troops burned Russian towns and almost annihilated a Russian force at Tieling.
Russian governor K. N. Gribsky ordered Cossacks to destroy all Chinese posts on Amur river, and Cossacks completed the order during July. On July 20, Russian forces (including 16 infantry companies, a hundred Cossacks and 16 cannons) crossed the Amur near Blagoveshchensk with support from the steamers Selenga and Sungari. On July 20, Russian troops captured Saghalien; on July 22, Aigun.
After the victory over the Chinese forces, the general-governor of Amur Region, Nikolai Grodekov, decided to annex the right bank of the Amur River, and sent a telegram to St. Peterburg, but Russian Minister of War Aleksey Kuropatkin forbade such an action:
Because of restoring the good relation with China in the nearest future, His Majesty decided not to annex any part of China
The Crushing of boxers in Northern and Central Manchuria was the invasion of the 100,000 strong Russian Army of Manchuria. These events form part of the period known as the Boxer Rebellion.
The campaign in Manchuria was conducted by both the regular Imperial army, including Manchu Bannermen and Imperial Chinese troops, and the Boxers.
The Russians invaded Manchuria during the rebellion, which was defended by Manchu bannermen. The bannermen were annihilated as they fought to the death against the Russians, each falling one at a time against a five pronged Russian invasion. The Russians killed many of the Manchus, thousands of them fled south. The Russian Cossacks looted some of their villages and property and then burnt them to ashes, but as revenge, the Chinese Boxers and Imperial army came to a large Russian village and killed many civilians and looted and burnt all their houses as revenge and killed many Russian defenders. Manchuria was partially occupied after the fierce fighting that occurred.
By November 1900 most of Manchuria was secured by the Russian forces. War Minister General Kuropatkin reported that Russian losses were 22 officers and 220 men killed, along with 60 officers and 1223 men wounded. No records exist for Chinese losses, but estimates put them at much higher than Russian casualties. Lieutenant General Nikolai Linevich, for example, gave orders to destroy towns and execute Chinese in retaliation for attacks on the Russian railway in Manchuria. This policy was later changed and at least eight Cossacks were executed by hanging by a military court for crimes against civilians.
Sergei Witte advised the Tsar to withdraw Russian forces from Manchuria, but Kuropatkin advocated for a continued Russian presence in Manchuria. The Russians tried to secure agreements favorable to themselves in exchange for withdrawal, but China refused.
The Honghuzi continued to plague Manchuria despite multiple attempts aiming for their eradication and mass killings directed at them by Cossack forces. They were enlisted by the Japanese during the Russo-Japanese War to attack the Russians on their rear.
Japan was angered that Russia had not withdrawn according to the treaty it signed in the Boxer Protocol in which it promised to withdrawal from Manchuria.
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The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was an anti-imperialist, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty. They were motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and by opposition to Western colonialism and the Christian missionary activity that was associated with it.
It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the Boxers, for many of their members had been practitioners of Chinese martial arts, also referred to in the west as Chinese Boxing. The uprising took place against a background that included severe drought and disruption caused by the growth of foreign spheres of influence. After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter.
In response to reports of an armed invasion by allied American, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian forces to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians, and soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were detained for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers.
Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu (Junglu), later claimed he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. Many officials refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners in their Mutual Protection of Southeast China, because Qing had lost the First Sino-Japanese War five years before.
The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and arrived at Peking on August 14, relieving the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers.
The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, and 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager then sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in a failed attempt to save the dynasty.Invasion of Manchuria
Invasion of Manchuria can refer to:
Russian invasion of Manchuria (1900)
Japanese invasion of Manchuria (1931)
Soviet invasion of Manchuria (1945)Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376)
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The Red Army invasion of Armenia, also known as the Russian-Armenian war or Sovietization or Soviet invasion of Armenia, Soviet occupation of Armenia, was a military campaign carried out by the 11th Army of Soviet Russia from September to 29 November 1920 to install a new Soviet government in the First Republic of Armenia, a former territory of the Russian and Ottoman Empires. The invasion coincided with the anti-government insurrection staged by the local Armenian Bolsheviks in the capital, Yerevan, and other cities and populated place over the country. The invasion led to the dissolution of the First Republic of Armenia and the establishment of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.Russian conquest of Bukhara
The Russian conquest of Bukhara was a series of wars, invasions, and the subsequent conquest of the Central Asian Emirate of Bukhara by the Russian Empire.Russian invasion
Russian invasion may refer to:
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, 1783
Caucasian War, 1817–64
Russian invasion of Manchuria, 1900
Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911
Russian invasion of East Prussia (1914)
Red Army invasion of Georgia, 1921
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968
Russo-Georgian War, 2008
2014–15 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, 2014
War in DonbassRusso-Turkish War (1686–1700)
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The Russo–Turkish War began after the Tsardom of Russia joined the European anti-Turkish coalition (Habsburg Austria, Poland–Lithuania, Venice) in 1686, after Poland-Lithuania agreed to recognize Russian incorporation of Kiev and the left-bank of the Ukraine.Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)
The Russo–Turkish War of 1787–1792 involved an unsuccessful attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to the Russian Empire in the course of the previous Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). It took place concomitantly with the Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791).Skirmish at Bender
The Skirmish at Bender (Swedish: Kalabaliken i Bender and Finnish: Benderin kalabaliikki) was devised to remove Charles XII of Sweden from the Ottoman Empire after his military defeats in Russia. It took place on 1 February 1713 on Ottoman territory, in what is now the town of Bender, Moldova.Uryankhay Krai
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Vasilisa Kozhina (1780? — 1840?) — a hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.