Running up the score

In North American sports, "running up the score" occurs when a team continues to play in such a way as to score additional points after the outcome of the game is no longer in question and the team is assured of winning. In the United States and Canada, it is considered poor sportsmanship to "run up the score" in most circumstances (exceptions are listed below). Sporting alternatives include pulling out most of the team's first string players, or calling plays designed to run out the clock (e.g., in American football, kneeling or running the ball up the middle). The term and the concept are not common elsewhere in the world. Mercy rules are used in many amateur sports, which ends the game when the score reaches a certain point.

The most common negative consequences of running up the score are injuries to a game's starting players, lack of experience for the non-starting players on the team (in those cases where starters are left in a game well after the outcome is certain), and motivating future opposing teams. Players on the losing side who feel disrespected may decide to vent their frustration through violent or unsporting play, which can lead to injuries and fights, and even post-game punishment such as fines or suspension from future play.

Some have advocated in favor of running up the score using arguments which include catering to polls, getting additional experience, and to prevent comebacks.

Running up the score is considered poor sportsmanship by many fans, players, and coaches but with different opinions how big an insult it is.[1][2][3] Allegations of poor sportsmanship are often brought up soon after a team scores multiple times near the end of a one-sided match.[4]

Justifications

Benefits in the BCS and other polls

Some sports have used polls for determining matches and championships. Certain coaches are notorious for running up the score to impress coaches and sportswriters who vote in the Amway Coaches Poll or AP Poll. It is a common allegation that some poll voters simply look at box scores before punching in their votes.[5] When the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) existed in college football, the votes had a huge impact on who went to BCS games, including the national championship. Only by watching the game or game tape (or by careful box-score scrutiny) can a coach determine if a 49–21 score was caused by a fairly one-sided game or the winning team trying to make the score look more impressive when the game's outcome was certain. The BCS computers originally included margin of victory as a component, but the BCS removed that element after noticing large increases in teams running up the score.

From the 2014 season, the BCS was replaced by the College Football Playoff (CFP). Polls do not play a role in determining CFP participants; instead, these teams are chosen by a selection committee similar to that used in the NCAA basketball tournament selection process.

Practice

Some fans of teams whose coaches frequently run up the score may also note that running up the score has its advantages. Though many coaches who run up the score do it with only their first-string players, a coach who uses his third- and fourth-string players can give them vital in-game experience if he allows them to do more than just kneel on the football or run the ball up the middle. When they are not allowed to make passing and running plays that the first- and second-stringers get to make, their skills may not develop as quickly.

Alternatively, in college sports with many players from successful teams having hopes of becoming professionals, running up the score gives players the chance to improve their statistics and to show off skills that the conventional offense would not allow. While it may be seen as poor sportsmanship, as there is no guarantee that any player will be picked for the professional leagues, every opportunity to bolster stats and impress scouts can be seen as improving the professional prospects of the players.

Gameplay

It is also argued that it can be used as a preventative measure to prevent a huge comeback. In 2006, Penn State lost to Notre Dame 41–17. Notre Dame justified running up the score because Penn State was known for late comebacks. Supporters of preventatively running up the score will often point to games such as the 2006 Insight Bowl where Minnesota blew a 38–7 lead in the third quarter, to eventually lose 44–41 to Texas Tech.[6]

In addition, many leagues use tiebreakers if two or more teams are tied in the standings; one common tiebreaker when multiple teams are involved (such as when three teams are tied, with no team having beaten both of the others) is "point differential" (calculated as the difference between the number of points a team scores vs. the number of points a team allows against common opponents); "running up a score" can help their chances of winning positions and stop the other team from scoring as well (though some leagues counter that by placing a cap on the number of points which can be counted in a point differential, such as no more than 14; then, even if the score is 49–0, only 14 points will count in the tiebreaker).

Other justifications

An argument frequently used in favor of running up the score is the belief that it is not the coach's or winning team's fault if a weak team is unable to stop a high-powered offensive juggernaut.[7] Florida State coach Bobby Bowden contended that it was not his job to call plays that are inconsistent with his regular offense. He felt that the prevention of further scoring was the responsibility of the opposing team's defense. Also, some coaches advocate running up the score to make another point, such as showing disapproval of comments made by opposing players, coaches, etc., in the media.

Running up the score in professional leagues generally generates significantly less controversy and indeed the term is far less common. While there are numerous reasons to run out the clock, there is no reason not to score more points if the situation allows. As all teams are professionals, even perceived underdogs have the potential to score points quickly if they are given the chance. Even teams with a dominant lead have a strong interest in maintaining possession to run down the clock, which often puts them in the position to score more points.

At all levels of play, it is generally accepted that players or teams close to breaking significant records can run up the score without it being seen as overtly disrespectful. In fact, many offensive records almost require running up the score to be in contention as a result of records set in eras in which leagues were less balanced, seasons were of a different length, or rules were substantially different.

In American football

College football

Florida

With Alltel Stadium (now TIAA Bank Field) still under construction in 1995, Florida visited Georgia in Athens, Georgia at Sanford Stadium for the first time in 63 years. With a 38–17 lead going into the fourth quarter over Georgia, Florida head coach Steve Spurrier decided to run up the score to "hang half a hundred" on the scoreboard to humiliate their opponents on their home field, something that had never been done before. His team succeeded with a final score of 52–17. That record still stands as the most points ever scored by an opposing team at Sanford Stadium.

Georgia Tech

On October 7, 1916, Georgia Tech defeated the Cumberland College Bulldogs 222–0. Cumberland had previously disbanded their football team, but quickly formed a scrub team when faced with fines if they refused to play. Georgia Tech scored 63 points in the first quarter and 63 points in the second quarter, then 54 points in the third quarter and 42 points in the fourth. Cumberland did not record a first down during the game. Georgia Tech won under the coaching of John Heisman, who wanted revenge after an embarrassing 22–0 loss earlier that year to a Cumberland baseball team that he suspected of having used professional players posing as students.

Houston

On November 23, 1968, the University of Houston defeated the University of Tulsa 100–6. Though they had a 24–0 advantage at halftime, Houston scored 11 touchdowns in the second half for an astounding 94-point blowout. They came close again in 1989, routing a Southern Methodist (SMU) team fresh off the so-called death penalty by a score of 95–21.

Houston coach John Jenkins was known for leaving his starters in to pad their stats during blowout games but against SMU he did not. In 1990, Houston defeated Eastern Washington University 84–21 to help QB David Klingler set an NCAA record 54 touchdown passes in 11 games that season. The next year, 1991, they would blow out Louisiana Tech University 73–3 in the opening game of the season.

Miami

On November 30, 1985, the University of Miami Hurricanes were playing the Fighting Irish of Notre Dame in Gerry Faust's final game as Notre Dame head coach. The Hurricanes, led by Jimmy Johnson, were trying to impress pollsters since they were ranked fourth in the polls prior to the game. The Hurricanes called a fake punt on fourth-and-11 in the fourth quarter with a 44–7 lead, scored a touchdown off a blocked punt with less than six minutes left, and went on to win 58–7. Miami was rewarded in the AP poll as it passed idle Iowa to reach No. 3 and set up a possible national championship with a victory over Tennessee in the Sugar Bowl. Receiving criticism after the game, Johnson replied, "Nobody apologized to me when Oklahoma did it", a reference to a 1980 rout by the score of 63–14 when Johnson was head coach at Oklahoma State University. Miami would go on to lose to Tennessee, 35–7, in the 1986 Sugar Bowl.

Notre Dame

Notre Dame crushed Georgia Tech 69–14 in 1977. The Fighting Irish led 21–7 at halftime but scored 21 points in the third quarter and 27 in the fourth. Only a missed extra point after ND's eighth touchdown kept the Irish from scoring 70 points for the first time since 1932 and only the second time in Notre Dame Stadium history. After ND took a 62–7 lead, Georgia Tech scored its only second half points on a kickoff return for a touchdown by Eddie Lee Ivery; the Irish would not surrender another kickoff return for a touchdown until 21 years later, against Kevin Faulk and LSU in 1998. The blowout was payback for a 23–14 upset victory by Georgia Tech over Notre Dame in 1976, after which Yellow Jacket players were quoted as deriding the Fighting Irish as fat and slow. There also was bad blood between ND coach Dan Devine and GT coach Pepper Rodgers, dating back to the days when they coached arch-rivals Missouri and Kansas, respectively; Devine's Tigers had mauled Rodgers's Jayhawks 69–21 in the 1969 season finale in Lawrence. The 1977 humiliation of Georgia Tech did not impact Notre Dame's poll standing; they remained No. 5 in the AP poll—but the Fighting Irish won the rest of their games to finish 11–1 and win the 1977 national championship.

Notre Dame annihilated Boston College 54–7 in a 1992 game where Fighting Irish coach Lou Holtz called a fake punt on the first series of the third quarter, with his team already possessing an enormous (albeit not technically insurmountable) 37–0 lead. A year later, Boston College stunned then-No. 1 Notre Dame 41–39 in the final regular season game of the year, knocking the Fighting Irish to No. 4 in the AP poll and paving the way for Florida State to be voted national champions.

While playing at longtime rival Stanford in 2003, Notre Dame head coach Tyrone Willingham allowed his punter to call a fake punt in response to a punt block read while the Fighting Irish led 57–7 late in the fourth quarter.[8] Willingham was formerly head coach at Stanford.

Ohio State

In 1968, the Ohio State Buckeyes, en route to a national championship, defeated their bitter rival, the Michigan Wolverines, 50–14. Late in the game, Ohio State held a commanding 44–14 advantage and scored one final touchdown. Rather than taking the more common extra point kick, Ohio State head coach Woody Hayes opted for a two-point conversion, which was unsuccessful. When asked later why he went for two points, Hayes said, "Because I couldn't go for three!", though players have commented that there was some sort of confusion on the extra point kick, and Hayes was just covering for his players.

The following season, the heavily favored Buckeyes fell to the Wolverines, with Bo Schembechler using the 50-14 blowout as a motivation.

Oklahoma

On November 8, 2003, the Oklahoma Sooners showed little mercy against Texas A&M Aggies, cruising to a 49–0 halftime lead. Oklahoma head coach Bob Stoops denied running up the score as his second string players came out in the 3rd quarter and put up 28 more points to finish with a final score of 77–0 and 639 yards of total offense. This was the worst loss in Texas A&M football history. In Stoops' defense, the coaches agreed to a running clock during most of the second half and the entire 4th quarter. Also, at one point in the fourth quarter, Oklahoma had first and goal inside the A&M five-yard-line with a chance to score over 80 points, but Stoops called four consecutive runs up the middle to prevent another score.

Oklahoma State

In their 2012 season opener, the Oklahoma State Cowboys defeated the Savannah State Tigers 84–0. In defense of the lop-sided result, interim defense coordinator Glenn Spencer claimed the shutout was a tribute to the team's full-time defensive coordinator Bill Young, who had recently undergone an undisclosed medical procedure.[9] It ended up as the most lopsided victory for OSU since a 117–0 rout of Southwestern Oklahoma in 1916 and Savannah State's worst loss since a 98–0 defeat against Bethune-Cookman in 1953, a season when the Tigers were outscored 444–6.

Penn State

Although longtime Penn State head coach Joe Paterno was regarded by some as one who did everything he could to avoid running up the score, such as in a 63–10 win over Illinois in 2005 where Penn State held a 56–3 halftime lead, Pitt partisan journalist Beano Cook claimed he made an exception in 1985 against hated rival Pitt. The game was well in hand with the score 31–0 when the assistants called the first string team off the field. Paterno supposedly immediately ordered them back in, saying, "I want to bury Pitt."[10] Paterno's 1991 Penn State team is often accused of running it up on Cincinnati 81–0, but this was refuted by the Bearcat's coach Tim Murphy, who said "I think Joe's a class guy and I don't believe he'd do that in a hundred years," Murphy said. "We made too many mistakes even for a first game of the season and that's my fault. I'm embarrassed, not Joe Paterno."[11]

Stanford

In the early 2000s, Stanford was considered the bottom-dweller of the Pac-10, whereas in-state rival USC was named the "Team of the Decade" by both CBSSports.com and Football.com, as well as the "Program of the Decade" by SI.com.[12] However, after the arrival of head coach Jim Harbaugh to The Farm in 2007 and Stanford's record-breaking upset of the Trojans that fall, the Stanford-USC rivalry began to pick up in intensity and importance. During their 2009 meeting, Stanford was crushing USC in the Coliseum, leading 42–21 midway through the fourth quarter. After a touchdown run by future Heisman Trophy runner-up Toby Gerhart to bring the score to 48–21, Harbaugh kept the Cardinal offense on the field to attempt a two-point conversion. When asked what was going on, Harbaugh said, "I want to put fifty on these motherfuckers."[13] The two-point conversion was unsuccessful, but Stanford would later score in the final minutes of the game, and ultimately won 55–21 after scoring 27 points in the fourth quarter.[14] It was the worst home loss in USC history at the time, and is USC's largest margin of defeat in the Stanford-USC rivalry.

After the game, USC head coach Pete Carroll approached Harbaugh and, visibly angry, asked "What's your deal? You alright?" To which Harbaugh retorted "I'm fine. What's your deal?" This moment (in addition to the aforementioned Stanford upset of #1 USC in 2007) is seen by many as the turning point of the Stanford Cardinal football program, which since 2010 has been one of the winningest programs in college football.[15]

Texas A&M

In the same 2003 season that Oklahoma defeated Texas A&M 77–0 (see above), A&M themselves ran up the score in a 73–10 home romp against Baylor University. A&M naturally entered the rematch a year later as huge favorites, and the game was to be played the week prior to the major rematch game against Oklahoma. Perhaps too busy awaiting their moment of revenge against the Sooners the week to come, Texas A&M succumbed to the Baylor team they had humiliated the year before. As the Bears only managed three wins that entire 2004 season, the revenge-minded Baylor team's 35–34 overtime victory was arguably the biggest upset of the year. (Texas A&M did end up losing to Oklahoma again the following week, as well, although this time only by a score of 42–35.)

Washington and Oregon

The largest margin of victory turnaround in Division I-A football in successive years belongs to the University of Washington and the University of Oregon and showcased two prime examples of running up the score. In 1973, Oregon ran up the score at home, burying Washington 58–0. A year later, Washington responded with a 66–0 drubbing of Oregon back home in Seattle. In that game, Washington's starting quarterback Chris Rowland played longer than necessary and suffered a season-ending knee injury. Rowland recalled that Washington head coach Jim Owens "wanted me in and said, 'We're going to beat these guys more than they beat us.' He [Owens] apologized to me because it was a personal thing for him."

BYU and Utah

The BYU-Utah football rivalry's history is replete with lopsided games on both sides. During the early days of the BYU football program, the Cougars would frequently be blown away by physically superior Utah teams. At one point, between the years of 1931–37, Utah outscored BYU by a combined score of 200–6.[16] The tide changed with BYU's hiring of LaVell Edwards, who brought the program credibility (not to mention a consensus national championship in 1984). During the Edwards years, the Cougars were regularly accused of running the score up mercilessly against the Utes. Years where this was particularly true included 1977 (38–8), 1980 (56–6), 1981 (56–28), 1983 (55–7), and 1989 (70–31). Normally, this practice was orchestrated by Edwards' assistants, such as touchdown-happy offensive coordinator Doug Scovil. Perhaps the most infamous example of Scovil's tendency toward scoring at all times was the 1977 match-up between the two teams. BYU quarterback Marc Wilson was in the midst of a spectacular sophomore season, and Utah was struggling defensively. During the fourth quarter, having already passed for 555 yards and four scores, Wilson was benched with his team leading 31–8. However, a member of the stadium press contingent recognized that Wilson had left the game just six yards shy of the NCAA single-game passing record. Scovil was informed, and promptly sent Wilson back into the game; the quarterback promptly threw an eight yard pass that gave him the record. Scovil indicated for him to remain in the game, and he subsequently threw a fifth touchdown pass, giving BYU a 38–8 victory. Utah head coach Wayne Howard was enraged, and that incident helped fuel the venom of the rivalry moving forward.[17]

Professional football

Explosion 138, Force 0
The Erie Explosion, earning 138 points in a shutout win against the Fayetteville Force, ran up the score to set a modern professional football record in 2011.

Running up the score is rarely done by teams in the National Football League (NFL) and other professional American football leagues. A primary reason is that starting players and coaches are paid hundreds of thousands to millions of dollars each year, which is affected by how the players and the team performs during the season. Any attempt to run up the score increases the risks of losing a key player to an injury that could affect the team's chances for the rest of the season. Thus, if a team decides to keep their stars in during a blowout, it is usually viewed by the opponent as an insult. Another factor is that the parity that the salary cap has brought to the NFL in the 1990s has evened out competition somewhat, with less talent disparity between the best and worst teams compared to the past. It is much more difficult to run up the score to embarrassing (50+ point) margins in the modern game at the pro level. The greatest margin of victory at the professional level happened in the 1940 NFL Championship Game won by the Chicago Bears over the Washington Redskins 73–0. In 1976, the Los Angeles Rams defeated the Atlanta Falcons 59–0, a margin which was matched in 2009 when the New England Patriots defeated the Tennessee Titans in the New England snow. Most recently, the New Orleans Saints defeated the Indianapolis Colts 62–7 on October 23, 2011, and the Seattle Seahawks defeated the Arizona Cardinals 58–0 on December 9, 2012.

The one exception to this general rule is in regards to the NFL's tiebreaking rules that are used to determine which teams qualify for the playoffs if they are tied in the standings. One criterion to break ties is comparing the total number of points scored by each team during the regular season. Under this scenario, running up the score in a late season game is not considered poor sportsmanship because there is a benefit to having the score higher. This scenario almost occurred during the 1999 season when the Green Bay Packers could possibly have made the playoffs if the Dallas Cowboys had lost and they had scored enough points against the Arizona Cardinals in their final regular season game to surpass the Carolina Panthers in total points scored. They ended up beating the Cardinals 49–24 (not a huge margin of victory by football standards), but Dallas went on to beat the Giants later that day to earn the final playoff spot and knock the Packers out of the playoff picture anyway.

Accusations of running up the score are unusual in the NFL (except in playoff races), but not unheard of. One of the most notorious occurred on November 17, 1985, when the New York Jets defeated the Tampa Bay Buccaneers 62-28 in a regular season game. The two teams had last met in the final game of the previous season, when Tampa Bay had somewhat controversially appeared to stop playing defense and allowing the Jets to score late in a 41–21 victory in an apparent effort to get the ball back so that running back James Wilder could attempt to break the NFL record for most yards from scrimmage in a season. Commentators wondered if the Jets' huge margin of victory was a way of retaliating against the Bucs for such poor sportsmanship, but the Jets and their coaches denied that there had been any conscious effort to run the score up. The Jets' denials may be valid since Bucs coach John McKay, who allowed the Jets to score late in the 1984 contest, retired after the '84 season and had been replaced by Leeman Bennett, and also the Jets were 11-5 in 1985 and reached the playoffs, while Tampa Bay was in the midst of back-to-back 2-14 seasons in 1985 and '86.

A Monday Night Football game in 1996 between the Green Bay Packers and Dallas Cowboys ended in a 21-6 Cowboy victory [18] and some complaints by Green Bay players that the home team's final field goal was an insult to them, as Dallas had the ball deep in Green Bay territory with the game well in hand as it ended, yet chose to score more points anyway. However, the final field goal was not an attempt at embarrassment, but at a record – Cowboys coach Barry Switzer wanted to give kicker Chris Boniol a chance to tie the then-NFL record for most field goals in a game (seven). Similarly, during the 2011 Saints' 62-7 victory, while the margin of victory was very large and the game was almost beyond doubt at halftime, Drew Brees had thrown below his average number of yards. Keeping him and the first offense playing contributed towards his breaking of the single season all time passing record later in the year, and edging out Tom Brady who also broke the old record that season. While it may be considered derisive to the opponents for coaches to push for records, they are a mark in history for the players and the coaches and it is generally accepted among critics that chasing records is not bad sportsmanship or running up the score per se.

While some teams who regularly score very large number of points are occasionally criticized for running up the score, it is debatable at exactly what point scoring additional points becomes running up the score. Given recent comebacks such as The Miracle at the New Meadowlands and Super Bowl LI, and how quickly points can be accumulated (through interception returns, onside kicks and kick returns), it is understandable that coaches are cautious about becoming overconfident in their offenses and they normally prefer to run out the clock rather than risk an unlikely but certainly possible comeback late in the game, particularly for teams who have a strong offense but a weaker defense.

During the 2011 season, the three teams with the best offenses (New England, Green Bay and New Orleans) also had the worst defenses, which explains why none of those teams were happy to run out the clock, instead always pressuring for points. The current salary cap rules mean that it is nearly impossible for a team to have an excellent offense and defense over any period of time, particularly as cheaper players who play very well one year will likely cost more in the next year. Such tactics are generally referred to as 'Keeping their foot on the gas', and is generally not frowned upon in the NFL.

The most egregious known case of running up the score in professional football is believed to have taken place in 1904, when the Massillon Tigers, in the pre-forward pass era, racked up 26 touchdowns and 18 extra points to amass a score of 148-0 against a team from Marion, Ohio. (Touchdowns only counted five points in this era.) A similar rout had occurred in 1903 when the Watertown Red & Black obliterated an opponent from Cortland, New York by a score of 142-0. Under then-current rules, the team that had scored received the kickoff instead of kicking it as it is today; however, it was much easier and more common to perform onside kicks in this era, and as far as it's known, neither Marion nor Cortland attempted one. As such, neither team ever touched the ball after receiving the opening possession. The third-highest total in professional football history is much more recent, and happened in an indoor football game, where scores tend to be much higher than in the traditional outdoor game. In 2011, the Erie Explosion indoor football team racked up 138 points in a shutout victory over the Fayetteville Force. Having blown out the Force 42-0 in the first quarter alone thanks to three Force pick-sixes (including one achieved by a lateral), the Explosion continued to pile on, offering free tickets if the Explosion hit 100 points; when the players and head coach Shawn Liotta were told that the indoor record was 133 points (they were not informed of the overall pro record), they decided to attempt to break it, a feat they succeeded in achieving.

There is one definite instance of running up the score in NFL History. In 1987, during the NFL strike, the Dallas Cowboys, who had many starters cross the picket line such as Hall of Famers Randy White and Tony Dorsett, and starting QB Danny White. The Cowboys destroyed the Eagles 41-22 in one of the three strike games played in the 1987 season. To get back at the Cowboys, when the teams faced off again later in the season, Coach Buddy Ryan called a passing play on 3rd down with 1:00 left to play in the game after taking a knee on first and second down, even though the Eagles has the game won handily at a score of 30-20. The pass was incomplete but was called for pass interference, moving the Eagles to the 1 yardline, where the foul was called. The Eagles then proceeded to score another touchdown and finish the game 37-20. Because both teams finished 7-8 and failed to make the playoffs that season, this moment is not remembered as much as the 1987 Replacement game between the Washington Redskins and the Dallas Cowboys. This moment was also overshadowed by the future success of the Eagles, the Cowboys failures in the late 1980’s, and Buddy Ryan’s heavily publicized feud against his former coach Mike Ditka. [19]

In other sports

Basketball

In basketball, some coaches of vastly superior teams team will keep in their starters in the latter stages of a grossly one-sided game (e.g., less than ten minutes left in the second half of a college game; or well into the fourth quarter of a high school or NBA game). Players may be told to continue to aggressively apply full-court pressure (in order to steal the ball), block shots, break away for slam dunks, or try three-point baskets and other fan-pleasing shots.

A team that is trailing by an undefined margin sometimes may prolong the game by fouling the opponent on every possession, in an effort to extend its chances of a comeback — although teams that utilize this strategy often do so only when the game is still somewhat competitive. However, this strategy does not always work, particularly if the fouled players or team is able to connect on free throws.

In cases where the score is lopsided much earlier in the game, the most common option is to just "play it out" as if it were a scrimmage, by trying to take the best shot possible and also attempt some sort of defense (without any taboos against fan-pleasing shots and plays). This is usually referred to as "garbage time", and while generally frowned upon for a lack of excitement it is considered to be the best way of ending a thoroughly uncompetitive game with minimal amounts of pride lost by the weaker side.[20]

Running up the score was a key element in the Knicks–Nuggets brawl on December 16, 2006, as New York coach Isiah Thomas accused Denver coach George Karl of implementing it late in the game. Karl defended himself by citing many games where his team had lost large leads late.[21]

Former Oklahoma Sooners basketball coach Billy Tubbs was often accused of running up the score against inferior opponents. On November 29, 1989, Tubbs' team went so far as to score 97 points in the first half of a game against U.S. International. Oklahoma won the game in a 173–101 rout. Asked repeatedly about running up the score against opponents, Tubbs once famously replied, "If they don't like it, they should get better."

Occasionally, teams will run up the score because of crowd encouragement. Crowd encouragement can occur whether or not there is a physical incentive involved. Often, a crowd will start chanting "X more points" near the end of a game, where X is the number of points needed to reach 100. This usually occurs when the team is within 5 points of reaching the 100-point mark.[22] Also, crowd encouragement can happen as the result of a promotion for ticket-holders. In a Bradley home game against Wichita State, coach Jim Les put in some reserve players during the last 1–2 minutes of the game after the score got to 62–50. During the final possession, the crowd started to yell "Shoot shoot shoot" because the season ticket-holders would get a buy-one-get-one-free rib-eye steak dinner at a local restaurant if the score reached 63. One of the Bradley players launched a buzzer-beating 3 because of the crowd encouragement and it went in, making the final score 65–50.[23][24] Similarly, during a 2014 game against Southern Virginia, BYU basketball led 98-48 with the clock running down. In response to chants of "Hundred! Hundred!" from the student section, Cougar reserve guard Jake Toolson launched a deep three-pointer as time expired. It was good, making the final score 101-48. Although the BYU fans and bench reacted with delight, Cougar head coach Dave Rose was upset by the incident. Toolson himself was privately reprimanded.[25]

Baseball

In baseball, an unwritten gentlemen's agreement between teams is said to discourage a team from sacrifice bunting, stealing bases, or other small ball tactics when leading by a large margin late in a game, even though a losing team can theoretically come back from any deficit to win. Batters do not specifically try to make outs (e.g. by swinging at pitches with no intent to hit them) as this would insult the opposing team, violate the spirit of the game, and hurt their own batting average.

Amateur, high school, and international baseball games often have a mercy rule so that games end sooner when the lead is deemed to be insurmountable (e.g. by 10 runs after 5 innings). However, since the home team always gets one final at-bat if they are trailing, the visiting team can in theory score unlimited runs in the top half of the inning.

Curling

One of the unique rules of curling allows for the losing team to concede a match at any time, thereby preventing blowouts from occurring. In fact, it is sometimes considered unsportsmanlike for a team that is losing badly to not concede. For some major events, a game must play a certain amount of ends to be considered complete. As a protest, some teams that would have conceded earlier in the match may not take the game seriously at that point.

Before teams were allowed to concede matches well before the normal end of the game, blowouts were common.

Ice hockey

In ice hockey, complaints are quite rare, for the simple reason that unless there is a gross disparity in skill, teams generally do not score large numbers of goals at will against the opposition. A mercy rule also may come into effect at pre-high-school levels, where such disparities might come into play as a matter of course. Another tactic could be the coach of the leading team telling his team that everybody must touch the puck before a shot is taken.

Association football

In professional soccer, the concept of "running up the score" is mostly unheard of; many league competitions use goal difference or goal average as a tiebreaker, meaning there is considerable incentive to win by as wide a margin of victory as possible. This method resulted in the world record for the number of goals scored in a single game, in the 2001 FIFA World Cup qualifier between Australia and American Samoa, in which the Australian team scored a record 31 goals.

In 2002, a club team from Madagascar called SO l'Emyrne ran up the score on themselves while protesting what they believed to be unfair officiating during an end of season round-robin series. They kicked the ball into their own goal 149 times in a row during a game against local rival AS Adema.[26]

Australian rules football

There is no negative stigma associated with running up the score in Australian rules football. The only tiebreaker used in most leagues is the ratio of points for versus points against, so this system encourages teams to record large scores and winning margins, and this occurs frequently when there is a disparity between ability.[27] This occurs in all levels of play, particularly in metropolitan and country leagues, where weaker teams can often be beaten by as much as 200 points. Significantly, the sport lacks any obvious means to kill off a match quickly and painlessly, and time-wasting is both unpopular with fans and discouraged by the laws of the game.

Rugby

Running up the score is a regular occurence in both forms of rugby, with scoring tries encouraged to the very end. There have been many notable occurences in both forms, but internationally the records for largest winning margin is:

•Rugby League: Australia def Russia 110-4 (2000 Rugby League World Cup)

•Rugby Union: Australia def Namibia 142-0 (2003 Rugby World Cup)

High schools

Vast talent discrepancies between opponents happen more often in high school sports than in college or professional sports. This is especially prevalent in district competition (where schools of similar size are grouped based on geography) and regional single-elimination tournaments in which all schools (regardless of record) participate. It is even more prevalent in Kentucky high school basketball, in which a single state championship for each sex is conducted; this in turn means that district and regional competitions, and even the state tournaments, will feature games involving schools that differ vastly in enrollment. Often, a state's athletic association will seed a vastly superior team (one that has gone undefeated or has very few losses) against a very weak team in the first round (so as to avoid early-round matchups between high-seeded teams, hoping to leave those matchups for later rounds), and the talent disparity between the two teams quickly becomes obvious. (Kentucky has never seeded its state tournaments, using a blind draw to fill its brackets.)

One notorious example of many such incidents that happen each year throughout the United States was the state-ranked Walkerville, Michigan High School's (enrollment 98) 115–2 victory against Hart, Michigan Lakeshore Academy (enrollment 49) in a Class D district opener during the 2004 Michigan High School Girls' Basketball state tournament.

In light of similar incidents, coaches are often accused of running up the score and taking the opportunity to humiliate and embarrass a weak opponent. At times, large margins of victory occur in games where the winning school's reserves (second-string and junior varsity players) played a good share of the contest and simply were able to score at will against the weaker opposition. However, when the star players are left in to set scoring records, as happened with Epiphanny Prince's 113-point basketball game in 2006, criticism usually follows.[28]

Since 2006, the Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference has considered any victory margin of 50 points or more in a football game to be unsportsmanlike. If this occurs, the winning team's coach will be suspended for the team's next game. This was in response to one coach, Jack Cochran of New London, whose teams won that way four times during 2005. During the 2005 season, Jack Cochran's New London High School football team, the highest scoring offense in CT, was shut out 16–0 by the Windham High School Whippets. In response to being shut out for the first time in his career, the following week Cochran had his team run up the score 90–0 against a much weaker opponent. The victory provoked a brawl and led to disorderly conduct charges against the losing coach. Coach Cochran defended himself by saying that in one 90–0 blowout, he had tried to get both teams and the timekeeper to run the clock continuously, as is done in Iowa when one team has a 35-point lead. The CIAC considered a similar proposal but rejected as several members felt it would cut into backups' playing time.[29]

During a 2007 Kansas State High School Activities Association playoff game, Smith Center High School set a National Federation of State High School Associations record by scoring 72 points in the first quarter vs. Plainville. Coincidentally, the same two teams played each other only 25 days prior to the playoff contest, with Smith Center winning 72–0. During the regular season game, a continuous clock was triggered when the score differential reached 40 points, but there was no such provision in the rules at the time for its use in the playoffs. Smith Center administrators called the KSHSAA office and received permission to use the running clock starting with the second quarter of the second game with Plainville. (To avoid a recurrence, in 2011 the KSHSAA adopted a modified mercy rule for the playoffs, stating any 11-man postseason contest prior to the championship game would use a running clock in the second half once the margin reached 45 points.)

In October 2008, Naples High School defeated Estero High School, Florida 91–0. Naples was the defending Florida High School Athletic Association Class 3A champion. Despite accusations that Naples ran up the score, Coach Bill Kramer kept most of his star players out of the game for most, if not all of the game. Some Naples parents consequently called the coach to complain that their sons did not play.[30]

In a January 13, 2009 girls' basketball game, Covenant School of Dallas defeated Dallas Academy 100-0.[31]

In 1926, Haven High School of Haven, Kansas defeated Sylvia High School by a score of 256–0, the highest recorded score in the history of American football.[32]

On January 5, 2015, the San Bernardino Arroyo Valley (CA) High School girls' basketball team obliterated Bloomington High by a score of 161–2. Ten days later, San Bernardino suspended coach Michael Anderson for two games.[33]

In popular culture

The comic strip Funky Winkerbean had a week-long storyline in September 2015 where Westview High School football's coach, Bull Bushka, is brought before the school board after a parent from an opposing high school filed a complaint that Bushka had intentionally run up the score; Westview, which often is comically portrayed as being on the losing end of one-sided games, had defeated rival Optimism High 93–0. Bushka, however, is quickly vindicated when he mentions that he had pulled his starters, there was a continuous clock in the entire second half and he had not run a passing play.

References

  1. ^ Lewis, Brian (April 13, 2007). "Skiles On Running Up Score: Pure Bull". New York Post. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29.
  2. ^ "Getting grilled". Chicago Tribune. April 13, 2007. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
  3. ^ "Ron Kantowski on need for passing rules against running up the score". Las Vegas Sun News. June 19, 2006. Archived from the original on 2013-05-27.
  4. ^ Dickens, Bill (October 11, 2005). "Some high school coaches say others aren't practicing proper blowout etiquette". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 2012-10-03.
  5. ^ Kiper, Mel (November 3, 2000). "Like it or not, blowouts count". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 2004-02-22.
  6. ^ "Texas Tech Red Raiders vs. Minnesota Golden Gophers – Box Score". ESPN.com. December 29, 2006. Archived from the original on 2014-01-02.
  7. ^ "Fernami's SportingBlog – Running Up The Score". SportingNews.com. April 11, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30.
  8. ^ "Irish's fake punt in rout still gnaws at Cardinal". cincinnati.com (from Associated Press). October 9, 2004.
  9. ^ "Oklahoma State Cowboys dedicate shutout to ill coordinator Bill Young". ESPN.com. September 2, 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-09-02.
  10. ^ http://www.collegian.psu.edu/archives/article_19b4cad4-03a6-592b-832c-54cb5879e3cf.html?mode=jqm
  11. ^ http://articles.latimes.com/1991-09-08/sports/sp-2993_1_penn-state
  12. ^ http://www.usctrojans.com/blog/11prenotes.fb.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.stanforddaily.com/2013/06/27/rags-to-roses-excerpt-going-for-two/
  14. ^ http://espn.go.com/college-football/game?gameId=293180030
  15. ^ https://www.teamrankings.com/ncf/trends/win_trends/?range=yearly_since_2010
  16. ^ http://sltrib.cougarstats.com/teams.php?id=13
  17. ^ Benson, Lee. And They Came to Pass. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 1988. Print.
  18. ^ https://www.footballdb.com/games/boxscore.html?gid=1996111801
  19. ^ Rankin, Duane (May 22, 2011). "Erie Explosion set record in 138-0 win". Erie Times.
  20. ^ Nelson, Glenn (January 22, 2006). "Elite 11: Running It Up". Scout.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-07.
  21. ^ "Angry Knicks accuse Bulls of running up score". MSNBC (from Associated Press). April 11, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-05-24.
  22. ^ "Lutheran High Just Misses 100 pts In A Game". YouTube.
  23. ^ Reynolds, Dave (January 29, 2009). "BU zone tenderizes Wichita". Journal Star. Peoria, Illinois. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03.
  24. ^ Wessler, Kirk (January 28, 2009). "Live: Wichita State at Bradley". Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
  25. ^ http://byucougars.com/m-basketball/byu-vs-southern-virginia-notes-quotes
  26. ^ http://www.espn.com/soccer/news/2002/1102/1454712.html
  27. ^ Jon Ralph (29 July 2015). "Alastair Clarkson plots attacking plan to give Hawthorn best chance of playing home finals". Herald Sun. Melbourne. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
  28. ^ Wojnarowski, Adrian (February 2, 2006). "Allowing a player to score 113 points is absurd". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14.
  29. ^ "Coaches face suspension for wins of 50-plus points". ESPN.com. May 25, 2006. Archived from the original on 2013-05-18.
  30. ^ "Fallout over 91-0 final score affects two Florida high school teams". ESPN.com. October 14, 2008. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25.
  31. ^ Horn, Barry (January 26, 2009). "Covenant coach who beat Dallas Academy 100-0 is fired". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03.
  32. ^ "Haven High School Alumni Association: History and Tradition". Haven High School. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05.
  33. ^ "Coach suspended after 161-2 win". ESPN.
1916 Cumberland vs. Georgia Tech football game

The 1916 Cumberland vs. Georgia Tech football game was the most lopsided in the history of college football, with Georgia Tech winning 222–0. The game was played on October 7, 1916, between the Georgia Tech Engineers and Cumberland College Bulldogs at Grant Field (now a part of Bobby Dodd Stadium) in Atlanta.

With Cumberland opting to punt on multiple possessions, the infamous score can be partially attributed to 97% of the game's plays occurring in Cumberland territory, with 64 of those plays occurring in Cumberland's own red zone.

1965 Pro Bowl

The 1965 Pro Bowl was the NFL's fifteenth annual all-star game which featured the outstanding performers from the 1964 season. The game was played on January 10, 1965, at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California in front of 60,698. The coaches for the game were Don Shula of Baltimore Colts for the West and Blanton Collier of Cleveland Browns for the East. The West team won by a final score was 34–14.The West dominated the East, 411 to 187 in total yards. West quarterback Fran Tarkenton of the Minnesota Vikings was named "Back of the Game" after he completed 8 of 13 passes for 172 yards. At one point during the game, the West backfield was all-Vikings: Tarkenton (No. 10), Tommy Mason (No. 20), and Bill Brown (No. 30).

"Lineman of the Game" honors went to the West’s Terry Barr of the Detroit Lions; Barr had 106 yards receiving on three receptions.Frank Ryan, the quarterback of the Cleveland Browns' who had defeated the Baltimore Colts in the 1964 NFL Championship Game, was knocked out of the Pro Bowl when he was sacked in the third quarter by a group of defenders including the Colts' Gino Marchetti. Some thought that Marchetti, who was playing in his tenth Pro Bowl, was trying to teach Ryan a lesson for considering running up the score against the Colts in the championship game. Marchetti denied this, and he and Ryan remained on good terms.

1987 Philadelphia Eagles season

The 1987 Philadelphia Eagles season was their 55th in the National Football League (NFL). Despite the interruption of the schedule by the second strike in six seasons, the team improved upon their previous output of 5–10–1, going 7–8. However, three of those losses came during the three-game stretch during the strike when teams were staffed primarily with replacement players, or "scabs," who crossed the picket lines to suit up. Despite the improvement, the team once again failed to qualify for the playoffs.

Defensive lineman Reggie White nonetheless had a breakout season, establishing a new NFL record by exploding for 21 sacks in only 12 games.

On October 25 at Veterans Stadium, in the first game back after the strike was settled, Eagles head coach Buddy Ryan called for the infamous "fake spike" in the final seconds with the hosts leading the Dallas Cowboys by 10 points. The fake eventually led to another late touchdown, payback for Cowboys head coach Tom Landry running up the score with starters who crossed the picket line to play two weeks earlier at Texas Stadium. One week later, Philadelphia won its final road game against the Cardinals at the old Busch Stadium, before the franchise moved to Phoenix for the 1988 season.

Battle for Jalibah Airfield

The Battle for Jalibah Airfield took place when the U.S. 2nd Brigade, 24th Infantry Division successfully attacked and captured the heavily defended Jalibah Southeast Air Base military airfield in Iraq, located 80 miles west of Basra, on February 27, 1991 during the Gulf War.

Cherry picking (basketball)

Cherry picking, in basketball and certain other sports, refers to play where one player (the cherry picker) does not play defense with the rest of the team but remains near the opponents' goal.If the opponents do not designate a player to stay near the cherry picker, they will have a 5-on-4 advantage as they try to score, but if the defense steals the ball, it could make a long pass to the cherry picker for an uncontested basket. Acquiring the ball by a violation or foul, or after a made basket, the cherry picker is less relevant, as the opponents have more time to put their own defense in place.

Disapproval of cherry picking stems from the fact that the cherry picker is not playing the "complete" game and accumulates statistics for points scored that exaggerate the player's prowess.

Cornerback

A cornerback (CB), also referred to as a corner or defensive halfback in older parlance, is a member of the defensive backfield or secondary in American and Canadian football. Cornerbacks cover receivers most of the time, to defend against offensive plays, i.e create turnovers in best case or (more common) deflect a forward pass or rather make a tackle. Other members of the defensive backfield include the safeties and occasionally linebackers. The cornerback position requires speed, agility, and strength. A cornerback's skillset typically requires proficiency in anticipating the quarterback, backpedaling, executing single and zone coverage, disrupting pass routes, block shedding, and tackling. Cornerbacks are among the fastest players on the field.

Garbage time

Garbage time is a term used to refer to the period toward the end of a timed sports competition that has become a blowout when the outcome of the game has already been decided, and the coaches of one or both teams will decide to replace their best players with substitutes. This serves to give those substitutes, who are usually less experienced or younger players, actual playing experience, as well as to protect the best players from the possibility of injury.Garbage time owes its name to the fact that this period in a game is frequently marked by a significant drop in the quality of game play. This occurs for two primary reasons. First, the players involved during that time are generally less experienced, having not played nearly as often as the starting players. Second, the fact that seldom-used substitutes usually desire more future playing time means that when those players do play, they are often more concerned with making an individual impression than with executing team play at its best; this is especially true during garbage time because at that point, the matter of which team will win has already been decided.In some sports, there are so-called "unwritten rules" for garbage time which indicate that the leading team should neither continue to play its starting players, devote unnecessary effort toward increasing the size of its lead, nor attempt particularly difficult and spectacular plays. Doing so is interpreted as an unsportsmanlike attempt to embarrass or humiliate the trailing team, and in some cases may also be seen as retaliation, either against the opponent or the critics of the team in general (see running up the score for a more detailed explanation of this type of behavior). However, sometimes a team may have a legitimate motivation for running up the score, such when margin of victory is a factor in rankings, as it was for many years in the Bowl Championship Series.

During garbage time, the trailing team can sometimes rack up an unusually high tally of statistics, leading the respective box score to be misleading with respect to their actual game performance. For instance, in American football, if the losing team is behind by several touchdowns, the offense may resort entirely to the passing game in a futile effort to catch up. At the same time, the leading team (on defense, with second or third string players) may allow them to complete plays (which benefits them by running out the clock). This may lead the statistics to indicate a high amount of passing yards for the losing squad, which would suggest the team performed better than in reality.

In some cases, both teams will use second or third string players in garbage time, and in college play, if first-string players are draft-eligible juniors or seniors, the second and third-string players will play to gain an advantage towards becoming first-string the next season. Sometimes the game experience gained by backup players during garbage time can be crucial to their development, since it is otherwise difficult for them to see playing time (especially certain positions such as the backup quarterback), although this experience comes with the caveats that garbage time is not a high pressure situation and that unusual strategies may be employed. Complementing this strategy, teams sit their first-string players during garbage time to give them more rest and avoid further injuries for future games. In baseball, teams losing by a blowout often use long reliever or even a position player as the pitcher; while the latter does save the bullpen for future games that position player is more prone to injury pitching.

In general, although not always the case, it is not unusual in American football for the losing team to have more passing attempts/yards than the winning team, unless the winning team is also using a reserve quarterback. Often in the college game a freshman quarterback will be playing during garbage time when the upperclassman quarterback has put the game out of reach, gaining experience with the second-string (and on rare occasions, third-string) receivers and backs.

Particularly at the youth level, garbage time is eliminated by the use of a mercy rule, which automatically ends a game when the margin of winning has crossed a point that is commonly believed to be insurmountable.

The phrase garbage time is one of a number of commonly used basketball terms, each of which is thought to have either been coined by broadcaster Chick Hearn, or first given widespread exposure through Hearn's adoption of it for use during his broadcasts.

Interception

In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the opposing team, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team. It is commonly seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal.

In basketball, a pick is called a steal.

Jack Faulkner

Jack Faulkner (April 4, 1926 – September 28, 2008) was an American football coach and administrator who most prominently served as head coach of the American Football League's Denver Broncos from 1962 to 1964. He also has been an integral part of the Los Angeles Rams organization, dating back to the team's first tenure in LA

Jeff Sagarin

Jeff Sagarin is an American sports statistician known for his development of a method for ranking and rating sports teams in a variety of sports. His ratings have been a regular feature in the USA Today sports section since 1985, have been used by the NCAA Tournament Selection Committee to help determine the participants in the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship tournament since 1984, and were part of the college football Bowl Championship Series throughout its history from 1998 to 2014.

List of 100-point games in college football

In college football, games in which 100 points are scored by a single team are a rarity, especially since 1940; in lopsided games, several deterrents exist to prevent running up the score. Of current NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) teams, only Arizona, Bowling Green, Georgia Tech, Oklahoma and Tulsa have eclipsed 150 points in a game. Neglecting games in the early 1900s, the Houston Cougars are the only Division I FBS football team to score 100 points against another FBS team, against Tulsa in 1968. The most lopsided game in college football history occurred in a 1916 contest when Georgia Tech beat Cumberland 222–0. King College (TN), now King University, scored 206 points against Lenoir in 1922 and the former St. Viator College (IL) put up 205 points against Lane in 1916.

On September 25, 1884, Yale defeated Dartmouth 113–0, becoming not only the first game where one team scored over 100 points but also first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team scored zero points. The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.It is rare for a team to have scored in a game when the opponent scored over 100 points, but several cases exist. One is the Rice–Southern Methodist game of 1916 when SMU scored an early field goal but Rice "came back" to win 146–3.

Early records are often incomplete and sometimes contradictory. Scores listed in the table below have been confirmed in at least two sources except when there is a footnote to the score. A footnote by the date indicates a third reference source. The table includes not only scores from NCAA programs but also from those that compete in the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics and from games played

List of Olympic women's ice hockey players for Canada

Women's ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1998. Eight goaltenders and fifty-three skaters have played for Canada.

Men's ice hockey had been introduced at the 1920 Summer Olympics, and added to the Winter Olympic Games in 1924. In July 1992, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) voted to approve women's hockey as an Olympic event to first be held at the 1998 Winter Olympics. Until 1998, women's hockey had been dominated by Canada's national team. Canadian teams had won every World Championship; however, by 1997, the American team had improved and was evenly matched with Canada. In thirteen games played between the two teams in 1997, Canada won seven and the United States won six. Canada and the United States dominated the preliminary round of the 1998 tournament, and in their head-to-head match up, the United States won 7–4. The two teams met in the gold medal final, which the United States won 3–1. The Canadian and American teams continued their rivalry, and in a rematch between the two at the 2002 Winter Olympics, Canada won 3–2. In 2006, the Canadian team started the tournament by outscoring opponents 36–1 over three games. American defenceman Angela Ruggiero accused the team of running up the score and warned that the event's Olympic status could be called into question due to a perceived lack of competitive teams. In the final, Canada beat Sweden to claim their second consecutive gold medal. In 2010, the Canadian and American teams outscored opponents in the preliminary round by 41-2 and 31-1 margins, respectively. This brought on more criticism about uneven competition. René Fasel said the IIHF would consider adding a mercy rule to future tournaments. In the gold medal game, Canada defeated the American team 2-0 to win their third consecutive gold. In 2014, the talent disparity had gotten smaller, with Canada and the United States only outscoring their opponents 11-2 and 14-4 in the preliminary round, respectfully. Nevertheless, Canada and the United States once again faced off in the gold medal game. Canada, on the shoulders of two goals from Marie-Philip Poulin came back from a 3-2 deficit late in the 3rd period to claim the gold medal for the fourth consecutive time. In 2018, the United States had their own come-from-behind victory, winning their first gold medal in 20 years. The deciding goal came in a shootout on a beautiful move by American forward Jocelyne Lamoureux.Canada has won four gold medals and two silver medals in women's hockey. The Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame has inducted the 2002 and 2006 gold medal winning teams. Cassie Campbell was the first female hockey player inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame or any national hall of fame in 2007. Hayley Wickenheiser will be inducted into the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) Hall of Fame in May 2019. Two women have participated in five tournaments and won five medals (four gold and one silver)—Jayna Hefford, and Hayley Wickenheiser. Wickenheiser is the all-time leading scorer in the women's tournament at the Olympics, with 18 goals, 33 assists and 51 points.

Mercy rule

A mercy rule, slaughter rule, knockout rule, or skunk rule ends a two-competitor sports competition earlier than the scheduled endpoint if one competitor has a very large and presumably insurmountable scoring lead over the other. It is called the mercy rule because it spares further humiliation for the loser. It is common in youth sports in North America, where running up the score is considered unsporting. It is especially common in baseball and softball in which there is no game clock and a dominant team could in theory continue an inning endlessly.

The rules vary widely, depending on the level of competition, but nearly all youth sports leagues and high school sports associations and many college sports associations in the United States have mercy rules for sports including baseball, softball, American football and association football.

However, mercy rules usually do not take effect until a prescribed point in the game (like the second half of an association football game). Thus, one team, particularly if it is decidedly better than a weaker opponent, can still "run up the score" before the rule takes effect. For instance, in American football, one team could be ahead by 70 points with three minutes left in the first half; in baseball, the better team could have a 20-run lead in the second inning, but the game would still continue.

Muffed punt

In gridiron football, a muffed punt is defined as "touching of the ball prior to possessing the ball.”

A muffed punt occurs when there is an "uncontrolled touch" of the football by a player on the returning team after it is punted. This can occur when:

The kicking team interferes with the other team's right to catch the punt

A player on the kicking team is struck unaware by the football running down-field to cover the punt.

A player attempts to return the ball, makes contact with it but cannot retain the ball in his hands and it comes loose.

To be a fumble, the receiving team must possess the football, then lose control. In the case of a fumble, the ball is live and can be returned by the team that recovers the ball. In the case of a muffed punt, it is possible for the punting team to recover the ball and continue the drive, but at least in NCAA and NFL rules, they cannot advance the ball on that same play. Rules vary by league about how to handle a muffed punt.

Nonetheless, a muffed punt is a turnover. In the NFL, a muffed punt recovered by the kicking team cannot be challenged by a coach for review because all turnovers are automatically reviewed.

Otto Klum

Otto "Proc" Klum (October 17, 1892 – September 24, 1944) was an American football and basketball coach. He served as the head football coach at the University of Hawaii from 1921 to 1939. Klum is the most successful coach in Hawaii football history having compiled a career record of 84–51–7. His 1925 team went 10–0. Klum was also the head basketball coach at Hawaii for two seasons from 1921 to 1923, tallying a mark of 13–8. Klum was notorious for running up the score. In the 1926 season, his team scored more than 100 points twice. His teams also scored more than 80 points in two other games in 1923 and 1925.

Klum died on September 24, 1944, of a heart attack near Ashland, Oregon. He was born near Ashland on October 17, 1892. Klum Gym, on the University of Hawaii's Manoa campus, is named after the former coach. Klum is an inductee of the Hawaii Sports Hall of Fame.

Punter (football)

A punter (P) in American or Canadian football is a special teams player who receives the snapped ball directly from the line of scrimmage and then punts (kicks) the football to the opposing team so as to limit any field position advantage. This generally happens on a fourth down in American football and a third down in Canadian football. Punters may also occasionally take part in fake punts in those same situations, when they throw or run the football instead of punting.

Quarterback

A quarterback (commonly abbreviated "QB"), colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive team and line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is usually considered the leader of the offensive team, and is often responsible for calling the play in the huddle. The quarterback also touches the ball on almost every offensive play, and is the offensive player that almost always throws forward passes.

Running out the clock

In sports, running out the clock (also known as running down the clock, stonewalling, killing the clock, chewing the clock, stalling, or eating clock) is the practice of a winning team allowing the clock to expire through a series of pre-selected plays, either to preserve a lead or hasten the end of a one-sided contest. Generally, it is the opposite strategy of running up the score. Most leagues take steps to prevent teams from doing this, with the most common measure being a time limit for completing a play, such as a play clock or shot clock.

Wide receiver

A wide receiver, also referred to as wideouts or simply receivers, is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, and is a key player. They get their name because they are split out "wide" (near the sidelines), farthest away from the rest of the team. Wide receivers are among the fastest players on the field. The wide receiver functions as the pass-catching specialist.

Codes
Levels of play
Field
Scoring
Turnovers
Downs
Play clock
Statistics
Practice
Officiating
Miscellaneous

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