Russell Alan Hulse (born November 28, 1950) is an American physicist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, shared with his thesis advisor Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr., "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation". He was a specialist in the pulsar studies and gravitational waves.
Russell Alan Hulse
|Born||November 28, 1950|
|Alma mater||Cooper Union B.S.|
UMass Amherst Ph.D.
|Awards||Nobel Prize in Physics (1993)|
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
|Doctoral advisor||Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.|
While working on his Ph.D. dissertation, he was a scholar in 1974 at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico of Cornell University. There he worked with Taylor on a large-scale survey for pulsars. It was this work that led to the discovery of the first binary pulsar.
In 1974, Hulse and Taylor discovered binary pulsar PSR B1913+16, which is made up of a pulsar and black companion star. Neutron star rotation emits impulses that are extremely regular and stable in the radio wave region and is nearby condensed material body gravitation (non-detectable in the visible field). Hulse, Taylor, and other colleagues have used this first binary pulsar to make high-precision tests of general relativity, demonstrating the existence of gravitational radiation. An approximation of this radiant energy is described by the formula of the quadrupolar radiation of Albert Einstein (1918).
In 1979, researchers announced measurements of small acceleration effects of the orbital movements of a pulsar. This was initial proof that the system of these two moving masses emits gravitational waves.
After receiving his Ph.D., Hulse did postdoctoral work at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, West Virginia. He moved to Princeton, where he has worked for many years at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. He has also worked on science education, and in 2003 joined the University of Texas at Dallas as a visiting professor of physics and of mathematics and science education.
In 1993, Hulse and Taylor shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery of the first binary pulsar.
Hulse was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2003, and is cited in the American Men and Women of Science.
In July 2007 Hulse joined the Aurora Imaging Technology advisory board.
was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1950th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 950th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1950s decade.1993
was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1993rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 993rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1990s decade.Gravitational wave
Gravitational waves are disturbances in the curvature (fabric) of spacetime, generated by accelerated masses, that propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. They were proposed by Henri Poincaré in 1905 and subsequently predicted in 1916 by Albert Einstein on the basis of his general theory of relativity. Gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. Newton's law of universal gravitation, part of classical mechanics, does not provide for their existence, since that law is predicated on the assumption that physical interactions propagate instantaneously (at infinite speed) – showing one of the ways the methods of classical physics are unable to explain phenomena associated with relativity.
Gravitational-wave astronomy is a branch of observational astronomy that uses gravitational waves to collect observational data about sources of detectable gravitational waves such as binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; and events such as supernovae, and the formation of the early universe shortly after the Big Bang.
In 1993, Russell A. Hulse and Joseph H. Taylor, Jr. received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the discovery and observation of the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, which offered the first indirect evidence of the existence of gravitational waves.On 11 February 2016, the LIGO and Virgo Scientific Collaboration announced they had made the first direct observation of gravitational waves. The observation was made five months earlier, on 14 September 2015, using the Advanced LIGO detectors. The gravitational waves originated from a pair of merging black holes. After the initial announcement the LIGO instruments detected two more confirmed, and one potential, gravitational wave events. In August 2017, the two LIGO instruments and the Virgo instrument observed a fourth gravitational wave from merging black holes, and a fifth gravitational wave from a binary neutron star merger. Several other gravitational wave detectors are planned or under construction.In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish for their role in the direct detection of gravitational waves.Hulse
Hulse is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Cale Hulse, Canadian hockey player
Chuck Hulse (born 1927), American racecar driver
David Hulse (born 1968), American baseball player
Edward Henry Hulse (1859 — 1903), British politician.
Frank Hulse (1913 — 1992), founder and former chairman of Southern Airways.
John Hulse, English theologian
Mark Hulse, an English fitness guru and currently appointed Fitness Coach at Newcastle United
Michael Hulse, British translator and poet
Russell Alan Hulse, American physicist
Rob Hulse, a professional footballer, currently playing for Queens Park Rangers F.C.
Samuel Hulse (1747/8 — 1831) British Field MarshalHulse–Taylor binary
PSR B1913+16 (also known as PSR J1915+1606, PSR 1913+16, and the Hulse–Taylor binary after its discoverers) is a pulsar (a radiating neutron star) which together with another neutron star is in orbit around a common center of mass, thus forming a binary star system. PSR 1913+16 was the first binary pulsar to be discovered. It was discovered by Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr., of the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1974. Their discovery of the system and analysis of it earned them the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation."Index of physics articles (R)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (born March 29, 1941) is an American astrophysicist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his discovery with Russell Alan Hulse of a "new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation."List of Christians in science and technology
This is a list of Christians in science and technology. Persons in this list should have their Christianity as relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as Christians or as of a Christian denomination.List of Nobel laureates
The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Cornell University
This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Cornell University comprehensively shows the Cornell-affiliated individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901. The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.As of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Cornell University as alumni, faculty members and researchers, and 50 of them are officially listed as "Cornell's Nobel Laureates" by the university. Among the 58 laureates, 18 are Cornell alumni (graduate and attendees), 19 are long-term faculty members and 25 are researchers (four overlaps). Subject-wise, the Nobel Prize categories of Physics and Physiology or Medicine account for 21 and 14 awards to Cornell-affiliated laureates, respectively. People affiliated with Cornell also have received 12 Nobel Prizes for Chemistry, 4 for Literature, 5 for Economics, and 2 Nobel Peace Prizes.List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University
This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University comprehensively shows the Princeton-affiliated individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901. The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the "Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel" (commonly known as the Nobel Economics Prize), was established in 1968 (first awarded in 1969) by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.As of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University, and 43 of them are officially listed as "Princeton's Nobel Laureates" by Princeton University for being alumni or having "performed their award-winning work at Princeton, were employed by Princeton when they received their award, or are currently working at the University". Among the 65 laureates, 19 are Princeton alumni (graduates and attendees), 25 have been long-term academic members of the Princeton faculty and 29 have been short-term researchers (eight overlaps). Subject-wise, 27 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject.
Woodrow Wilson, the former president of Princeton, was the first Princeton-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Four Nobel Prizes (same subject in the same year) were shared by Princeton laureates: James Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics, Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. won the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics, David Gross and Frank Wilczek won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics, and Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won the 2011 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.List of Nobel laureates in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics. As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.List of physicists
Following is a list of physicists who are notable for their achievements.November 28
November 28 is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 33 days remain until the end of the year.Quakers in science
The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, encouraged some values which may have been conducive to encouraging scientific talents. A theory suggested by David Hackett Fischer in his book Albion's Seed indicated early Quakers in the US preferred "practical study" to the more traditional studies of Greek or Latin popular with the elite. Another theory suggests their avoidance of dogma or clergy gave them a greater flexibility in response to science.
Despite those arguments a major factor is agreed to be that the Quakers were initially discouraged or forbidden to go to the major law or humanities schools in Britain due to the Test Act. They also at times faced similar discriminations in the United States, as many of the colonial universities had a Puritan or Anglican orientation. This led them to attend "Godless" institutions or forced them to rely on hands-on scientific experimentation rather than academia.
Because of these issues it has been stated that Quakers are better represented in science than most religions. Some sources, including Pendlehill (Thomas 2000) and Encyclopædia Britannica, indicate that for over two centuries they were overrepresented in the Royal Society. Mention is made of this possibility in studies referenced in religiosity and intelligence and in a book by Arthur Raistrick. Regardless of whether this is still accurate, there have been several noteworthy members of this denomination in science. The following names a few.Timeline of scientific discoveries
The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.
1993 Nobel Prize laureates
Toni Morrison (United States)
|Physiology or Medicine|