Russian Greek Catholic Church

The Russian Greek Catholic Church (Russian: Российская греко-католическая церковь, Rossiyskaya greko-katolicheskaya tserkov), or Russian Catholic Church, is a sui iuris Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church. Historically, it represents the first reunion of members of the Russian Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church. It is now in full communion with and subject to the authority of the Pope as defined by Eastern canon law.

Russian Catholics historically had their own episcopal hierarchy in the Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Russia and the Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin, China. However, these offices are currently vacant. Their few parishes are served by priests ordained in other Eastern Catholic Churches, former Orthodox priests, and Roman Catholic priests with bi-ritual faculties.

Russian Greek Catholic Church
Russian: Российская греко-католическая церковь
ClassificationEastern Catholic
PolityEpiscopal
PopeFrancis
Primate-

Precursors

In Russia, it is purported that after the gradual development of the East-West Schism, a tiny group of Russian families maintained themselves as "Old Catholics" (Rus: старокатолики (starokatoliki)), a name which should not be confused with the Döllingerite Old Catholic church of Europe and the United States, which formally split with the Roman Catholic Church in the wake of the reforms of the First Vatican Council. The status of this group of Russian "Old Catholics", families and groups of individuals to whom the union with Rome remains essential, and its relation to the current Russian Catholic Church, still remains unclear.

The modern Russian Catholic Church owes much to the inspiration of poet and philosopher Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (1853–1900), who urged, following Dante, that, just as the world needed the Tsar as a universal monarch, the Church needed the Pope of Rome as a universal ecclesiastical hierarch. Following Solovyov's teachings a Russian Orthodox priest, Nicholas Tolstoy, entered into full communion with the See of Rome under the Melkite Greek-Catholic, Byzantine Rite Patriarchate of Antioch. Solovyov received sacramental Extreme Unction from Father Tolstoy believing that in doing so he remained also a faithful member of the Russian Orthodox Church. Orthodox authorities refer to Tolstoy as an apostate and “ex-priest,” but tend to imply that Solovyov still died an Orthodox Christian. Nevertheless, Solovyov never retracted his sentiments in favor of union with the Catholic Church and the See of Rome, and to this day, many Russian Catholics refer to themselves as members of the 'Russian Orthodox Church in communion with Rome'.

History

Byzantine-rite Catholicism was illegal in the Tsarist Russian empire through the 1800s and until 1905, when Tsar Nicholas II granted religious tolerance. Thereafter, communities of Greek Catholics emerged and became organized.[1] Old Believers were prominent in the early years of the movement. In 1917, Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytsky appointed the first Apostolic Exarchate for Russian Catholics with Most Reverend Leonid Feodorov, formerly a Russian Orthodox seminarian, as Exarch. However, the October Revolution soon followed, dispersing Russian-Rite Catholics into the Siberian prison camps and the centers of the Russian diaspora throughout the world. In the spring of 1923, Exarch Leonid Feodorov was prosecuted for counterrevolution by Nikolai Krylenko and sentenced to ten years in the Soviet concentration camp at Solovki. Released in 1932, he died three years later. He was beatified in 2001 by Pope John Paul II.

In 1928, a second Apostolic Exarchate was set up, for the Russian Catholics in China, based in Harbin, the Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin.

In the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union, some Russian Catholics began to appear in the open. In a 2005 article, Russian Catholic priest Sergei Golovanov stated that three Russian Catholic priests served on Russian soil celebrating the Russian Byzantine Divine Liturgy. Two of them used the recension of the Russian Liturgy as reformed by Patriarch Nikon of Moscow in 1666. The other priest used the medieval rite of the Old Believers, that is to say, as the Russian liturgical recension existed before Patriarch Nikon's reforms of the Russian Liturgy. All Eastern Catholics in the Russian Federation strictly maintain the use of Church Slavonic, although vernacular Liturgies are more common in the Russian diaspora.

Structure

With the religious freedom experienced after the fall of Communism, there were calls from the small number of Russian Catholics to appoint an Exarch to the long existing vacancy. Such a move would have been strongly objected to by the Russian Orthodox Church, causing the Holy See to not act out of ecumenical concerns. In 2004, however, the Vatican's hand was forced when a convocation of Russian Catholic priests in the territory of the vacant exarchate used their rights under canon law to elect a temporary administrator. The Vatican then moved quickly to replace the temporary administrator with Bishop Joseph Werth, the Latin Church Apostolic Administrator of Siberia, based in Novosibirsk. He was appointed by Pope John Paul II as Ordinary for all Eastern Catholics in the Russian Federation. As of 2010, five parishes have been registered with civil authorities in Siberia, while in Moscow two parishes and a pastoral center operate without official registration. There are also communities in Saint Petersburg and Obninsk.[1] By 2018, there have been reports of 13 parishes and five pastoral points in Siberia with seven parishes and three pastoral points in European Russia. Some parishes serve the Ukrainian community. The Ordinariate has minimal structure. A Byzantine priest serves as Secretary to the Ordinary. There is a priest coordinator for the parishes in Siberia and a liturgical commission and a catechetical commission.[2]

Outside Russia, there are Russian Catholic parishes and faith communities in San Francisco, New York City, El Segundo, Denver, Melbourne, Buenos Aires, Dublin, Meudon, Paris, Chevetogne, Lyon, Munich, Rome, Milan, and Singapore. They are all under the jurisdiction of the respective local Latin Church bishops. The communities in Denver, Dublin and Singapore do not have a Russian national character - but exist for local Catholics who wish to worship in the Russo-Byzantine style.

As of 2014, the two Exarchates of Russia and Harbin are still listed in the Annuario Pontificio as extant, but they have not yet been reconstituted, nor have new Russian-Rite bishops been appointed to head them.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ronald Roberson. "Other Eastern Catholic Communities: Russians". Catholic Near East Welfare Association.
  2. ^ http://www.rkcvo.ru/

Sources

External links

Aleksei Zerchaninov

Archpriest Aleksei Evgrafovich Zerchaninov (9 March 1848 – 23 September 1933) was a Russian, Greek-Catholic priest.

Catholic Church in Russia

The Catholic Church in Russia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.

According to the most recent figures in Annuario Pontificio, there are approximately 773,000 Catholics in Russia, which is 0.5% of the total Russian population. However, a 2012 survey has determined that there are approximately 240,000 Catholics in Russia (0.2% of the total Russian population), accounting for 7.2% of Germans, 1.8% of Armenians, 1.3% of Belarusians, and just under 1% of Bashkirs. The survey also found Catholics to be more observant than Orthodox, with 45% praying every day versus 17% of Orthodox.Due to the long-held views of the Russian Orthodox Church, Catholicism is not recognized by the state as a legitimately Russian religion, and Catholics have often been seen as outsiders, even if they are ethnically Russian. The Soviet Union, which persecuted all religions, also saw Catholicism as a non-Russian allegiance.

Collegium Russicum

The Collegium Russicum (Latin: Pontificium Collegium Russicum Sanctae Theresiae A Iesu Infante; Russian: Папская коллегия Ру́ссикум; English: Pontifical Russian College of Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus) is a Catholic college in Rome dedicated to studies of the culture and spirituality of Russia.

It is located near the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, separated from the Pontifical Oriental Institute by the Church of Saint Anthony, and is known informally as the Russicum.

It was founded on August 15, 1929, by Pope Pius XI, who was touched by the large flow of immigrants from Bolshevik Russia and the persecution of Christianity in that country. The money for the college building and its reconstruction was taken from an aggregate of charity donations from faithful all over the world on the occasion of the canonization of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, placing the Russicum under her patronage.

The Collegium Russicum is run by the Society of Jesus and provides education and accommodation for Catholic and Orthodox students.

Dmitry Arkadjevich Bagin

Father Dmitry Arkadjevich Bagin (German: Martirij Bagin) (born 1956) is a Russian-Greek Catholic priest.

George Bryanchaninov

George (Bryanchaninov), Congregation of Marian Fathers (June 8, 1919 – April 5, 2018) was a Russian priest in the Russian Greek Catholic Church, an Archimandrite and a member of the Russian apostolate in the Diaspora.

Gleb Verhovskiy

Gleb Verhovskiy ( 1888, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation – 1935 ) was a Russian Orthodox converted to Catholicism of Byzantine Rite.

Greek Catholic Church

The Greek Catholic Church refers to a number of Eastern Catholic Churches following the Byzantine (Greek) liturgy, considered collectively or individually.

The terms Greek Catholic, Greek-Catholic, Greek Catholic church and Greek-Catholic Church may refer to:

Individually, any 14 of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches which use the Byzantine rite, a.k.a. Greek Rite:

the Albanian Greek Catholic Church

the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church

the Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church

the Greek Catholic Church of Croatia and Serbia

the Greek Byzantine Catholic Church, in Greece and Turkey

the Hungarian Greek Catholic Church

the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church

the Macedonian Greek Catholic Church

the Melkite Greek Catholic Church

the Romanian Greek Catholic Church (officially the Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic)

the Russian Greek Catholic Church

the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

the Slovak Greek Catholic Church

the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

Any other group of Eastern Catholics following the Byzantine rite:

the Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics

an Ordinariate for Eastern Catholic faithful without proper ordinary, in 6 countries

The Catholic Church in Greece, a Roman Catholic hierarchy following the Latin rite in the country of Greece

Index of Eastern Christianity-related articles

Alphabetical list of Eastern Christianity-related articles on English Wikipedia

List of Catholic dioceses in China

The Catholic Church in China comprises 152 Latin jurisdictions:

21 ecclesiastical provinces (including one for Taiwan), consisting of 21 Metropolitan archdioceses and 100 suffragan dioceses

29 Apostolic Prefectures

1 exempt diocese, the diocese of Macau

1 Apostolic Administration, the Apostolic Administration of HarbinFurthermore, the Eastern Catholic (Byzantine rite) Russian Greek Catholic Church has an exempt Apostolic exarchate for China in Harbin.

There is an Apostolic Nunciature as papal diplomatic representation (embassy-level) to China, in Taipei, national capital of Taiwan, also charged with PRC, Hongkong and Macau.

The Catholic Church recognizes the Republic of China as the sole government for all of China; nevertheless, it does not recognize all of its territorial claims. The term “China” has to be understood as including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan in its 1949 provincial boundaries and Mainland China as effectively controlled by the People's Republic of China. Due to the non-recognition of the People's Republic of China, however, the authority of the Taipei-based Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference is effectively limited to the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. The dioceses of Hong Kong (suffragan of Guangzhou) and Macao (exempt) do not belong to that conference. The dioceses of Mainland China take part in the Beijing-based Chinese Bishops Conference, which is not recognized by the Holy See.

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Pavel Grechishkin

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Robert F. Taft

Robert Francis Taft, S.J. (January 9, 1932 – November 2, 2018) was an American Jesuit priest and Archimandrite of the Russian Greek Catholic Church, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See of Rome. An expert in Oriental liturgy, he was a professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute from 1975 to 2011 and its Vice-rector from 1995 to 2001.

Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin

The Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin (or Harbin 哈爾濱 of the Russians) is a dormant apostolic exarchate of the Russian Byzantine Catholic Church based in the city of Harbin in China. The cathedra of the apostolic exarchate was in the Cathedral of St. Vladimir in Harbin, which is now in ruins. The apostolic exarchate also had churches in Shanghai and Beijing.From the 1890s to the 1930s Harbin attracted Russian immigrants, including railway workers and later white émigrés fleeing the Revolution and Civil War and the rise of Stalin. Harbin Russians included Russian Orthodox, Polish Latin Catholic, and Jewish congregations. In 1926 Ivan Koronin's parish converted from Orthodox to Catholic. Although most went back after Koronin's death, about 40 remained to form the nucleus of the Eastern Catholic congregation. On 20 May 1928 the Pontifical Commission for Russia issued the decree Fidelium Russorum establishing an ordinariate at Harbin to cater for Russians of the Byzantine Rite, and "all Catholics of the Oriental Rites", in China. It was later transformed into an apostolic exarchate. Ordinariates and apostolic exarchates are exempt jurisdictions, not part of any ecclesiastical province but rather directly subject to the Holy See, in Harbin's case through the Congregation for the Oriental Churches as successor to the Pontifical Commission for Russia. The ordinary or apostolic exarch would be from the Congregation of Marian Fathers of the Immaculate Conception, a Polish Latin Catholic order. In 1939 Andrzej Cikoto obtained Pius XII's consent for a Byzantine Rite branch of the Marian Fathers. In the Chinese Communist Revolution, the Russian Catholic clergy were arrested and deported to the Soviet Union. The apostolic exarchate has had no ordinary since 1952 and is in fact discontinued till further papal notice. Russian Catholic communities in Melbourne, New York, Buenos Aires, and Sao Paolo have Harbin heritage.

Russian Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Russia

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It is one of only two components of the dormant Russian Greek Catholic Church (which has no proper diocese), its only sister being the Russian Apostolic Exarchate of Harbin in China, also vacant for decades.

Russian Catholic Church (disambiguation)

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Catholic Church in Russia, incorporating all communities and institutions of the Catholic Church in Russia

Russian Greek Catholic Church, also called Russian Byzantine Catholic Church, a Byzantine Rite catholic church sui juris in full union with the Roman Catholic Church.

Russians in France

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Ruthenian Uniate Church

Ruthenian Uniate Church (Latin: Ecclesia Ruthena unita; Polish: Ruski Kościół Unicki) is a historical church that existed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth following the Union of Brest and was majorly dissolved following partition of the Commonwealth with most of the church eparchies (dioceses) being converted into the Russian Orthodoxy.

Following the partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the church majorly dissolved on territory that was annexed by the Russian Empire. On territory that was annexed by the Austrian Empire, the church was preserved but was reorganized as Greek Catholic Church under Galician Metropolitan, today better known as Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.

Creation of the church led to high degree of confrontation among Ruthenians among most notable was a murder of Josaphat Kuntsevych. The union of Brest that was also perceived as part of Catholisation and Polonization processes contributed to the Khmelnytskyi Uprising.

Vladimir Central Prison

Vladimir Prison, popularly known as Vladimir Central (Russian: Владимирский централ), is a prison in Vladimir, Russia. It is the largest prison in Russia, with a capacity of 1220 detainees, and is operated by the Federal Penitentiary Service as a maximum-security prison with most inmates serving a minimum of ten years to life sentences.

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