The RFO was formed in 1925 by members of the Law Faculty at Harbin Normal University. Under the leadership of Prof. N.I. Nikiforov, it looked to Italian fascism for inspiration and produced the 'Theses of Russian Fascism' in 1927. The RFO smuggled some propaganda into the Soviet Union, although this was brought to the attention of China who banned the group from publishing such works. In 1931 the RFO absorbed into the newly founded Russian Fascist Party (RFP) under the leadership of Konstantin Rodzaevsky.
The All-Russian Fascist Organization (VFO) was a Russian white émigré group led by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. It was based in Putnam, Connecticut, United States and was founded on May 10, 1933.In 1934, in Yokohama, the Russian Fascist Party (RFP) and VFO attempted to merge into a new entity, the All-Russia Fascist Party. On April 3, 1934, representatives from both organisations signed a protocol number 1, which proclaimed the merger of RFP and VFO and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party (VFP). The new organisation was intended to connect the RFP's organizational structure with the financial resources of the VFO. April 26, 1934 in Harbin on 2-m (Unity) Congress of Russian Fascists happened formal association VFO and the RFP and the creation of the All-Russia Fascist Party.A full merger was quite problematic however, because Vonsyatsky was an opponent of anti-Semitism and considered the support base of the RFP – primarily Russian Cossacks and the monarchists – as an anachronism. In October–December 1934 there was a split between Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky. The Vonsyatsky group remained in the RFP, but later he refounded his party as the All-Russian National Revolutionary Party. The party remained a marginal feature. It was renamed several times, eventually assuming the name All-Russian National Revolutionary Toilers and Workers-Peasants Party of Fascists (Russian: Всероссийская национально-революционная трудовая и рабоче-крестьянская партии фашистов)In 1940 – December 1941, the cooperation of Konstantin Rodzaevsky and Anastasy Vonsyatsky resumed, interrupted with the start of Japanese-American War.
After the U.S. entry into World War II in 1942 Anastasy Vonsyatsky was arrested by the FBI, after which the party ceased to exist.Anastasy Vonsiatsky
Anastasy Andreyevich Vonsyatsky (Russian: Анаста́сий Андре́евич Вонся́цкий, Polish: Anastazy Wąsiacki; June 12, 1898 – February 5, 1965), better known in the United States as Anastase Andreivitch Vonsiatsky, was a Russian anti-Bolshevik émigré and fascist leader based in the United States from the 1920s.
He became a naturalized American citizen while leading a splinter far-right organization, the Russian National Revolutionary Labor and Workers Peasant Party of Fascists. The headquarters of the RFO were based in Putnam, Connecticut. Vonsyatsky was charged with the support of secret contacts with agents of Nazi Germany and arrested by the FBI in 1942, following the United States' entry into war with Germany and Japan. Released early from prison in 1946, Vonsyatsky lived out the remainder of his life in the United States. He died in St. Petersburg, Florida, in 1965.Fascist Union of Youth
The Fascist Union of Youth (Russian: Союз Фашистской Молодёжи, Soyuz Fashistskoy Molodyozhi) was the youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1936 in Harbin, Manchukuo, which consisted of all automatic members of the organizations VFP from ages 16 to 25.Ideology and tactics of the Union is entirely determined by ideology and tactics of the Russian Fascist Party.
Admission to the Union was carried out automatically: all members of the organization VFP appropriate age, regardless of gender. Members of the Union remained part of the VFP.The Union was divided into two groups, Junior and Senior, each of which had two levels, Second Level (Young Fascist) and First Level (Avangardisty). Members had to pass certain exams to advance to a higher level. Those who successfully passed to the second stage of the Union were enrolled in the Stolypin Fascist Academy.
The Union had cultural, educational, dramatic and philosophical circles, as well as sewing and language schools. The military and political sections were the most important ones in the Union. Structural units of the Union were branches of the Department of the VFP. The head of the Union was appointed by the Head of the VFP and the remaining leaders were appointed by the head of the Union.Fashist
Fashist (Russian: Фашистъ, 'Fascist') was a Russian fascist publication, issued from Putnam, Connecticut, United States. It was published by Anastasy Vonsyatsky. Fashist was distributed among Russian exiles around the world.Konstantin Rodzaevsky
Konstantin Vladimirovich Rodzaevsky (Russian: Константи́н Влади́мирович Родзае́вский; 11 August 1907 – 30 August 1946) was the leader of the Russian Fascist Party, which he led in exile from Manchuria. Rodzaevsky was also the chief editor of the RFP paper "Nash Put'". White émigré. Was lured by NKVD to return back from immigration to Soviet Union with false promises of immunity and executed after a show trial in Lubyanka prison cellar for "anti-soviet and counter-revolutionary activities".Lev Okhotin
Lev Pavlovich Okhotin (Russian: Лев Па́влович Охоти́н; 1911–1948) was a member of the Supreme Council of the Russian Fascist Party, founded by exiles in Manchuria.List of fascist movements by country G–M
A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.Nash Put' (newspaper)
Nash Put (Russian: Наш Путь, Our Way) was a daily newspaper founded by Konstantin Rodzaevsky on 3 October 1933, that was issued in Harbin (1933–41) and Shanghai (1941-1943). The newspaper was the official organ of the Russian Fascist Party. Nash Put' was published until July 1943. The newspaper promoted Christian Orthodoxy, Russian ultranationalism and fascism. Estimated circulation was 4,000. The paper was edited by Konstantin Rodzaevsky from 1933 to 1943. There was also a publishing house, "Izdatel'stvo gazety Nash Put'" (Russian: «Издательство газеты „Наш Путь“», "Publisher of the newspaper Our Way"). In 1936 it published Vladimir Kislitsin's memoirs In the fires of the Civil War: Memoires.Politics of Manchukuo
Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.Putnam, Connecticut
Putnam is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 9,584 at the 2010 census. It is home to WINY, an AM radio station.Russian Fascist Party
The Russian Fascist Party (RFP) (Russian: Российская фашистская партия), sometimes called the All-Russian Fascist Party, was a minor Russian émigré movement that was based in Manchukuo during the 1930s and 1940s.Russian Women's Fascist Movement
Russian Women's Fascist Movement (Russian: «Российское женское фашистское движение», Rossiiskoye Zhenskoye Fashistskoye Dvizheniye) was the women's wing of the All-Russian Fascist Party, which existed in Manchuria in the 1930s and 1940s. It was established in Harbin to unite women in Russia who "believe in God and desire a loving home and respectable work". Ideologically, the Russian Women's Fascist Movement (RGFD) adheres to Russian fascism, following the main slogan of Russian fascists "God, Nation, Labor". They supported the Russia of National Labor, which was built on a corporate system of Russian fascism in which a woman would achieve her "rightful place" in the law as the bearer of the idea of beauty and as the keeper of the home.
Russian Women's Fascist Movement served as an autonomous section of the All-Russia Fascist Party (VFP), with its policy provided by the guidance of the RGFD and approved by the Head of the VFP. The Steering Center of the RGFD was established at the VFP congresses. Overall leadership of the movement belonged to the Head of VFP, who led through the RGFD Management Center. Regulations governing the RGFD center went into effect only after the approval of the VFP Head.
The RGFD Steering Center consisted of a chairwoman, who was considered the chairperson of the RGFD as a whole. It also had a deputy, a secretary, who was regarded as the Secretary of RGFD in general, and a treasurer and chiefs of two departments, the propaganda department and the training department.
RGFD local organizations consisted of various groups of fascist sympathizers, candidates, and active members. They were known as hotbeds of the Fascist Party and were made from two to five people covering a certain area.
The center was headed by a main area known as the headmistress district, where the department boss department, appointed by the parent supervisor and approved by the governing center RGFD, was located. Each department head reported to the Chief of the same department name in the VFP.
The uniform of the Russian Women's Fascist Movement was a white blouse, black skirt, black bow-bow and a swastika on the left sleeve.The Last Will of a Russian Fascist
The Last Will of a Russian Fascist (Russian: Завещание русского фашиста, Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista) is a reprint edition published in 2001 of a book by Konstantin Rodzaevsky, the leader of the All-Russia Fascist Party. Circulation of the book was 12,000 copies, of which 5,000 were a first-edition volume with illustrations, and the remainder were a second-edition volume without illustrations.Union of Fascist Little Ones
The Union of Fascist Little Ones (Russian: Союз фашистских крошек, Soyuz fashistskikh kroshek) was a youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded by Russian immigrants in 1934 in Harbin, China. It was open to "Russian boys and girls who believe in God, love Russia and respect labor".
The Union's declared goal was "saving Russian children from the streets and denationalization impact, raising them for future Russia in the Fascist spirit of religion and nationalism". The Union's members were Russian emigrant children aged between 3 and 10. Their parent's letter affirming agreement was all that was needed to secure membership.Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys)
The Union of Young Fascists — Vanguard (Russian: Союз Юных Фашистов — Авангард, Soyuz Yunykh Fashistov — Avangard) was a boy's youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1934 in Harbin, and was made up of Russian nationals aged between 10 and 16.
The objectives of the Union were:
the preservation of the national identity of Russian children;
the systematic education of Russian national spirit;
strict observance of the Russian Orthodox faith and the old traditions of Russia;
to act as a feeder group for membership of the senior Russian Fascist Party.The ideology and tactics of the Union were entirely determined by members of the Russian Fascist Party. Membership was obtained on recommendation of an existing member of the Vanguard, or a member of the senior Russian Fascist Party.
The Union was divided into two groups: Junior (10 to 13 years) and Senior (13 to 16 years). Each group was divided into two categories: Second Level (Young Fascist) and First Level (Avangardisty).
Commanding officers in the Union were the Senior Source, the Senior District Commander and Senior Divisional Commander.
The lowest structural unit in the Union was the "Focus", a group of five people. Several of these that were geographically close to each other formed a District, and together with other suburban areas or otherwise related groups, they formed a Department. The head of the group was appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party.
At the head of the Union Vanguard was Chief of the Vanguard, appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party. The other leaders were appointed on the orders of the Chief of the Vanguard.
The uniform of the Vanguard was a black shirt with yellow buttons and blue epaullettes, a sword belt, and black trousers issued by the Union. Headgear was a black peaked cap with orange piping and a laurelate letter "A" emblem.Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)
The Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (Russian: Союз Юных Фашисток — Авангард, Soyuz Yunykh Fashistok — Avangard) was the young women's youth organization of the Russian Fascist Party. It was founded in 1934 in Harbin, and was open to Russian girls aged 10 to 16 years.
The main objective of the Union was "the preparation of national-minded Russian young women and girls to responsible national service based on religion, nationalism, and work".
The ideology and tactics of the Union were entirely determined by members of the Russian Fascist Party. Membership was obtained on recommendation of an existing member of the Vanguard or a member of the senior Russian Fascist Party.
The Union was divided into two groups, Junior (10 to 13 years) and Senior (13 to 16 years). Each group was divided into two categories: Second Level (Young Fascists) and First Level (Avangardistki).
Commanding officers in the Union were the Senior Source, the Senior District Commander, and Senior Divisional Commander.
The lowest structural unit in the Union was the "Focus", a group of five people. Several of these that were geographically close to each other formed a District, and together with other suburban areas or units otherwise related, they formed a Department. The head of the group was appointed by the head of the Russian Fascist Party, the others were appointed by their respective commanders.
The uniform consisted of a white blouse with a black tie and a black skirt.White émigré
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the revolutionary Russian political climate. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement or supported it, although the term is often broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regimes.
Some white émigrés, like Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, were opposed to the Bolsheviks but had not directly supported the White movement; some were just apolitical. The term is also applied to the descendants of those who left and still retain a Russian Orthodox Christian identity while living abroad.
The term is most commonly used in France, the United States, and the United Kingdom. A term preferred by the émigrés themselves was first-wave émigré (Russian: эмигрант первой волны, emigrant pervoy volny), "Russian émigrés" (Russian: русская эмиграция, russkaya emigratsiya) or "Russian military émigrés" (Russian: русская военная эмиграция, russkaya voyennaya emigratsiya) if they participated in the White movement. In the Soviet Union, white émigré (белоэмигрант, byeloemigrant) generally had negative connotations. Since the end of the 1980s, the term "first-wave émigré" has become more common in Russia. In East Asia, White Russian (Chinese: 白俄, Japanese: 白系ロシア人, 白系露人) is the term is most commonly used for white émigrés, even though they are not all ethnic Russians.Most white émigrés left Russia from 1917 to 1920 (estimates vary between 900,000 and 2 million), although some managed to leave during the 1920s and 1930s or were expelled by the Soviet government (such as, for example, Pitirim Sorokin and Ivan Ilyin). They spanned all classes and included military soldiers and officers, Cossacks, intellectuals of various professions, dispossessed businessmen and landowners, as well as officials of the Russian Imperial government and various anti-Bolshevik governments of the Russian Civil War period. They were not only ethnic Russians but belonged to other ethnic groups as well.
Russian fascism to 1945
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