Russian Census (2002)

The Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat).

Data collection

The census data were collected as of midnight October 9, 2002.

Resident population

The census was primarily intended to collect statistical information about the resident population of Russian Federation. The resident population included:

  • Russian citizens living in Russia (including those temporary away from the country, provided the absence from the country was expected to last less than one year);
  • non-citizens (i.e. foreign citizens and stateless persons) who were any of the following:
    • legal permanent residents;
    • persons who have arrived to the country with the intent to settle permanently or to seek asylum, regardless of whether they have actually obtained the appropriate immigration status;
    • authorized foreign workers or students, provided the period of temporary residence in Russia was expected to last at least one year.

All detailed census tables are for the resident population.

All (resident) participants were asked question on their gender, birth date, marital status, household composition, birthplace, citizenship, ethnic or tribal self-identification (национальность), education level, language competence, sources of income, and employment status. A sample of the participants were also asked more detailed questions about their economic and housing situation.

Non-residents

Also, the census also counted two more groups of people:

  • Russian citizens currently living abroad for more than one year in connection with the employment with the federal government.
  • Persons (regardless of their citizenship) permanently residing abroad, but temporarily present in Russia (as tourists, short-term foreign workers or students, etc.).

Foreign citizens present in Russia as employees of foreign diplomatic missions or international organizations, and members of their household, were excluded from the census altogether.

Census results

The Census recorded the resident population of 145,166,731 persons, including 67,605,133 men and 77,561,598 women. That included urban population of 106,429,000 (73%) and rural population of 38,738,000 (27%).

The non-resident populations included:

  • Russian citizens living abroad in connection with the federal government service: 107,288 (67,058 men and 40,230 women);
  • Foreign residents present in Russia on the census date: 239,018 (177,465 men and 61,553 women).

Citizenship

COB data Russia

Census participants were asked what country (or countries) they were citizens of. 142,442,000 respondents reported being Russian citizens; among them, 44,000 also had citizenship of another country.

Among Russia's resident population, 1,025,413 foreign citizens and 429,881 stateless persons were counted. [1]

Citizens of...
CIS countries 906,314
Armenia 136,841
Azerbaijan 154,911
Belarus 40,330
Georgia 52,918
Kazakhstan 69,472
Kyrgyzstan 28,843
Moldova 50,988
Tajikistan 64,165
Turkmenistan 6,417
Ukraine 230,558
Uzbekistan 70,871
Other countries 119,099
Afghanistan 8,221
Bulgaria 2,262
China 30,598
Estonia 1,066
Finland 285
Germany 1,329
Greece 612
India 5,351
Israel 1,016
Latvia 2,864
Lithuania 4,583
Syria 1,230
Turkey 4,991
United States 1,361
Vietnam 22,545
Stateless persons 429,881

1,269,023 persons did not report their citizenship.

Language abilities

Among the questions asked were "Are you competent in the Russian language?" (Владеете ли Вы русским языком?) and "What other languages are you competent in?" (Какими иными языками Вы владеете?). As the census manual explained, "competence" (владение) meant either the ability to speak, read and write a language, or only the ability to speak it. The questions did not distinguish native and non-native speakers, nor did they try to measure the degree of language competence. For small children, presumably, the recorded answer was based on the language(s) spoken by the parents.

142.6 million (98.3%) of the responders claimed competence in Russian. Other widely reported languages (more than 500,000 speakers each) are listed in the table below.

Language Speakers (millions)
English 6.95
(Volga) Tatar 5.35
German 2.90
Ukrainian 1.81
Chechen 1.33
Chuvash 1.33
Armenian 0.91
Avar 0.78
French 0.71
Azerbaijani 0.67
Mordvin (Moksha or Erzya) 0.61
Kabardian or Circassian 0.59
Kazakh 0.56
Dargin 0.50

1.42 million responders did not provide language information.

For a more detailed list, see List of languages of Russia.

See also

External links

2002 census

2002 census may refer to:

Polish census of 2002

Russian Census (2002)

Tanzanian census (2002)

Bashkortostan

The Republic of Bashkortostan (; Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Russian: Респу́блика Башкортоста́н, tr. Respublika Bashkortostan, IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə bəʂkərtɐˈstan]), also historically known as Bashkiria (Russian: Башки́рия, tr. Bashkiriya, IPA: [bɐʂˈkʲirʲɪjə]), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic (state)). It is located between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Its capital is the city of Ufa. With a population of 4,072,292 as of the 2010 Census, Bashkortostan is the most populous republic in Russia. According to census 2018, the population of Republic was 4,063,293. Bashkortostan, the first ethnic autonomy in Russia, was established on 28 November [O.S. 15 November] 1917. On 20 March 1919, it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the first Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in RSFSR.In accordance with the Constitution of Bashkortostan and Russian Federation Constitution, Bashkortostan is a state, but has no sovereignty. On 11 October 1990 Bashkortostan adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, but subsequently abandoned it. 11 October is Republic Day in Bashkortostan.

Belarusian language

Belarusian (; беларуская мова biełaruskaja mova [bʲelaˈruskaja ˈmova]) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is also spoken in Russia (where it is known as "Western Russian"), Poland and Ukraine.

Before Belarus gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the language was only known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык Belorusskiy yazyk, or alternatively as White Ruthenian () or White Russian. Following independence, it has acquired the additional name Belarusian.Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian, Rusyn, Ukrainian, and Belarusian are mutually intelligible. Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian (14th to 17th centuries), in turn descended from Old East Slavic (10th to 13th centuries).

In the first Belarus Census of 1999, the Belarusian language was declared as a "language spoken at home" by about 3,686,000 Belarusian citizens (36.7% of the population). About 6,984,000 (85.6%) of Belarusians declared it their "mother tongue". Other sources, such as Ethnologue, put the figure at approximately 2.5 million active speakers.According to a study done by the Belarusian government in 2009, 72% of Belarusians speak Russian at home, while Belarusian is actively used by only 11.9% of Belarusians. Approximately 29.4% of Belarusians can write, speak, and read Belarusian, while 52.5% can only read and speak it.

In the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, the Belarusian language is stated to be vulnerable.

Botlikh people

The Botlikh people (also known as Bótligh, Botlig, Botlog or Buikhatli) are an Andi–Dido people of Dagestan. Until the 1930s they were considered a distinct people. Since that time they have been classified as Caucasian Avars and have faced a campaign to have them assimilate into that population.

The Botlikh are primarily Sunni Muslims. They numbered 3,354 people in 1926. They speak the Botlikh language, which belongs to the Northeast Caucasian language family. According to the Russian Census (2002) only 16 people in Russia declared themselves as Botlikhs (none of them in Dagestan), and 90 people declared speaking the Botlikh language. The number of speakers is higher, about 5,500, according to a survey by Koryakov in 2006.

The village of Botlikh is just north of the Andi Koysu River. During the Murid War Russian forces gathered here for their final push against Shamil. During the Dagestan Uprising (1920) the Reds were defeated here several times.

Buryat language

Buryat or Buriat (; Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of the Mongolic languages spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or major dialect group of Mongolian.

Chuvash language

Chuvash (; Чӑвашла, translit. Căvašla, Çovaşla; IPA: [tɕəʋaʂˈla]) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas. It is the only surviving member of the Oghur branch of Turkic languages. Because of this, Chuvash has diverged considerably from the other Turkic languages, which typically demonstrate mutual intelligibility among one another to varying degrees.

The writing system for the Chuvash language is based on the Cyrillic script, employing all of the letters used in the Russian alphabet and adding four letters of its own: Ӑ, Ӗ, Ҫ and Ӳ.

Digor people

The Digor (Digor dialect: дигорон - digoron, pl.: дигорæ, дигорæнттæ - digoræ, digorænttæ; Iron dialect: дыгурон - dyguron, pl.: дыгур, дыгурæттæ - dygur, dygurættæ) are a subgroup of the Ossetians. They speak the Digor dialect of the Eastern Iranian Ossetian language, which in USSR was considered a separate language until 1937. Starting from 1932 it is considered just a dialect of Ossetian language. The speakers of the other dialect - Iron - do not understand Digor, although the Digor usually understand Iron, as it was the official language of the Ossetian people and officially taught in schools. In the 2002 Russian Census 607 Digors were registered, but in the 2010 Russian Census their number was only 223. It was estimated that there are 100,000 speakers of the dialect, most of whom declared themselves Ossetians. The Digor mainly live in Digorsky, Irafsky, Mozdoksky districts and Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia–Alania, also in Kabardino-Balkaria, Turkey and Syria.

Emigration from the United States

Emigration from the United States is a complex demographic process where individuals born in the United States move to live in other countries. The process is the reverse of the immigration to the United States. The United States does not keep track of emigration, and counts of Americans abroad are thus only available courtesy of statistics kept by the destination countries.

Ethnic Chinese in Russia

Ethnic Chinese in Russia officially numbered 34,577 according to the 2002 census. However, this figure is contested, with the Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission of the Republic of China on Taiwan claiming 998,000 in 2004 and 2005, and Russian demographers generally accepting estimates in the 200,000–400,000 range as of 2004. Temporary migration and shuttle trade conducted by Chinese merchants are most prevalent in Russia's Far Eastern Federal District, but most go back and forth across the border without settling down in Russia; the Chinese community in Moscow has a higher proportion of long-term residents.

Hinukh people

The Hinukh (Hinukh: гьинухъес hinuqes, Avar: гьинухъесел, translit. hinuqesel) are a people of Dagestan living in 2 villages: Genukh, Tsuntinsky District - their 'parent village' and Novomonastyrskoe, Kizlyarsky District - where they settled later and live together with Avars and Dargins and also in the cities of Dagestan. They are being assimilated by the Caucasian Avars.

Komi peoples

The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers. They mostly live in the Komi Republic, Perm Krai, Murmansk Oblast, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Federation.

The Komi belong to the Permian branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples and are divided into eight sub-groups. Their northernmost sub-group is also known as the Komi-Izhemtsy (from the name of the river Izhma) or Iz'vataz. This group numbers 15,607 (2002). This group is distinct for its more traditional, strongly subsistence-based economy which includes reindeer husbandry. Komi-Permyaks (125,235 people) live in Perm Krai and Kirov Oblast of Russia.

Koryo-saram

Koryo-saram (Russian: Корё сарам; Korean: 고려사람) or Koryoin (Hangul: 고려인; Hanja: 高麗人) is the name which ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states use to refer to themselves. The term is composed of two constituents: "Koryo", which is one of the names of Korea, and "saram", meaning either "person/people". Approximately 500,000 ethnic Koreans reside in the former Soviet Union, primarily in the now-independent states of Central Asia. There are also large Korean communities in Southern Russia (around Volgograd), Russian Far East (around Vladivostok), the Caucasus, and southern Ukraine. These communities can be traced back to the Koreans who were living in the Russian Far East during the late 19th century.

There is also a separate ethnic Korean community on the island of Sakhalin, typically referred to as Sakhalin Koreans. Some may identify as Koryo-saram, but many do not. Unlike the communities on the Russian mainland, which consist mostly of immigrants from the late 19th century and early 20th century, the ancestors of the Sakhalin Koreans came as immigrants from Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces in the late 1930s and early 1940s, forced into service by the Japanese government to work in coal mines in Sakhalin (then known as Karafuto Prefecture) in order to fill labour shortages caused by World War II.

Kuban Cossacks

Kuban Cossacks (Russian: кубанские казаки, kubanskiye kаzaki; Ukrainian: кубанські козаки, kubans'ki kozaky) or Kubanians (Russian: кубанцы, kubantsy; Ukrainian: кубанці, kubantsi), are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Most of the Kuban Cossacks are descendants of different major groups of Cossacks who were re-settled to the western Northern Caucasus in the late 18th century. The western part of the host (Taman Peninsula and adjoining region to the northeast) was settled by the Black Sea Cossack Host who were originally the Zaporozhian Cossacks of Ukraine, from 1792. The eastern and southeastern part of the host was previously administered by the Khopyour and Kuban regiments of the Caucasus Line Cossack Host and Don Cossacks, who were re-settled from the Don from 1777.The Kuban Cossack Host (Кубанское казачье войско), the administrative and military unit composed of Kuban Cossacks, formed in 1860 and existed until 1918. During the Russian Civil War, the Kuban Cossacks proclaimed a Kuban People's Republic, and played a key role in the southern theatre of the conflict. The Kuban Cossacks suffered heavy losses during the Holodomor and the subsequent Soviet extermination of Russians and Ukrainians and their culture in the Kuban region. Hence, during the Second World War, Cossacks fought both for both the Red Army and against them with the German Wehrmacht. The modern Kuban Cossack Host was re-established in 1990 at the fall of the Soviet Union.

Nanai language

The Nanai language (also called Gold, Goldi, or Hezhen) is spoken by the Nanai people in Siberia, and to a much smaller extent in Mongolia's Taiga province, where it is known as Hezhe. The language has about 1,400 speakers out of 17,000 ethnic Nanai, but most (especially the younger generations) are also fluent in Russian or Mongolian, and mostly use one of those languages for communication.

Nogais

The Nogais are a Turkic ethnic group who live in the Russian North Caucasus region. Most are found in northern Dagestan and Stavropol Krai, as well as in Karachay-Cherkessia and Astrakhan Oblast; some also live in Chechnya. They speak the Nogai language and are descendants of various Mongolic and Turkic tribes who formed the Nogai Horde. There are two main groups of Nogais:

the Ak Nogai and;

the Karagash or Qara-Nogai (also known as Kichi).

Ossetians

The Ossetians or Ossetes (; Ossetian: ир, ирæттæ, ir, irættæ; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ, digoræ, digorænttæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the ethnolinguistic region known as Ossetia.

They speak Ossetic, an Eastern Iranian (Alanic) language of the Indo-European languages family, with most also fluent in Russian as a second language. The Ossetian language is neither closely related to nor mutually intelligible with any other language of the family today. Ossetic, a remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian dialect group which was once spoken across the Pontic–Caspian Steppe, is one of the few Iranian languages inside Europe.The Ossetians mostly populate Ossetia, which is politically divided between North Ossetia–Alania in Russia, and South Ossetia, a de facto independent state with partial recognition, closely integrated in Russia and claimed by Georgia. Their closest relatives, the Jász, live in the Jászság region within the north-western part of the Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County in Hungary.

Ossetians are mostly Eastern Orthodox Christian, with sizable minorities professing Uatsdin or Islam.

Sámi languages

Sami languages () are a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia). There are, depending on the nature and terms of division, ten or more Sami languages. Several names are used for the Sami languages: Saami, Sámi, Saame, Samic, Saamic, as well as the exonyms Lappish and Lappic. The last two, along with the term Lapp, are now often considered pejorative.

Turkmens

Turkmens (Turkmen: Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA: [tʏɾkmɛnˈlɛɾ]; historically also the Turkmen) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan. Smaller communities are also found in Iran, Afghanistan and North Caucasus (Stavropol Krai). They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Eastern Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages. Examples of other Oghuz languages are Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai, Gagauz, Khorasani, and Salar.

Yakut language

Yakut, also known as Sakha, Saqa or Saxa, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.

Like most Turkic languages and their ancestral Proto-Turkic, Yakut is an agglutinative language and employs vowel harmony.

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