The Russian Fascist Party (RFP) (Russian: Российская фашистская партия), sometimes called the All-Russian Fascist Party, was a minor Russian émigré movement that was based in Manchukuo during the 1930s and 1940s.
Russian Fascist Party
Российская фашистская партия
|Historic Leader||Konstantin Rodzaevsky|
|Founded||May 26, 1931|
|Dissolved||July 1, 1943|
|Preceded by||Russian Fascist Organization|
|Youth wing||Fascist Union of Youth|
Union of Fascist Little Ones
|Women's wing||Russian Women's Fascist Movement|
|Religion||Russian Orthodox Church|
|Colors||(Russian imperial colors)|
Fascism had existed amongst the Manchurian Russians and had been promoted by the minor Russian Fascist Organization amongst others. The defeat of the White Armies in the Russian Civil War, which discredited the older White leaders, together with the rise of the Fascism in Italy caused much of the younger Russian emigres to look for fascism as an alternative that might best Communism.:160 The fascist movement among the Russian emigres existed around the world, but the majority of those inclined were to be found in Manchuria and the United States.:161 A number of Russians had settled in Manchuria when the region was occupied by Russia in the years 1900-1905, which further increased by an influx fleeing after the Red Army victory in the Russian Civil War.:161
A secret convention of the various groups was held, leading to the foundation of the RFP under the presidency of Major General Vladimir Dmitrievich Kozmin. Konstantin Rodzaevsky became Secretary General of the party's central committee on May 26, 1931, becoming the de facto leader of the party. Adopting the slogan "God, Nation, Labour" and publishing the journal Natsiya ("Nation"), the party called for Italian-style fascism to take advantage of the shaky position of the Bolshevik leaders in the face of both external and internal opposition.:159–161 During the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931-32, the Russian Fascist Party came out very strongly in the support of Japan, forging close links with the Kwantung Army that lasted until 1945.:162
By cooperating with Japan, the RFP became the most influential émigré group in Manchukuo, setting up a party school in Harbin in 1932.:162 Rodzaevsky also assisted the Imperial Japanese Army in the formation of the Asano Detachment, the all ethnic Russian special forces in the Kwantung Army, organized for carrying out sabotage against Soviet forces in case of any Japanese invasion of Siberia and Russian Far East areas.
The party also developed close links to like-minded groups in the United States, including Anastasy Vonsyatsky during his exile.:162–164 On March 24, 1934 a merger was agreed in Tokyo between the RFP and Vonsyatsky's supporters (who also used the label All-Russian Fascist Organisation), although they would later clash over Rodzaevsky's attempts to accommodate more conservative Russians, as well as his anti-Semitism, which Vonsyatsky rejected. In a pamphlet published in Connecticut in 1932 titled On Russian Jews, Vonsyatsky had written: "Among the Jews, only the red Jew is our enemy. Do not touch the peaceful Jewish inhabitant, his wife or his children. We are Christians. We do not shed innocent blood, we do not lament the guilty".:167 By contrast, Rodzaevsky's followers had been translating various völkisch tracts from German into Russian since 1932, and he had been an open admirer of Nazi Germany right from the beginning.:167
Much to his own discomfort, the Kwantung Army forced Rodzaevsky to concede that in the event of a war with the Soviet Union, all of the Russian emigres in Manchuria were come under the command of Ataman Grigory Semyonov, which caused tensions with Vonsyatsky, who argued that Semyonov was an incompetent general who had been defeated in the Russian Civil War, and an unsavory character to boot, being well known in Manchuria for his involvement with organized crime.:166 In an open letter published on 31 December 1934, Vonsyatsky condemned Rodzaevsky for his "deviations" by agreeing to work with Semyonov.:162 Rodzaevsky justified his willingness to work with the Kwantung Army under the grounds: "Japan is the only country not interested in the dismemberment of Russia, but the creation of a great and powerful Russia, which would be Japan's friend".:166 Vonsyatsky argued that the "liberation of Russia" could only be accomplished by the Russians themselves, and was against working with foreign powers.:167 Eventually the RFP broke with the Americans, and in 1935 Vonsyatsky was expelled, breaking off to form a more minor movement in the United States:165–168 called "Russian National Revolutionary Party", which was of anti-communist orientation and claimed that their only intention was "to form in Russia a truly democratic government".
Nevertheless, the RFP under Rodzaevsky had grown strong and he claimed in a speech on 22 May 1935 to have 20,000 activists organized in 597 local chapters across the world, with the majority being in Manchukuo.:166 Subsidiaries of the RFP were set up - Russian Women's Fascist Movement (RGFD), Fascist Union of Youth, Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys), Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls), Union of Fascist Little Ones. Rodzaevsky's book, The Russian National State, outlined the programme of the party to establish fascism in Russia by May 1, 1938, including a desire to get rid of the Jews, indicating a strong break from the Vonsyatsky-wing. The party also had a strong commitment to the Russian Orthodox Church, promising a special relationship between the Church and the state in his projected fascist Russia. The group also promised to respect the traditions of Russia's nationalities and instigate corporatism.:168–171 In a series of articles published in the spring of 1935, Rodzaevsky gave as his aims the "liquidation of Jewish rule in Russia", the re-establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church as the state religion of Russia, rejection of the "tendency towards cosmopolitanism", and "Russia for the Russians".:168-170
Rodzaevsky called for "class co-operation" instead of "class conflict", which was to be achieved via an Italian style "corporate state", which would mediate between the interests of labor and capital by imposing "national unions".:56 Rodzaevksky stated that once the Soviet regime was overthrown, he would create a "temporary dictatorship" that would establish a "federated state", and he never explicitly claimed that he was to serve as a leader, but his rhetoric left little doubt that he saw himself as the future vozhd of a fascist Russia.:56 Rodzaevksy's definition of Russian nationalism did not define Russianness in ethnic terms so much, but rather in terms of a "common historical destiny", which meant that provided that they were loyal the Russian state (with the exception of the Jews who Rodzaevsky saw as born disloyal), all of the non-Russian ethnic groups were to be considered "Russian".:170 Though Rodzaevsky excoriated Imperial Russia in many ways, his definition of Russian nationalism as those loyal to the Russian state owed much to definition of Russianness in the Imperial period, where those who were loyal to the House of Romanov were considered Russian, regardless of what their language was. Under his leadership, Rodzaevsky envisioned Russia taking back Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland, and in addition, he planned to annex Romania, Bulgaria, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mongolia.:170
Finally, to finally resolve the problem of "domination by the Jews and Freemasons", Rodzaevsky called for an alliance of Fascist Russia, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.:170 A problem with this future foreign policy was the open anti-Slavic racism expressed by the Nazis, who saw all Slavs as untermensch (sub-humans) and the Soviet Union as a place that was to be Germany's Lebensraum ("living space") that would be colonized by millions of Germans after the Soviet Union was conquered.:170 One of the völkisch tracts not translated into Russian by the Russian Fascist Party was Mein Kampf, as Hitler's denigration of Slavs as untermensch and his statements that Germany's lebensraum was to be found in the Soviet Union presented problems for the Russian Fascists.:170 Rodzaevsky wrote to Hitler, asking him to amend Mein Kampf, and upon receiving no reply, finally did translate Mein Kampf into Russian in 1936 with the offending passages removed.:170–171 In his speeches to his followers, Rodzaevsky praised Hitler as a "great statesman" and tried to explain away Hitler's anti-Russian statements and his intentions to colonize Russia in Mein Kampf as something that was written a long time ago that was not relevant at present, saying he knew Hitler had changed his views about Russia.:171 Several of the RFP leaders called for the restoration of the monarchy, but Rodzaevsky himself was vague on this issue until 1940, only saying that a Russia under his leadership would not be a republic and refused to commit himself explicitly to a Romanov restoration.:171
In November 1935, the psychological war laboratory of the German Reich Ministry of Defence submitted a study about how best to undermine Red Army morale should a German-Soviet war break out. The Wehrmacht had dispatched a team to Manchukuo to contact the leaders of the Russian Fascist Party and working together the German-Russian team created a series of pamphlets written in Russian for distribution in the Soviet Union by Germany. The pamphlets written in Manchukuo were designed to play on Russian anti-Semitism, with one pamphlet calling the "Gentlemen commissars and party functionaries" a group of "mostly filthy Jews", and ended with the call for "brother soldiers" of the Red Army to rise up and kill all of the "Jewish commissars". Although this material was not used at the time, later in 1941 the material the psychological war laboratory had developed in 1935 in Manchukuo was dusted off, and served as the basis not only for German propaganda in the Soviet Union but also for propaganda within the Wehrmacht for Operation Barbarossa.
The party maintained very close links with Japanese military intelligence, and in January 1934, Rodzaevsky visited Tokyo to ask the Army minister General Sadao Araki for a Japanese support to raise an army of 150,000 men from ethnic Russian population of Manchukuo that would be led by him to invade the Soviet Union. Nothing came of this plan, not the least of which that was the Russian Fascist Party did not command the loyalty of 150,000 that Rodzavesky claimed would flock to his banner. From 1936 onward, members of the party were infiltrated into the Soviet Far East from Manchukuo to engage in sabotage and hand out pamphlets calling for the overthrow of the Soviet regime. This was extremely dangerous work, and most of the volunteers who infiltrated the Soviet Union were captured; in July 1938, a "spy school" was established to provide training for the volunteers, but the capture rate remained high, right up to April 1941 when the Soviet-Japanese non-aggression pact put an end to these operations. The Kwantung Army operated a secret biological-chemical warfare unit, Unit 731, based in Pingfang, that performed gruesome experiments on people that usually involved much evisceration of the subjects to see the effects of chemicals and germs on the human body that were always fatal for the subject. In the late 1930s, the doctors of Unit 731 demanded more white subjects to experiment upon in order to test the efficiency the strains of anthrax and plague that they were developing to kill whites, having already mastered strains capable of killing Asians by much experimentation on Chinese subjects, and as such a great many of the Russians living in Manchukuo found themselves the unwilling human guinea pigs of Unit 731. The Russian Fascists were used by the Kwantung Army to kidnap various "unreliable" Russians living in Manchukuo for Unit 731 to experiment upon.
When war was declared, the activities of the RFP outside Manchuria slowly came to an end whilst the group was restricted by the Japanese following the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact of 1941. In 1941, the Soviet spy ring headed by Richard Sorge in Tokyo was uncovered, which caused the Japanese to have an exaggerated and paranoid fear that Soviet spies were everywhere.:318 The Kenpeitai began to suspect in early 1943 that Rodzaevsky was in fact a Soviet agent, and in May 1943, he was arrested and taken in for questioning by the Kenpeitai, before being released in June 1943.:318–319 In July 1943, following complaints from the Soviet ambassador to the Japanese about the anti-Soviet statements coming from the Russian émigrés in Manchukuo, the Japanese shut down Nash Put.:329 By mid 1943, following the Soviet victories at Stalingrad and Kursk, the Japanese no longer took it for granted that the Soviet Union was going to be defeated by Germany while they themselves had suffered a number of defeats at the hands of the Americans, which made Tokyo anxious to avoid a war with the Soviet Union.:329 From the viewpoint of Tokyo, the Russian Fascist Party by the middle of 1943 had become a liability that was straining relations with Moscow, which caused the Japanese to shut down the RFP's media outlets.:329 The group came to an end in 1945, when the Red Army invaded Manchukuo in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, with Rodzaevsky eventually surrendering before being executed the following year.:172–173
The All-Russian Fascist Organization (VFO) was a Russian white émigré group led by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. It was based in Putnam, Connecticut, United States and was founded on May 10, 1933.In 1934, in Yokohama, the Russian Fascist Party (RFP) and VFO attempted to merge into a new entity, the All-Russia Fascist Party. On April 3, 1934, representatives from both organisations signed a protocol number 1, which proclaimed the merger of RFP and VFO and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party (VFP). The new organisation was intended to connect the RFP's organizational structure with the financial resources of the VFO. April 26, 1934 in Harbin on 2-m (Unity) Congress of Russian Fascists happened formal association VFO and the RFP and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party.A full merger was quite problematic however, because Vonsyatsky was an opponent of anti-Semitism and considered the support base of the RFP – primarily Russian Cossacks and the monarchists – as an anachronism. In October–December 1934 there was a split between Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky. The Vonsyatsky group remained in the RFP, but later he refounded his party as the All-Russian National Revolutionary Party. The party remained a marginal feature. It was renamed several times, eventually assuming the name All-Russian National Revolutionary Toilers and Workers-Peasants Party of Fascists (Russian: Всероссийская национально-революционная трудовая и рабоче-крестьянская партии фашистов)In 1940 – December 1941, the cooperation of Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky resumed, interrupted with the start of Japanese-American War.
After the U.S. entry into World War II in 1942 Anastasy Vonsyatsky was arrested by the FBI, after which the party ceased to exist.Anastasy Vonsiatsky
Anastasy Andreyevich Vonsyatsky (Russian: Анаста́сий Андре́евич Вонся́цкий, Polish: Anastazy Wąsiacki; June 12, 1898 – February 5, 1965), better known in the United States as Anastase Andreivitch Vonsiatsky, was a Russian anti-Bolshevik émigré and fascist leader based in the United States from the 1920s.
He became a naturalized American citizen while leading a splinter far-right organization, the Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of Fascists. The headquarters of the RFO were based in Putnam, Connecticut. Vonsyatsky was charged with the support of secret contacts with agents of Nazi Germany and arrested by the FBI in 1942, following the United States' entry into war with Germany and Japan. Released early from prison in 1946, Vonsyatsky lived out the remainder of his life in the United States. He died in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1965.Fascist Union of Youth
The Fascist Union of Youth (Russian: Союз Фашистской Молодёжи, Soyuz Fashistskoy Molodyozhi) was the youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1936 in Harbin, Manchukuo, which consisted of all automatic members of the organizations VFP from ages 16 to 25.Ideology and tactics of the Union is entirely determined by ideology and tactics of the Russian Fascist Party.
Admission to the Union was carried out automatically: all members of the organization VFP appropriate age, regardless of gender. Members of the Union remained part of the VFP.The Union was divided into two groups, Junior and Senior, each of which had two levels, Second Level (Young Fascist) and First Level (Avangardisty). Members had to pass certain exams to advance to a higher level. Those who successfully passed to the second stage of the Union were enrolled in the Stolypin Fascist Academy.
The Union had cultural, educational, dramatic and philosophical circles, as well as sewing and language schools. The military and political sections were the most important ones in the Union. Structural units of the Union were branches of the Department of the VFP. The head of the Union was appointed by the Head of the VFP and the remaining leaders were appointed by the head of the Union.Fashist
Fashist (Russian: Фашистъ, 'Fascist') was a Russian fascist publication, issued from Putnam, Connecticut, United States. It was published by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. Fashist was distributed among Russian exiles around the world.Harbin
Harbin (Manchu: ᡥᠠᠯᠪᡳᠨ; Chinese: 哈尔滨 Hārbīn) is the capital of Heilongjiang province, and largest city in the northeastern region of the People's Republic of China. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Harbin has direct jurisdiction over nine metropolitan districts, two county-level cities and seven counties. Harbin is the eighth most populous Chinese city according to the 2010 census, the built-up area (which consists of all districts except Shuangcheng and Acheng) had 5,282,093 inhabitants, while the total population of the sub-provincial city was up to 10,635,971. Harbin serves as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural, and communications hub in Northeast China, as well as an important industrial base of the nation.Harbin, whose name was originally a Manchu word meaning "a place for drying fishing nets", grew from a small rural settlement on the Songhua River to become one of the largest cities in Northeast China. Founded in 1898 with the coming of the Chinese Eastern Railway, the city first prospered as a region inhabited by an overwhelming majority of the immigrants from the Russian Empire.Having the most bitterly cold winters among major Chinese cities, Harbin is heralded as the Ice City for its well-known winter tourism and recreations. Harbin is notable for its beautiful ice sculpture festival in the winter. Besides being well known for its historical Russian legacy, the city serves as an important gateway in Sino-Russian trade today. In the 1920s, the city was considered China's fashion capital since new designs from Paris and Moscow reached here first before arriving in Shanghai. The city was voted "China Top Tourist City" by the China National Tourism Administration in 2004.Konstantin Rodzaevsky
Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (Russian: Константи́н Влади́мирович Родзае́вский; 11 August 1907 – 30 August 1946) was the leader of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria. Rodzaevsky was also the chief editor of the RFP paper "Nash Put'". White émigré. Was lured by NKVD to return back from immigration to Soviet Union with false promises of immunity and executed after a show trial in Lubyanka prison cellar for "anti-soviet and counter-revolutionary activities".Lev Okhotin
Lev Pavlovich Okhotin (Russian: Лев Па́влович Охоти́н; 1911–1948) was a member of the Supreme Council of the Russian Fascist Party, founded by exiles in Manchuria.List of fascist movements by country G–M
A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.Nash Put' (newspaper)
Nash Put (Russian: Наш Путь, Our Way) was a daily newspaper founded by Konstantin Rodzaevsky on 3 October 1933, that was issued in Harbin (1933–41) and Shanghai (1941-1943). The newspaper was the official organ of the Russian Fascist Party. Nash Put' was published until July 1943. The newspaper promoted Christian Orthodoxy, Russian ultranationalism and fascism. Estimated circulation was 4,000. The paper was edited by Konstantin Rodzaevsky from 1933 to 1943. There was also a publishing house, "Izdatel'stvo gazety Nash Put'" (Russian: «Издательство газеты „Наш Путь“», "Publisher of the newspaper Our Way"). In 1936 it published Vladimir Kislitsin's memoirs In the fires of the Civil War: Memoires.Party of Russia's Rebirth
The Party of Russia's Rebirth (Партия возрождения России, Partiya Vozrozhdeniya Rossii) is a left-wing nationalist political party in Russia led by Gennady Seleznev, former Duma speaker and then member of Communist Party of Russia (2002-2007), and later by the Nationalist writer Georgy Pryakhin (2007-2008). The party took the name of the illegal Russian fascist party, which existed in the USSR, and abroad among the Russian expatriates, in the 1930s.
At the last legislative elections, December 7, 2003, the alliance of the Party of Russia's Rebirth and the Russian Party of Life party won 1.9% of the popular vote and no seats on the party list ballot, although Seleznev himself narrowly beat liberal candidate Irina Khakamada in Saint Petersburg to win a seat there.
In the 2007 elections Party of Russia's Rebirth blocked up with another nationalist party, Patriots of Russia, led by Gennady Semigin.
On September 9, 2008, the party was officially dissolved. Many of the members including Gennady Seleznev joined Patriots of Russia.The party was re-founded in October 2012 and registered once again in May 2013.RFP (disambiguation)
RFP may refer to:
Public Francophone Radios (Radios francophones publiques)
Radio fixed part, the DECT jargon for a base station
Rapid fire pistol or 25 metre rapid fire pistol, an ISSF Olympic shooting event
Red fluorescent protein
Request for production, a discovery device in civil procedure
Request for proposal
Reversed field pinch
RFP Investments Pte Ltd (RFPI), a subsidiary of Singaporean transportation company, SMRT Corporation
Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad, reporting mark RFP
Russian Fascist PartyRussian Fascist Organization
Russian Fascist Organization (RFO) was the name adopted by a Russian émigré group active in Manchuria before World War II.
The RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. Under the leadership of Prof. N.I. Nikiforov, it looked to Italian fascism for inspiration and produced the 'Theses of Russian Fascism' in 1927. The RFO smuggled some propaganda into the Soviet Union, although this was brought to the attention of China who banned the group from publishing such works. In 1931 the RFO absorbed into the newly founded Russian Fascist Party (RFP) under the leadership of Konstantin Rodzaevsky.Russian Women's Fascist Movement
Russian Women's Fascist Movement (Russian: «Российское женское фашистское движение», Rossiiskoye Zhenskoye Fashistskoye Dvizheniye) was the women's wing of the All-Russian Fascist Party, which existed in Manchuria in the 1930s and 1940s. It was established in Harbin to unite women in Russia who "believe in God and desire a loving home and respectable work". Ideologically, the Russian Women's Fascist Movement (RGFD) adheres to Russian fascism, following the main slogan of Russian fascists "God, Nation, Labor". They supported the Russia of National Labor, which was built on a corporate system of Russian fascism in which a woman would achieve her "rightful place" in the law as the bearer of the idea of beauty and as the keeper of the home.
Russian Women's Fascist Movement served as an autonomous section of the All-Russia Fascist Party (VFP), with its policy provided by the guidance of the RGFD and approved by the Head of the VFP. The Steering Center of the RGFD was established at the VFP congresses. Overall leadership of the movement belonged to the Head of VFP, who led through the RGFD Management Center. Regulations governing the RGFD center went into effect only after the approval of the VFP Head.
The RGFD Steering Center consisted of a chairwoman, who was considered the chairperson of the RGFD as a whole. It also had a deputy, a secretary, who was regarded as the Secretary of RGFD in general, and a treasurer and chiefs of two departments, the propaganda department and the training department.
RGFD local organizations consisted of various groups of fascist sympathizers, candidates, and active members. They were known as hotbeds of the Fascist Party and were made from two to five people covering a certain area.
The center was headed by a main area known as the headmistress district, where the department boss department, appointed by the parent supervisor and approved by the governing center RGFD, was located. Each department head reported to the Chief of the same department name in the VFP.
The uniform of the Russian Women's Fascist Movement was a white blouse, black skirt, black bow-bow and a swastika on the left sleeve.The Last Will of a Russian Fascist
The Last Will of a Russian Fascist (Russian: Завещание русского фашиста, Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista) is a reprint edition published in 2001 of a book by Konstantin Rodzaevsky, the leader of the All-Russia Fascist Party. Circulation of the book was 12,000 copies, of which 5,000 were a first-edition volume with illustrations, and the remainder were a second-edition volume without illustrations.Union of Fascist Little Ones
The Union of Fascist Little Ones (Russian: Союз фашистских крошек, Soyuz fashistskikh kroshek) was a youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded by Russian immigrants in 1934 in Harbin, China. It was open to "Russian boys and girls who believe in God, love Russia and respect labor".
The Union's declared goal was "saving Russian children from the streets and denationalization impact, raising them for future Russia in the Fascist spirit of religion and nationalism". The Union's members were Russian emigrant children aged between 3 and 10. Their parent's letter affirming agreement was all that was needed to secure membership.Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys)
The Union of Young Fascists — Vanguard (Russian: Союз Юных Фашистов — Авангард, Soyuz Yunykh Fashistov — Avangard) was a boy's youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1934 in Harbin, and was made up of Russian nationals aged between 10 and 16.
The objectives of the Union were:
the preservation of the national identity of Russian children;
the systematic education of Russian national spirit;
strict observance of the Russian Orthodox faith and the old traditions of Russia;
to act as a feeder group for membership of the senior Russian Fascist Party.The ideology and tactics of the Union were entirely determined by members of the Russian Fascist Party. Membership was obtained on recommendation of an existing member of the Vanguard, or a member of the senior Russian Fascist Party.
The Union was divided into two groups: Junior (10 to 13 years) and Senior (13 to 16 years). Each group was divided into two categories: Second Level (Young Fascist) and First Level (Avangardisty).
Commanding officers in the Union were the Senior Source, the Senior District Commander and Senior Divisional Commander.
The lowest structural unit in the Union was the "Focus", a group of five people. Several of these that were geographically close to each other formed a District, and together with other suburban areas or otherwise related groups, they formed a Department. The head of the group was appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party.
At the head of the Union Vanguard was Chief of the Vanguard, appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party. The other leaders were appointed on the orders of the Chief of the Vanguard.
The uniform of the Vanguard was a black shirt with yellow buttons and blue epaullettes, a sword belt, and black trousers issued by the Union. Headgear was a black peaked cap with orange piping and a laurelate letter "A" emblem.Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)
The Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (Russian: Союз Юных Фашисток — Авангард, Soyuz Yunykh Fashistok — Avangard) was the young women's youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1934 in Harbin, and was open to Russian girls aged 10 to 16 years.
The main objective of the Union was "the preparation of national-minded Russian young women and girls to responsible national service based on religion, nationalism, and work".
The ideology and tactics of the Union were entirely determined by members of the Russian Fascist Party. Membership was obtained on recommendation of an existing member of the Vanguard or a member of the senior Russian Fascist Party.
The Union was divided into two groups, Junior (10 to 13 years) and Senior (13 to 16 years). Each group was divided into two categories: Second Level (Young Fascists) and First Level (Avangardistki).
Commanding officers in the Union were the Senior Source, the Senior District Commander, and Senior Divisional Commander.
The lowest structural unit in the Union was the "Focus", a group of five people. Several of these that were geographically close to each other formed a District, and together with other suburban areas or units otherwise related, they formed a Department. The head of the group was appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party, the others were appointed by their respective commanders.
The uniform consisted of a white blouse with a black tie and a black skirt.Vladimir Petlyakov
Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov (Russian: Влади́мир Миха́йлович Петляко́в) (15 June 1891 – 12 January 1942) was a Soviet aeronautical engineer.
Petlyakov was born in Sambek (Don Host Oblast, Russian Empire) in 1891 (currently part of Neklinovsky District, Rostov Oblast), where his father was a local official. After he and graduated from the Technical College in Taganrog (today the "Taganrog Petlyakov Aviation College", ru:Таганрогский авиационный колледж им. В. М. Петлякова) in 1910. he travelled to Moscow, where he was accepted into the Moscow State Technical University; however, due to financial difficulties he was unable to complete his studies. After the Russian Revolution, he continued his education and was hired to work as a technician in the aerodynamics laboratory at Moscow State Technical University under the guidance of Nikolai Zhukovsky, while resuming his studies. He gained experience as a laboratory assistant on wind tunnels and calculations for aircraft design. In 1922, he graduated from the same university.
In 1921–1936, Petlyakov worked at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute under the guidance of Andrei Tupolev, where he was involved in wing design and the development of gliders. In 1936, he became a chief aircraft designer at an aviation plant. Petlyakov was directly involved in organization and development of Soviet metal aircraft construction. In particular, Petlyakov (together with an engineer Nikolai Belyaev) elaborated methods of calculating durability of materials and theory on designing metal wings with multiple spars. Petlyakov assisted in designing the first Soviet heavy bombers TB-1, TB-3 (1930–1935), and a long-range high-altitude four-engine bomber, the Pe-8 (1935–1937).
However, on October 21, 1937, Petlyakov was arrested together with Tupolev and the entire directorate of the TsAGI on trumped up charges of sabotage, espionage and of aiding the Russian Fascist Party. Many of his colleagues were executed. In 1939, he was moved from a prison to an NKVD sharashka for aircraft designers near Moscow, where many ex-TsAGI people had already been sent to work. Petlyakov was tasked with designing a high-altitude fighter, which he successfully accomplished. However, operational experience in the Soviet-Finnish War showed that this was not what the Soviet Air Force needed, and Lavrentiy Beria, head of the NKVD and of the sharashka told that the fighter was to be redesigned as a dive bomber, with the promise that he and his colleagues would be released on its successful completion.
The resulting aircraft, the Pe-2, which went into serial production at the Kazan Aviation Plant, proved to be one of the most successful designs of World War II. Petlyakov was released in 1940, and was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1941. However, at Kazan, Petlyakov faced increasing difficulties, with so many of his trained technicians and machinists conscripted into the Soviet military and sent to the front lines, which adversely affected the quality of production aircraft. He protested to Soviet senior leadership, and was on his way to Moscow in January 1942 (flying in a Pe-2), when he died in an air crash near Arzamas. His grave is at the Arskoe Cemetery in Kazan.
Vladimir Petlyakov received the State Award of the USSR (1941) and was awarded two Orders of Lenin and an Order of the Red Star.
Russian fascism to 1945
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