Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (Russian: Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации, tr. Sukhoputnye voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992. The formation of these forces posed economic challenges after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and required reforms to professionalize the force during the transition.

Since 1992, the Ground Forces have withdrawn many thousands of troops from former Soviet garrisons abroad, while remaining extensively committed to the Chechen Wars, peacekeeping, and other operations in the Soviet successor states (what is known in Russia as the "near abroad").

Ground Forces of the Russian Federation
Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации
Suhoputnye voyska Rossiyskoy Federatsii
Medium emblem of the Сухопутные войска Российской Федерации
Medium emblem of the Russian Ground Forces
Founded1992
CountryRussia
TypeArmy
Size350,000 active duty (2017)[1]
Part ofRussian Armed Forces
HeadquartersFrunzenskaya Embankment 20-22, Moscow
Anniversaries1 October
EngagementsTransnistria War
Civil War in Tajikistan
East Prigorodny conflict
War in Abkhazia
1993 Russian constitutional crisis
First Chechen War
War of Dagestan
Second Chechen War
Russo-Georgian War
Insurgency in the North Caucasus
Military intervention in Ukraine[2]
Syrian Civil War
Iraqi Civil War
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefColonel General Oleg Salyukov[3]

Mission

The primary responsibilities of the Ground Forces are the protection of the state borders, combat on land, the security of occupied territories, and the defeat of enemy troops. The Ground Forces must be able to achieve these goals both in nuclear war and non-nuclear war, especially without the use of weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, they must be capable of protecting the national interests of Russia within the framework of its international obligations.

The Main Command of the Ground Forces is officially tasked with the following objectives:[4]

  • The training of troops for combat, on the basis of tasks determined by the Armed Forces' General Staff.
  • The improvement of troops' structure and composition, and the optimization of their numbers, including for special troops.
  • The development of military theory and practice.
  • The development and introduction of training field manuals, tactics, and methodology.
  • The improvement of operational and combat training of the Ground Forces.

History

As the Soviet Union dissolved, efforts were made to keep the Soviet Armed Forces as a single military structure for the new Commonwealth of Independent States. The last Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union, Marshal Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, was appointed supreme commander of the CIS Armed Forces in December 1991.[5] Among the numerous treaties signed by the former republics, in order to direct the transition period, was a temporary agreement on general purpose forces, signed in Minsk on 14 February 1992. However, once it became clear that Ukraine (and potentially the other republics) was determined to undermine the concept of joint general purpose forces and form their own armed forces, the new Russian government moved to form its own armed forces.[5]

President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin signed a decree forming the Russian Ministry of Defence on 7 May 1992, establishing the Russian Ground Forces along with the other parts of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. At that time, the General Staff was in the process of withdrawing tens of thousands of personnel from the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, and from Mongolia.

Thirty-seven divisions had to be withdrawn from the four groups of forces and the Baltic States, and four military districts—totalling 57 divisions—were handed over to Belarus and Ukraine.[6] Some idea of the scale of the withdrawal can be gained from the division list. For the dissolving Soviet Ground Forces, the withdrawal from the former Warsaw Pact states and the Baltic states was an extremely demanding, expensive, and debilitating process.[7] As the military districts that remained in Russia after the collapse of the Union consisted mostly of the mobilisable cadre formations, the Russian Ground Forces were, to a large extent, created by relocating the formerly full-strength formations from Eastern Europe to those under-resourced districts. However, the facilities in those districts were inadequate to house the flood of personnel and equipment returning from abroad, and many units "were unloaded from the rail wagons into empty fields."[8] The need for destruction and transfer of large amounts of weaponry under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe also necessitated great adjustments.

Post-Soviet reform plans

The Ministry of Defence newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda published a reform plan on 21 July 1992. Later one commentator said it was "hastily" put together by the General Staff "to satisfy the public demand for radical changes."[9] The General Staff, from that point, became a bastion of conservatism, causing a build-up of troubles that later became critical. The reform plan advocated a change from an Army-Division-Regiment structure to a Corps-Brigade arrangement. The new structures were to be more capable in a situation with no front line, and more capable of independent action at all levels. Cutting out a level of command, omitting two out of three higher echelons between the theatre headquarters and the fighting battalions, would produce economies, increase flexibility, and simplify command-and-control arrangements.[10] The expected changeover to the new structure proved to be rare, irregular, and sometimes reversed. The new brigades that appeared were mostly divisions that had broken down until they happened to be at the proposed brigade strengths. New divisions—such as the new 3rd Motor Rifle Division in the Moscow Military District, formed on the basis of disbanding tank formations—were formed, rather than new brigades.

Few of the reforms planned in the early 1990s eventuated, for three reasons: Firstly, there was an absence of firm civilian political guidance, with President Yeltsin primarily interested in ensuring that the Armed Forces were controllable and loyal, rather than reformed.[9][11] Secondly, declining funding worsened the progress. Finally, there was no firm consensus within the military about what reforms should be implemented. General Pavel Grachev, the first Russian Minister of Defence (1992–96), broadly advertised reforms, yet wished to preserve the old Soviet-style Army, with large numbers of low-strength formations and continued mass conscription. The General Staff and the armed services tried to preserve Soviet era doctrines, deployments, weapons, and missions in the absence of solid new guidance.[12]

A British military expert, Michael Orr, claims that the hierarchy had great difficulty in fully understanding the changed situation, due to their education. As graduates of Soviet military academies, they received great operational and staff training, but in political terms they had learned an ideology, rather than a wide understanding of international affairs. Thus, the generals—focused on NATO expanding to the east—could not adapt themselves and the Armed Forces to the new opportunities and challenges they faced.[13]

Internal crisis of 1993

The Ground Forces reluctantly became involved in the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 after President Yeltsin issued an unconstitutional decree dissolving the Parliament, following the Parliament's resistance to Yeltsin's consolidation of power and his neo-liberal reforms. A group of deputies, including Vice President Alexander Rutskoi, barricaded themselves inside the Parliament building. While giving public support to the President, the Armed Forces, led by General Grachev, tried to remain neutral, following the wishes of the officer corps.[14] The military leadership were unsure of both the rightness of Yeltsin's cause and the reliability of their forces, and had to be convinced at length by Yeltsin to attack the Parliament.

When the attack was finally mounted, forces from five different divisions around Moscow were used, and the personnel involved were mostly officers and senior non-commissioned officers.[7] There were also indications that some formations deployed into Moscow only under protest.[14] However, once Parliament had been stormed, the parliamentary leaders arrested, and temporary censorship imposed, Yeltsin succeeded in retaining power.

Chechen Wars

First Chechen War

The Chechen people had never willingly accepted Russian rule. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Chechens declared independence in November 1991, under the leadership of a former Air Forces officer, General Dzhokar Dudayev.[15] The continuation of Chechen independence was seen as reducing Moscow's authority; Chechnya became perceived as a haven for criminals, and a hard-line group within the Kremlin began advocating war. A Security Council meeting was held 29 November 1994, where Yeltsin ordered the Chechens to disarm, or else Moscow would restore order. Defense Minister Pavel Grachev assured Yeltsin that he would "take Grozny with one airborne assault regiment in two hours."[16]

The operation began on 11 December 1994 and, by 31 December, Russian forces were entering Grozny, the Chechen capital. The 131st Motor Rifle Brigade was ordered to make a swift push for the centre of the city, but was then virtually destroyed in Chechen ambushes. After finally seizing Grozny amid fierce resistance, Russian troops moved on to other Chechen strongholds. When Chechen militants took hostages in the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in Stavropol Kray in June 1995, peace looked possible for a time, but the fighting continued. Following this incident, the separatists were referred to as insurgents or terrorists within Russia.

Dzhokar Dudayev was assassinated in April 1996, and that summer, a Chechen attack retook Grozny. Alexander Lebed, then Secretary of the Security Council, began talks with the Chechen rebel leader Aslan Maskhadov in August 1996 and signed an agreement on 22/23 August; by the end of that month, the fighting ended.[17] The formal ceasefire was signed in the Dagestani town of Khasavyurt on 31 August 1996, stipulating that a formal agreement on relations between the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the Russian federal government need not be signed until late 2001.

Writing some years later, Dmitri Trenin and Aleksei Malashenko described the Russian military's performance in Chechniya as "grossly deficient at all levels, from commander-in-chief to the drafted private."[18] The Ground Forces' performance in the First Chechen War has been assessed by a British academic as "appallingly bad".[19] Writing six years later, Michael Orr said "one of the root causes of the Russian failure in 1994–96 was their inability to raise and deploy a properly trained military force."[20]

Second Chechen War

The Second Chechen War began in August 1999 after Chechen militias invaded neighboring Dagestan, followed quickly in early September by a series of four terrorist bombings across Russia. This prompted Russian military action against the alleged Chechen culprits.

In the first Chechen war, the Russians primarily laid waste to an area with artillery and airstrikes before advancing the land forces. Improvements were made in the Ground Forces between 1996 and 1999; when the Second Chechen War started, instead of hastily assembled "composite regiments" dispatched with little or no training, whose members had never seen service together, formations were brought up to strength with replacements, put through preparatory training, and then dispatched. Combat performance improved accordingly,[21] and large-scale opposition was crippled.

Most of the prominent past Chechen separatist leaders had died or been killed, including former president Aslan Maskhadov and leading warlord and terrorist attack mastermind Shamil Basayev. However, small-scale conflict continued to drag on; as of November 2007, it had spread across other parts of the Russian Caucasus.[22] It was a divisive struggle, with at least one senior military officer dismissed for being unresponsive to government commands: General Colonel Gennady Troshev was dismissed in 2002 for refusing to move from command of the North Caucasus Military District to command of the less important Siberian Military District.[23]

The Second Chechen War was officially declared ended on 16 April 2009.[24]

Reforms under Sergeyev

When Igor Sergeyev arrived as Minister of Defence in 1997, he initiated what were seen as real reforms under very difficult conditions.[25] The number of military educational establishments, virtually unchanged since 1991, was reduced, and the amalgamation of the Siberian and Trans-Baikal Military Districts was ordered. A larger number of army divisions were given "constant readiness" status, which was supposed to bring them up to 80 percent manning and 100 percent equipment holdings. Sergeyev announced in August 1998 that there would be six divisions and four brigades on 24-hour alert by the end of that year. Three levels of forces were announced; constant readiness, low-level, and strategic reserves.[26]

However, personnel quality—even in these favored units—continued to be a problem. Lack of fuel for training and a shortage of well-trained junior officers hampered combat effectiveness.[27] However, concentrating on the interests of his old service, the Strategic Rocket Forces, Sergeyev directed the disbanding of the Ground Forces headquarters itself in December 1997.[28] The disbandment was a "military nonsense", in Orr's words, "justifiable only in terms of internal politics within the Ministry of Defence".[29] The Ground Forces' prestige declined as a result, as the headquarters disbandment implied—at least in theory—that the Ground Forces no longer ranked equally with the Air Force and Navy.[29]

Reforms under Putin

AirborneExercise2017 01
Airborne exercise in 2017

Under President Vladimir Putin, more funds were committed, the Ground Forces Headquarters was reestablished, and some progress on professionalisation occurred. Plans called for reducing mandatory service to 18 months in 2007, and to one year by 2008, but a mixed Ground Force, of both contract soldiers and conscripts, would remain. (As of 2009, the length of conscript service was 12 months.)[30]

Funding increases began in 1999; after some recovery in the Russian economy and the associated rise in income, especially from oil, "Russia's officially reported defence spending [rose] in nominal terms at least, for the first time since the formation of the Russian Federation".[31] The budget rose from 141 billion rubles in 2000 to 219 billion rubles in 2001.[32] Much of this funding has been spent on personnel—there have been several pay rises, starting with a 20-percent rise authorised in 2001; the current professionalisation programme, including 26,000 extra sergeants, was expected to cost at least 31 billion roubles ($1.1 billion USD).[33] Increased funding has been spread across the whole budget, with personnel spending being matched by greater procurement and research and development funding.

However, in 2004, Alexander Goltz said that, given the insistence of the hierarchy on trying to force contract soldiers into the old conscript pattern, there is little hope of a fundamental strengthening of the Ground Forces. He further elaborated that they are expected to remain, to some extent, a military liability and "Russia's most urgent social problem" for some time to come.[34] Goltz summed up by saying: "All of this means that the Russian armed forces are not ready to defend the country and that, at the same time, they are also dangerous for Russia. Top military personnel demonstrate neither the will nor the ability to effect fundamental changes."[34]

More money is arriving both for personnel and equipment; Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said in June 2008 that monetary allowances for servicemen in permanent-readiness units will be raised significantly.[35] In May 2007, it was announced that enlisted pay would rise to 65,000 roubles (US$2,750) per month, and the pay of officers on combat duty in rapid response units would rise to 100,000–150,000 roubles (US$4,230–$6,355) per month. However, while the move to one year conscript service would disrupt dedovshchina, it is unlikely that bullying will disappear altogether without significant societal change.[36] Other assessments from the same source point out that the Russian Armed Forces faced major disruption in 2008, as demographic change hindered plans to reduce the term of conscription from two years to one.[37] "How are the mighty fallen". The Economist. 2008-09-18. Retrieved 2008-09-21. (subscription required)</ref>

Serdyukov reforms

A major reorganisation of the force began in 2007 by the Minister for Defence Anatoliy Serdyukov, with the aim of converting all divisions into brigades, and cutting surplus officers and establishments.[38][39] However, this affected units of continuous readiness (Russian: ЧПГ - части постоянной готовности) only. It is intended to create 39 to 40 such brigades by 1 January 2016, including 39 all-arms brigades, 21 artillery and MRL brigades, seven brigades of army air defence forces, 12 communication brigades, and two electronic warfare brigades. In addition, the 18th Machine Gun Artillery Division stationed in the Far East remained, and there will be an additional 17 separate regiments. The reform has been called "unprecedented".

In the course of the reorganization, the 4-chain command structure (military district - field army - division - regiment) that was used until then was replaced with a 3-chain structure: strategic command - operational command - brigade. Brigades are supposed to be used as mobile permanent-readiness units capable of fighting independently with the support of highly mobile task forces or together with other brigades under joint command.[40]

In a statement on 4 September 2009, RGF Commander-in-Chief Vladimir Boldyrev said that half of the Russian land forces were reformed by 1 June and that 85 brigades of constant combat preparedness had already been created. Among them are the combined-arms brigade, missile brigades, assault brigades and electronic warfare brigades.[41]

Structure

Moscow Frunzenskaya Embankment at Pushkinsky Bridge 08-2016
Ground Forces Headquarters on Frunsenskaya embankment 20-22 in Moscow.

The President of Russia is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The Main Command (Glavkomat) of the Ground Forces, based in Moscow, directs activities. This body was disbanded in 1997, but reformed by President Putin in 2001 by appointing Colonel General Nikolai Kormiltsev as the commander-in-chief of the ground forces and also as a deputy minister of defense.[42] Kormiltsev handed over command to Colonel General (later General of the Army) Alexey Maslov in 2004, and in a realignment of responsibilities, the Ground Forces Commander-in-Chief lost his position as a deputy minister of defence. Like Kormiltsev, while serving as Ground Forces Commander-in-Chief Maslov has been promoted to General of the Army.

In January 2014, the acting commander of the Russian Ground Forces is Lieutenant General Sergei Istrakov, who was appointed by Russian president Vladimir Putin upon the dismissal of former commander Colonel General Vladimir Chirkin over corruption charges in December 2013.[43][44] Istrakov handed over to a new commander on 2 May 2014, Colonel general Oleg Salyukov.

The Main Command of the Ground Forces consists of the Main Staff of the Ground Troops, and departments for Peacekeeping Forces, Armaments of the Ground Troops, Rear Services of the Ground Troops, Cadres of the Ground Troops (personnel), Indoctrination Work, and Military Education.[45] There were also a number of directorates which used to be commanded by the Ground Forces Commander-in-Chief in his capacity as a deputy defence minister. They included NBC Protection Troops of the Armed Forces, Engineer Troops of the Armed Forces, and Troop Air Defence, as well as several others. Their exact command status is now unknown.

Branches of service

The branches of service include motorized rifles, tanks, artillery and rocket forces, troop air defense, special corps (reconnaissance, signals, radioelectronic warfare, engineering, nuclear, biological and chemical protection, logistical support, automobile, and the protection of the rear), military units, and logistical establishments.[46]

The Motorised Rifle Troops, the most numerous branch of service, constitutes the nucleus of Ground Forces' battle formations. They are equipped with powerful armament for destruction of ground-based and aerial targets, missile complexes, tanks, artillery and mortars, anti-tank guided missiles, anti-aircraft missile systems and installations, and means of reconnaissance and control. It is estimated that there are currently 19 motor rifle divisions, and the Navy now has several motor rifle formations under its command in the Ground and Coastal Defence Forces of the Baltic Fleet, the Northeastern Group of Troops and Forces on the Kamchatka Peninsula and other areas of the extreme northeast.[47] Also present are a large number of mobilisation divisions and brigades, known as "Bases for Storage of Weapons and Equipment", that in peacetime only have enough personnel assigned to guard the site and maintain the weapons.

The Tank Troops are the main impact force of the Ground Forces and a powerful means of armed struggle, intended for the accomplishment of the most important combat tasks. As of 2007, there were three tank divisions in the force: the 4th and 10th within the Moscow Military District, and 5th Guards "Don" in the Siberian MD.[48] The 2nd Guards Tank Division in the Siberian Military District and the 21st Tank Division in the Far Eastern MD were disbanded.

The Artillery and Rocket Forces provide the Ground Forces' main firepower. The Ground Forces currently include five or six static defence machine-gun/artillery divisions and seemingly now one division of field artillery—the 34th Guards in the Moscow MD. The previous 12th in the Siberian MD, and the 15th in the Far Eastern MD, seem to have disbanded.[49]

The Air Defense Troops (PVO) are one of the basic weapons for the destruction of enemy air forces. They consist of surface-to-air missiles, anti-aircraft artillery and radio-technical units and subdivisions.[50]

Army Aviation, while intended for the direct support of the Ground Forces, has been under the control of the Air Forces (VVS)[51] since 2003. However, by 2015, Army Aviation will have been transferred back to the Ground Forces and 18 new aviation brigades will have been added.[52] Of the around 1,000 new helicopters that have been ordered under the State Armament Programmes, 900 will be for the Army Aviation.[53]

Dispositions since 2010

As a result of the 2008 Russian military reforms, the ground forces now consist of armies subordinate to the four new military districts: (Western, Southern, Central, and Eastern Military Districts). The new districts have the role of 'operational strategic commands,' which command the Ground Forces as well as the Naval Forces and part of the Air and Air Defence Forces within their areas of responsibility.[54]

Each major formation is bolded, and directs the non-bolded major subordinate formations. It is not entirely clear to which superior(s) the four operational-strategic commands will report from 1 December 2010, as they command formations from multiple services (Air Force, Ground Forces & Navy). A current detailed list of the subordinate units of the four military districts can be found in the respective articles.[54] During 2009, all 23 remaining divisions were reorganised into four tank brigades, 35 motor-rifle brigades, one prikritiya brigade formed from a machinegun-light artillery division, and three airborne-assault brigades (pre-existing). Almost all are now designated otdelnaya (separate), with only several brigades retaining the guards honorific title.

In 2013, two of these brigades were reactivated as full divisions: the 2nd Guards Tamanskaya Motor Rifle Division and 4th Guards Kantemirovskaya Tank Division. These two divisions marked the beginning of the expansion of the Ground Forces as more brigades are being reformed into full divisions within each military district.

Formation Field army Headquarters location
Western Military District
(Colonel General Alexander Zhuravlyov)
(HQ Saint Petersburg)
1st Guards Tank Army Odintsovo
6th Combined Arms Army Agalatovo
20th Guards Combined Arms Army Voronezh
Southern Military District
(Colonel General Aleksandr Dvornikov)[55]
(HQ Rostov-na-Donu)
8th Guards Combined Arms Army Novocherkassk[56]
49th Combined Arms Army Stavropol[57]
58th Combined Arms Army Vladikavkaz
Central Military District
(Lieutenant General Aleksandr Lapin)[58]
(HQ Yekaterinburg)
2nd Guards Combined Arms Army Samara
41st Combined Arms Army Novosibirsk
Eastern Military District
(Lieutenant General Gennadij Zhidko)[58]
(HQ Khabarovsk)
5th Combined Arms Army Ussuriysk
29th Combined Arms Army Chita
35th Combined Arms Army Belogorsk
36th Combined Arms Army Ulan Ude
68th Army Corps Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Personnel

Russian soldier 2001
A Russian soldier at a checkpoint in Kosovo in 2001.
Russiansoldiers-StP2
Russian soldiers on parade in Saint Petersburg in 2014.
Barmitsa53
New Russian Ratnik (ex."Barmitsa") suit on display at a presentation in 2011.

In 2006, the Ground Forces included an estimated total of 395,000 persons, including approximately 190,000 conscripts and 35,000 personnel of the Airborne Forces (VDV).[59] This can be compared to an estimated 670,000, with 210,000 conscripts, in 1995–96.[60] These numbers should be treated with caution, however, due to the difficulty for those outside Russia to make accurate assessments, and confusion even within the General Staff on the numbers of conscripts within the force.[37]

The Ground Forces began their existence in 1992, inheriting the Soviet military manpower system practically unchanged, though it was in a state of rapid decay. The Soviet Ground Forces were traditionally manned through terms of conscription, which had been reduced in 1967 from three to two years. This system was administered through the thousands of military commissariats (Russian: военный комиссариат, военкомат [voyenkomat]) located throughout the Soviet Union. Between January and May of each year, every young Soviet male citizen was required to report to the local voyenkomat for assessment for military service, following a summons based on lists from every school and employer in the area.

The voyenkomat worked to quotas sent out by a department of the General Staff, listing how many young men were required by each service and branch of the Armed Forces.[61] (Since the fall of the Soviet Union, draft evasion has skyrocketed; officials regularly bemoan the ten or so percent that actually appear when summoned.) The new conscripts were then picked up by an officer from their future unit and usually sent by train across the country. On arrival, they would begin the Young Soldiers' course, and become part of the system of senior rule, known as dedovshchina, literally "rule by the grandfathers." There were only a very small number of professional non-commissioned officers (NCOs), as most NCOs were conscripts sent on short courses[62] to prepare them for section commanders' and platoon sergeants' positions. These conscript NCOs were supplemented by praporshchik warrant officers, positions created in the 1960s to support the increased variety of skills required for modern weapons.[63]

The Soviet Army's officer-to-soldier ratio was extremely top-heavy, partially in order to compensate for the relatively low education level of the military manpower base and the absence of professional NCOs. Following World War II and the great expansion of officer education, officers became the product of four-to-five-year higher military colleges.[64] As in most armies, newly commissioned officers usually become platoon leaders, having to accept responsibility for the soldiers' welfare and training (with the exceptions noted above). Young officers in Soviet Army units were worked round the clock, normally receiving only three days off per month. Annual vacations were under threat if deficiencies emerged within the unit, and the pressure created enormous stress. Towards the end of the Soviet Union, this led to a decline in morale amongst young officers.[65]

In the early 2000s, many junior officers did not wish to serve—in 2002, more than half the officers who left the forces did so early.[34] Their morale was low, among other reasons because their postings were entirely in the hands of their immediate superiors and the personnel department. "Without having to account for their actions, they can choose to promote or not promote him, to send him to Moscow or to some godforsaken post on the Chinese border."[34]

There is little available information on the current status of women, who are not conscripted, in the Ground Forces. According to the BBC, there were 90,000 women in the Russian Army in 2002, though estimates on numbers of women across the entire Russian armed forces in 2000 ranged from 115,000 to 160,000.[66][67] Women serve in support roles, most commonly in the fields of nursing, communications, and engineering. Some officers' wives have become contract service personnel.

Contract soldiers

From small beginnings in the early 1990s, employment of contract soldiers (kontraktniki) has grown greatly within the Ground Forces, though many have been of poor quality (wives of officers with no other prospective employment, for example).[8] In December 2005, Sergei Ivanov, then Minister of Defence, proposed that—in addition to the numerous enlisted contract soldiers—all sergeants should become professional, which would raise the number of professional soldiers and non-commissioned officers in the Armed Forces overall to approximately 140,000 in 2008. The current programme allows for an extra 26,000 posts for fully professional sergeants.[68]

The CIA reported in the World Factbook that 30 percent of Russian army personnel were contract servicemen at the end of 2005, and that, as of May 2006, 178,000 contract servicemen were serving in the Ground Forces and the Navy. Planning calls for volunteer servicemen to compose 70 percent of armed forces by 2010, with the remaining servicemen consisting of conscripts. At the end of 2005, the Ground Forces had 40 all-volunteer constant readiness units, with another 20 constant readiness units to be formed in 2006.[30] These CIA figures can be set against IISS data, which reports that at the end of 2004, the number of contracts being signed in the Moscow Military District was only 17 percent of the target figure; in the North Caucasus, 45 percent; and in the Volga-Ural, 25 percent.[69]

Whatever the number of contract soldiers, commentators such as Alexander Goltz are pessimistic that many more combat ready units will result, as senior officers "see no difference between professional NCOs, ... versus conscripts who have been drilled in training schools for less than six months. Such sergeants will have neither the knowledge nor the experience that can help them win authority [in] the barracks."[34] Defence Minister Sergey Ivanov underlined the in-barracks discipline situation, even after years of attempted professionalisation, when releasing the official injury figures for 2002. 531 men had died on duty as a result of accidents and crimes, and 20,000 had been wounded (the numbers apparently not including suicides). According to Ivanov, "the accident rate is not falling".[70] Two of every seven conscripts will become addicted to drugs and alcohol while serving their terms, and a further one in twenty will suffer homosexual rape, according to 2005 reports.[71]

Part of the reason is the feeling between contract servicemen, conscripts, and officers.

There is no relationship of mutual respect between leaders and led and it is difficult to see how a professional army can be created without one...at the moment [2002] officers often despise contract servicemen even more than conscripts. Contract soldiers serving in Chechnya and other "hot spots" are often called mercenaries and marauders by senior officers.

— Michael Orr[72]

Equipment

The Ground Forces retain a very large quantity of vehicles and equipment.[73] There is also likely to be a great deal of older equipment in state military storage, a practice continued from the Soviet Union. However, following the collapse of the USSR, the newly independent republics became host to most of the formations with modern equipment, whereas Russia was left with lower-category units, usually with older equipment.[74] As financial stringency began to bite harder, the amount of new equipment fell as well, and by 1998, only ten tanks and about 30 BMP infantry fighting vehicles were being purchased each year.[75]

New equipment, like the Armata Universal Combat Platform, Bumerang and Kurganets-25 will be equipped from 2015 and replace many old tanks, BMPs, BTRs like T-72, T-90, BMP-1/2/3, BTR-80 in active service. Funding for new equipment has greatly risen in recent years, and the Russian defence industry continues to develop new weapons systems for the Ground Forces.[76] Level of modern weapons in the Ground Forces is 42 per cent in late 2016.[77] Two Iskander-M missile system brigade sets, over 60 Tornado-G MLRS and more than 20 Msta-SM self-propelled howitzers have been received in 2016. More than 70 upgraded Grad-M MLRS have been fielded too.[78] Russian Land Forces received two brigade sets of Buk-M3 and Buk-M2 air defence missile complexes in 2016. Troops also received two division sets of Tor-M2 and two of Tor-M2U air defence missile complexes. Moreover, the Forces received Verba MANPADS, more than 130 BMP-3 IFVs and BTR-82A APCs as well as more than 20 Tigr-M armored vehicles equipped with the Arbalet-DM combat module.[79] The Ground Troops reportedly received 2,930 new or modernized systems allowing for two missile brigades, two SAM brigades and two SAM regiments, one Spetsnaz brigade, 12 motorized rifle and tank battalions, and three artillery divisions to be reequipped.[80]

Equipment summary

The following figures are sourced from http://warfare.be. Figures listed as "Active" only include equipment that is deemed serviceable and circulated in active service.

Type Active Reserve
Main battle tanks 2,562[81] ≈12,500[82][83]
Infantry fighting vehicles 3,229[84] ≈16,500[85][86]
Armoured personnel carriers 2,876[87] ≈5,000[88]
Towed artillery 1,781[89]
Self-propelled artillery 2,606[90]
Rocket artillery 1,352[91]
SAM systems 1,531[92]

Ranks and insignia

The newly re-emergent Russia retained most of the ranks of the Soviet Army, with some minor changes. The principal difference from the usual Western style is some variation in generals' rank titles—in at least one case, Colonel General, derived from German usage. Most of the rank names were borrowed from existing German/Prussian, French, English, Dutch, and Polish ranks upon the formation of Russian regular army in the late 17th century, and have lasted with few changes of title through the Soviet period.

Commanders

Commander-in-chief (1992–1997)

Chief of the Main Directorate (1998–2001)

  • Yury Bukreyev (1998–2001)

Commander-in-chief (2001–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-29. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-26. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" Главнокомандующий Сухопутными войсками Олег Салюков. Биография (in Russian). ITAR TASS. Archived from the original on 2014-05-06. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  4. ^ "Official website [Translated by Babelfish and amended for readability]". Russian Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
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  6. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (1995). The Military Balance 1995–96. London: Brassey's. p. 102.
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  12. ^ Arbatov, 1998, p. 113
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  27. ^ Krasnaya Zvezda 28 January and 9 February 1999, in Austin & Muraviev, 2000, p. 268, and M.J. Orr, 1998, p. 3
  28. ^ Muraviev and Austin, 2001, p. 259
  29. ^ a b Orr, 2003, p. 6
  30. ^ a b The World Factbook (2006 ed.). ISBN 0-16-076547-1.
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  32. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (2001). The Military Balance, 2001-2002 (Pap/Map ed.). International Institute for Strategic Studies. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-19-850979-0. ISSN 0459-7222.
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  41. ^ Russia Reshapes Army Structure to U.S.-Style Brigades, October 5, 2009
  42. ^ Kormiltsev was a Colonel General when he became Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces, but after about two years in the position was promoted to General of the Army in 2003. Profile via FBIS, Kormiltsev Biography Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine., accessed September 2007
  43. ^ "Putin Fires Military Commander Over Bribe Charges" Archived 2014-04-13 at the Wayback Machine., The Moscow Times (20 Dec 2013)
  44. ^ "Главкома Сухопутных войск винят в коррупции" Archived 2014-04-13 at the Wayback Machine., dni.ru (Russian) (19 Dec 2013)
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  49. ^ V.I. Feskov et al. 2004 is the source for the designations, while vad777's website is the source for their disbandment. See also Michael Holm, 12th Artillery Division Archived 2015-05-19 at the Wayback Machine. and http://www.ww2.dk/new/army/arty/15gvad.htm Archived 2015-05-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ Butowsky, p. 81
  51. ^ Butowsky, p. 83
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External links

10th Guards Uralsko-Lvovskaya Tank Division

The 10th Guards Uralsko-Lvovskaya Volunteer Tank Division, also known at the Ural-Lvov Tank Division, is a tank division of the Russian Ground Forces and part of the Moscow Military District's 20th Guards Army. The division traces its heritage back to 1943, during World War II. It is headquartered and based at Boguchar, 160 kilometres south of Voronezh, Voronezh Oblast.

Its complete formal designation is: "The 10th Guards Tank Ural-L'vov the Order of October Revolution Red Banner, the Order of Suvorov and the Order of Kutuzov Volunteer division in the name of Marshal of the Soviet Union R.A. Malinovsky" (Russian: 10 гвардейская танковая Уральско-Львовская ордена Октябрьской революции Краснознаменная орденов Суворова и Кутузова добровольческая дивизия имени Маршала Советского Союза Р. А. Малиновского).Reports indicate that the Division has been reduced in status to a mobilisable base for the storage of weapons and equipment, (which in wartime would become a tank brigade), during the 2009 Russian Ground Forces reorganisation. In 2015, it was reformed as the 1st Separate Ural-Lvov Tank Brigade.

121st Motor Rifle Division

The 121st Motor Rifle Division was a Russian Ground Forces motorized infantry division, based in Monastyrishche. It was formed in 1970 as a training motor rifle division and became a district training center in 1987. The training center became the 121st Motor Rifle Division in 1989. It appears to have disbanded in 2009, as it is not shown on orders of battle of the Eastern Military District.

126th Machine Gun Artillery Division

The 126th Machine Gun Artillery Division was a division of the Soviet Army and the Russian Ground Forces. It existed from 1989 to 1998. The division was originally formed as the 192nd Motor Rifle Division in Blagoveshchensk during 1969. It became the 126th Machine Gun Artillery Division in 1989 and was disbanded in 1998.

138th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade

The 138th Guards Separate Motor Rifle Brigade (138th MRB) is a formation of the Russian Ground Forces. It is stationed in the Western Military District, in the village of Kamenka, Vyborgsky District, Leningrad Oblast. It is Military unit No. 02511. It includes various components: air defense, artillery battalion, infantry and tank battalions.

The brigade traces its history to the 45th Guards Rifle Division of the Second World War. The 45th Guards Rifle Division was formed from the 70th Rifle Division, and fought near Leningrad, in Estonia and Kurland. The division was with the 6th Guards Army of the Kurland Group, Leningrad Front in May 1945. On 25 June 1957 the 45th Guards Rifle Division became the 45th Guards Motor Rifle Division. In December 1997 the 45th Guards Krasnosel'skaya, Order of Lenin Red Banner Motor Rifle Division named for A.A. Zhdanov became the 138th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade.In 1994-1995 a force from the 129th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment with 45 T-80 tanks was deployed to Groznyy.

The brigade was deployed for operations during the Second Chechen War, in which, along with other Russian Ground Forces units, its personnel was reported to have behaved badly at times. A 22-year-old woman in Ingushetia was shot by drunken soldiers from the brigade scavenging for alcohol. The deployment of a tank battalion of the brigade was apparently halted when it was discovered that soldiers had been selling the explosive from their tanks' reactive armour.

In March 2010 Leningrad Military District commander General Lieutenant Nikolai Bogdanovskiy said, regarding problems with the command and violence in the 138th at Kamenka:

“. . . we haven’t managed to complete fully tasks connected with discipline–in particular, in the 138th Kamenka Brigade the commander, chief of staff, and assistants for armaments and socialization work were dismissed because of events there. Now the situation is normalising, we are trying not to repeat past mistakes.”

The 45th Guards Motor Rifle Division was a separate formation from the 45th Rifle Division (Soviet Union) - not a Guards unit - that was the predecessor to the district's 200th Motor Rifle Brigade, based at Pechenga in Murmansk Oblast.

144th Guards Motor Rifle Division

The 144th Guards Yelnya Red Banner Order of Suvorov Motor Rifle Division (Russian: 144-я гвардейская мотострелковая Ельнинская Краснознамённая, ордена Суворова дивизия) is a motorized infantry division of the Russian Ground Forces, reestablished in 2016 with its headquarters at Yelnya.

The division traces its lineage back to the 32nd Rifle Division (First formation) of the Soviet Union's Red Army, first formed in 1922 and converted into the 29th Guards Rifle Division in 1942 for its actions in the Battle of Moscow during World War II. Postwar, it was stationed in the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and redesignated as the 36th Guards Mechanized Division in 1946 and the 36th Guards Motor Rifle Division in 1957. To perpetuate the lineage of the disbanded 8th Guards Motor Rifle Division, the 36th Guards was redesignated as the former and adopted its history in 1960. When the 8th Guards Motor Rifle Division was transferred to Central Asia in 1967, the 144th Motor Rifle Division was formed at Tallinn to replace it and redesignated as the 144th Guards Motor Rifle Division to inherit the traditions of the 36th Guards later that year.

After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the Baltics following the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, the division became part of the Russian Ground Forces and was sent to Yelnya, where it was reduced to a storage base in 1993, which disbanded during the mid-2000s. As part of a Russian military buildup in the mid-2010s, the division was reformed as the 144th Motor Rifle Division in 2016 at Yelnya, and redesignated as the 144th Guards Motor Rifle Division to become the official successor of the previous formation of the same name in 2018.

168th Motor Rifle Brigade

The 168th Motor Rifle Brigade was a Russian Ground Forces motorized infantry brigade from 1994 to 1998. It was based in Borzya and traces its lineage to the 150th Motor Rifle Division, activated in 1973. The division became a training unit three years later and was converted into a district training center in 1988. In 1994, the training center became the 168th Motor Rifle Brigade.The 150th Motor Rifle Division at Borzya went through a number of changes before being disbanded. In March 1972 it was placed in cadre status. It was converted on 1 December 1976 to a training division.

245th Motor Rifle Division

The 245th Motor Rifle Division (Russian: 245-я мотострелковая дивизия; Military Unit Number 46108) was a division of the Soviet Army and later the Russian Ground Forces, active from 1967 to 1997 and later from 2001 to 2006.

270th Motor Rifle Division

The 270th Motor Rifle Division was a motorized infantry division of the Soviet Army and later the Russian Ground Forces.

34th Guards Artillery Division

The 34th Guards Artillery Division was an artillery division of the Russian Ground Forces and the Soviet Army. It was formed postwar in Potsdam as the 34th Artillery Division and served there with the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. In 1993 it inherited the honors of the disbanded 2nd Guards Artillery Division. The division withdrew to Mulino in 1994 and was disbanded in 2009.

36th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade

The 36th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade is an infantry brigade of the Russian Ground Forces, which traces its heritage to the creation of the 38th Guards Rifle Division from the 4th Airborne Corps during World War II. The division gained its honorific on 23 September 1943 for its part in the seizure of Lozovaya in Ukraine.

In June 1957, the 38th Guards Rifle Division was reorganised as the 38th Guards Motor Rifle Division. The division was moved to Sretensk in Chita Oblast in 1967. In 1989 the division was reorganised as the 131st Guards Machine-Gun Artillery Division.

The division moved its headquarters to Olavyannaya in Olovyanninsky District in Chita Oblast in 1992. In 2001 it was converted into a motor rifle division.

In June 2009 the division was reorganised as a motor rifle brigade and moved to Borzya.

392nd District Training Centre

The 392nd Pacific Red Banner Order of Kutuzov District Training Center for junior specialists (Motorized troops) is a training formation of the Russian Ground Forces. It is located in the Khabarovsk area.

It traces its history from the 39th Pacific Red Banner Order of Kutuzov Rifle Division (Russian: 39-я Тихоокеанская Краснознаменная стрелковая дивизия) was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army, formed in 1922, which fought in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria against the Japanese in 1945, and became a motor rifle division in 1957. The division became a training unit in 1962, and became the 392nd District Training Centre in 1987. It then became part of the Russian Ground Forces.

41st Combined Arms Army

The 41st Combined Arms Army (Russian: 41-я общевойсковая армия) is a field army of the Russian Ground Forces, currently part of the Central Military District. Originally, it was formed in 1942 as part of the Soviet Red Army, during World War II. It was reformed in 1998, when the Transbaikal Military District and Siberian Military District were amalgamated.

467th Guards District Training Centre

The 467th Guards District Training Centre for Junior Specialists of the Western Military District (Russian: 467 гвардейский Краснознамённый Московско-Тартуский межвидовой окружной учебный центр подготовки младших специалистов) is a training formation of the Russian Ground Forces.

The training center traces its heritage back to the Moscow Workers' Division, a People's Militia division formed during the Battle of Moscow in October 1941. This unit was redesignated as the 3rd Moscow Communist Rifle Division within weeks, and fought in the Battle of Moscow. In January 1942 it was converted into a regular unit, the 130th Rifle Division (Second Formation). For its actions, the division became the 53rd Guards Rifle Division in December of that year. The 53rd Guards served through the rest of the war, later receiving the honorific "Tartu" and the Order of the Red Banner.

After the end of the war, the division was relocated to Kovrov and became the 1st Separate Guards Rifle Brigade in 1946. In 1953, the brigade became the 62nd Guards Mechanised Division, and in the 1957 Soviet Army reorganisation it was redesignated the 62nd Guards Motor Rifle Division. The division became a training unit in 1960 and was renumbered as the 53rd Guards Motor Rifle Training Division four years later, restoring its original World War II designation. In 1979 it was converted into the 26th Guards Tank Training Division, and in 1987 it assumed its current title, the 467th Guards District Training Centre.

49th Combined Arms Army

The 49th Combined Arms Army (Russian: 49-я общевойсковая армия) is a combined arms (field) army of the Russian Ground Forces, formed in 2010 and headquartered in Stavropol.

Part of the Southern Military District, the army traces its heritage back to the Soviet Red Army's 49th Army, formed in 1941 after the German invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II. The 49th Army served through the entire war and was disbanded postwar in the summer of 1945.

85th Motor Rifle Division

The 85th Leningrad-Pavlovsk Red Banner Motor Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Red Army converted to a motorised formation in 1957. It was part of the Russian Ground Forces until it was reorganised as a motor rifle brigade in 2009.

The 85th was formed in 1941 as the 85th Rifle Division from the 2nd Guards People's Militia Division of the Leningrad People's Militia.

Air Defence Troops of the Russian Ground Forces

The Air Defence Troops are an Arm of the Russian Ground Forces, intended to cover troops and facilities from means of air attack of the enemy during conduct by combined-arms associations and formations of operations (combat actions), regroupings (marches) and being on-site. They are assigned to fulfil the following main tasks:

combat duty on air defence;

reconnaissance of enemy aircraft and warning the troops covered;

destruction of enemy air attack means during their flight;

participation in conduct of missile defence in theatres of military actions.Organisationally the Air Defence Troops of the GF consist of military control bodies, AD command points, anti-aircraft missile (rocket-artillery) and radio-technical formations, military units and subdivisions. They are capable of destroying enemy means of air attack throughout the range of heights (extremely small – up to 200 m, small – from 200 to 1000 m, average – from 1000 to 4000 m, large – from 4000 to 12000 m, and in the stratosphere – more than 12000 m) and flight speeds.Formations, military units and subdivisions of the Air Defence Troops of the GF are equipped with anti-aircraft missiles, anti-aircraft artillery, anti-aircraft gun-and-missile systems and portable anti-aircraft missile systems different on the reach-ability, channel-ability and means of missile guidance. Depending on the range of destruction of aerial targets, they are divided into the systems of near range – up to 10 km, of short range – up to 30 km, of medium range – up to 100 km, of long range – of more than 100 km.Further development of the Air Defence Troops of the GF is carried out by improving mobility, survivability, covertness of operation, automation’s degree, fire efficiency, expanding parameters of the affected area, reducing the response time and the mass-dimensional characteristics of the guided missile (rocket-artillery) systems.

Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Ground Forces

The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Ground Forces (Russian: Главнокомандующие Сухопутными войсками России) is the chief commanding authority of the Russian Ground Forces. He is appointed by the President of Russia. The position dates to the period of the Russian Empire. The current Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Ground Forces is Colonel general Oleg Salyukov.

Russian Missile Troops and Artillery

The Missile Troops and Artillery (MT & A) are an Arm of the Russian Ground Forces, They are the primary means of providing fire on the enemy during combined-arms operations.

They are designed to perform the following main tasks:

achieving and keeping fire superiority over the enemy;

defeat of its means of nuclear attack, manpower, weapons, military and special equipment;

disruption of troops and weapons’ control systems, reconnaissance and electronic warfare;

destruction of long-term defence installations and other infrastructure;

disruption of operational and military logistics;

weakening and isolation of the second echelons and reserves of the enemy;

destruction of tanks and other armoured vehicles of the enemy breaking into the depth of defence;

cover of open flanks and junctions;

participation in destruction of aircraft and amphibious assault forces of the enemy;

remote mining of areas and facilities;

light support of night actions of troops;

smoke-screening, blinding of enemy targets;

distribution of propaganda materials, etc.Organisationally the MT & A consist of missile, rocket, artillery brigades, including high-power mixed, artillery battalions, rocket artillery regiments, separate reconnaissance battalions, as well as artillery of combined-arms brigades and military bases.Further development and increase of combat capabilities of the MT & A of the GF are put into life by means of creating reconnaissance-fire units, including on interim basis, ensuring defeat of targets in real time, equipment of formations and units of the MT & A with high-precision weapons, increasing of firing range and power of the ammunition used, and automation of processes for preparation and firing.

Russian Tank Troops

The Russian Tank Troops are the Arm and the main strike force of the Russian Ground Forces. They are mainly used in conjunction with the motorized rifle troops in the main areas and perform the following tasks:

in defence – on direct support of the motorized rifle troops in repelling the enemy’s offensive and application of counter-attacks and counter-strikes;

in offence – on delivering powerful cleave strikes deeply, developing success, defeating the enemy in meeting engagements and battles.The basis of the Tank Troops is composed of tank brigades, tank regiments and tank battalions of motorized rifle brigades having high resistance to the damaging factors of nuclear weapons, firepower, high mobility and manoeuvrability. It is able to make full use of the results of fire (nuclear) destruction of the enemy and in a short time to achieve the ultimate goals of the combat and operation.

Combat capabilities of tank formations and subunits enable them to lead active combat operations, day and night, in a significant isolation from other troops, to smash the enemy in meeting engagements and battles, on the move to overcome the extensive areas of contamination, to force water barriers, as well as to quickly build a solid defence and successfully resist the attack of superior forces of the enemy.

Further development and increase of the combat capabilities of the Tank Troops are carried out mainly at the expense of its framing with more advanced types of tanks, in which there is the optimal combination of such vital military properties as high firepower, manoeuvrability and reliable protection. In improving the organizational forms the main efforts are focused on giving them the combined-arms nature, what to the utmost suits the content of modern operations (combat actions).

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