Run (baseball)

In baseball, a run is scored when a player advances around first, second and third base and returns safely to home plate, touching the bases in that order, before three outs are recorded and all obligations to reach base safely on batted balls are met or assured. A player may score by hitting a home run or by any combination of plays that puts him safely "on base" (that is, on first, second, or third) as a runner and subsequently brings him home. The object of the game is for a team to score more runs than its opponent.

The Official Baseball Rules hold that if the third out of an inning is a force out of a runner advancing to any base then, even if another baserunner crosses home plate before that force out is made, his run does not count. However, if the third out is not a force out, but a tag out, then if that other baserunner crosses home plate before that tag out is made, his run will count. In baseball statistics, a player who advances around all the bases to score is credited with a run (R), sometimes referred to as a "run scored". While runs scored is considered an important individual batting statistic, it is regarded as less significant than runs batted in (RBIs). Both individual runs scored and runs batted in are heavily context-dependent; for a more sophisticated assessment of a player's contribution toward producing runs for his team see runs created.

A pitcher is likewise assessed runs surrendered in his statistics, which differentiate between standard earned runs (for which the pitcher is statistically assigned full responsibility) and unearned runs scored due to fielding errors, which do not count in his personal statistics. Specifically, if a fielding error occurs which affects the number of runs scored in an inning, the Official Scorer – the official in-game statistician – in order to determine how many of the runs should be classified as earned, will reconstruct the inning as if the error had not occurred. For example, with two outs, suppose a runner reaches base because of a fielding error, and then the next batter hits a two-run home run, and then the following batter then makes the third out, ending the inning. If the inning is reconstructed without the error, and if that third batter, instead of reaching on an error, registered an out, the inning would have ended there without any runs scoring. Thus, the two runs that did score will be classified as unearned, and will not count in the pitcher's personal statistics.[1]

If a pitching substitution occurs while a runner is on base, and that runner eventually scores a run, the pitcher who allowed the player to get on base is charged with the run even though he was no longer pitching when the run scored.

Benji molina scores a run
Bengie Molina of the Anaheim Angels (left) scores a run by touching home plate after rounding all the bases.

Examples

Below are examples of an un-counted run and a run scored.

  • With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a ground ball to the second baseman. The runner on third races home. The second baseman fields the ball and throws on to the first baseman in time to get the batter on the force out at first for the third out of the inning. Even if the runner on third had touched home plate before that force out was made at first, his run would not count.
  • With a runner on third and two outs, batter hits a fly ball over centerfielder's head. It bounces several times as it rolls to the wall. The runner on third runs safely home and easily scores a run. Meanwhile, the batter safely reaches first, then tries to advance to second. The centerfielder, having retrieved the ball, throws the ball to the second baseman and the runner is tagged out as he slides into second. Since the runner stepped on home plate before the batter was tagged out at second for the third out of the inning, his run will count.[1]

Significant run scoring records

Player

The career record for most runs scored by a major-league player is 2,295, held by Rickey Henderson (1979–2003). The season record for most runs scored is 198, set by Billy Hamilton of the Philadelphia Phillies in 1894. The so-called modern-day record (1900 and after) is 177, achieved by Babe Ruth of the New York Yankees in 1921. The record for most seasons leading one of the major leagues in runs scored is 8, held by Babe Ruth (American League: 1919–21, 1923, 1924, 1926–28).

The record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored is 18, shared by the Yankees' Red Rolfe (August 9–August 25, 1939) and the Cleveland Indians' Kenny Lofton (August 15–September 3, 2000). The record for most runs scored by a player in a single game is 7, set by Guy Hecker of the American Association's Louisville Colonels on August 15, 1886. The modern-day record of 6 is shared by fourteen players (eight of whom attained it before 1900). Of the six modern-day players to score 6 runs in a game, the first to perform the feat was Mel Ott of the New York Giants on August 4, 1934 (he repeated the accomplishment ten years later, making him the only player ever to do it twice); the most recent was Shawn Green, then of the Los Angeles Dodgers, on May 23, 2002.

Team

The record for most runs scored by a major-league team during a single season is 1,212, set by the Boston Beaneaters (now the Atlanta Braves) in 1894. The modern-day record is 1,067, achieved by the New York Yankees in 1931. The team record for most consecutive games with at least one run scored (i.e., most consecutive games not being shut out) is 308, set by the Yankees between August 3, 1931, and August 2, 1933. The team record for most runs in its overall history (up until 2013) is the Chicago Cubs with 94,138.[2]

The record for most runs scored by a team in a single game is 36, set by the Chicago Colts (now the Chicago Cubs) against the Louisville Colonels (which joined the National League in 1892) on June 29, 1897. The modern-day record of 30 was set on August 22, 2007, by the Texas Rangers against the Baltimore Orioles in the first game of a doubleheader at Oriole Park. The Rangers scored 5 runs in the fourth inning, 9 in the sixth, 10 in the eighth, and 6 in the ninth. On August 25, 1922, the highest-scoring game in major-league history took place: the Chicago Cubs defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 26–23, a total of 49 runs.

The record for most runs scored by a team in a single inning is 18, set by the Chicago White Stockings (now the Chicago Cubs) against the Detroit Wolverines on September 6, 1883. The modern-day record is 17, achieved by the Boston Red Sox against the Detroit Tigers on June 18, 1953.

World Series

The Yankees' Mickey Mantle holds the record for most career World Series runs scored with 42 (1951–53, 1955–58, 1960–64). The record for most runs scored in a single World Series, shared by two players, is 10, achieved both times in a six-game Series: Reggie Jackson of the Yankees was the first to do it, in 1977; the Toronto Blue Jays' Paul Molitor equaled him in 1993. The most runs ever scored by a player in a World Series game is 4, a record shared by ten players. Babe Ruth set the mark on October 6, 1926, while with the Yankees; it was matched most recently by Albert Pujols of the St. Louis Cardinals in Game 3 of the 2011 World Series.

On October 2, 1936, playing the New York Giants, the Yankees set the team record for most runs scored in a single Series game with 18. Players crossed the plate a record 29 times in the highest-scoring World Series game in history on October 20, 1993, as the Blue Jays beat the Phillies 15–14 at Veterans Stadium in Game 4 of the 1993 World Series.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Baseball Explained, by Phillip Mahony. McFarland Books, 2014. See www.baseballexplained.com Archived 2014-08-13 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "MLB Teams and Baseball Encyclopedia – Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 11 October 2015.

External links

1911 Philadelphia Phillies season

The 1911 Philadelphia Phillies season was a season in Major League Baseball. The Phillies finished fourth in the National League with a record of 79 wins and 73 losses.

1987 World Series

The 1987 World Series was the 84th edition of Major League Baseball's championship series, and the conclusion of the 1987 Major League Baseball season. It was a best-of-seven playoff played between the American League (AL) champion Minnesota Twins and the National League (NL) champion St. Louis Cardinals. The Twins defeated the Cardinals four games to three to win the Series. Twins pitcher Frank Viola was named as the 1987 World Series MVP.

Minnesota was victorious in a World Series that was the first to feature games played indoors. It was also the first World Series in which the home team won every game; this happened again in 1991 (also a Twins championship, this time over the Atlanta Braves) and in 2001 with the Arizona Diamondbacks defeating the New York Yankees.

The World Series win was the first for the Twins franchise since 1924, when the team was located in Washington, D.C., and was known as the Washington Senators.

This is the first World Series in which the series logo appeared on the jerseys; only the Cardinals wore it, however, while the Twins did not.

1994 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1994 throughout the world.

Andy Sonnanstine

Andrew Michael Sonnanstine (born March 18, 1983) is an American former professional baseball starting pitcher in Major League Baseball (MLB). He played for the Tampa Bay Devil Rays / Rays. Sonnanstine is a graduate of Wadsworth High School in Wadsworth, Ohio, and attended Kent State University. He also pitched for the Sanford Mainers of the New England Collegiate Baseball League.

Chad Bradford

Chadwick Lee Bradford (born September 14, 1974) is a former Major League Baseball (MLB) relief pitcher. He was well known for his extreme submarine-style pitching, and his success in MLB despite his unconventional delivery and the slow speed at which he threw the ball (his fastball was only in the mid 80-mph range). This led to him figuring prominently in the Michael Lewis book Moneyball, which in 2011 was made into the film of the same title. Bradford is played by actor Casey Bond in the film.

Chris Archer

Christopher Alan Archer (born September 26, 1988) is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball (MLB). He previously played for the Tampa Bay Rays.

He attended Clayton High School in Clayton, North Carolina. Archer was drafted by the Cleveland Indians in the fifth round of the 2006 MLB draft. After he was traded to the Chicago Cubs and then the Rays, he made his MLB debut in 2012. Archer was selected to the 2015 and 2017 MLB All-Star Games.

City Series (Philadelphia)

The City Series was the name of a series of baseball games played between Major League Baseball's Philadelphia Athletics of the American League and Philadelphia Phillies of the National League that ran from 1903 through 1955. After the A's move to Kansas City in 1955, the City Series rivalry came to an end. The teams have since faced each other in Interleague play (since its introduction in 1997) but the rivalry has effectively died in the intervening years since the A's left Philadelphia.

The first City Series was held in 1883 between the Phillies and American Association Philadelphia Athletics. When the Athletics first joined the American League, the two teams played each other in a spring and fall series. No City Series was held in 1901 and 1902 due to legal warring between the NL and AL.

Fred Cambria

Frederick Dennis Cambria (born January 22, 1948) is a baseball]player, a right-handed pitcher who appearedgames — five as a starting pitcher — for the 1970 Pittsburgh Pirates. He stood 6 feet 2 inches (1.88 m) tall, weighed 195 pounds (88 kg) and attended St. Leo University.

He was born in Cambria Heights, Queens, New York, and graduated from St. Pascal's High School in neighboring St. Alban's. Chosen by Pittsburgh in the third round of the 1969 Major League Baseball draft, Cambria was assigned to the Double-A York Pirates, where he won nine of 11 decisions with a low 2.16 earned run average. In his 14 appearances, he threw three shutouts. The following season he won 12 of 19 decisions for the Triple-A Columbus Jets before his recall to Pittsburgh in August 1970.

On Wednesday, August 26, he made his Major League debut as a starting pitcher against the Padres at San Diego Stadium. The first-place Pirates were embroiled in a three-team race with the Chicago Cubs and Cambria's boyhood team, the New York Mets, for the National League East Division championship. But Cambria responded, pitching six scoreless innings before allowing two runs, only one earned, on a home run by San Diego's Ed Spiezio in the seventh frame. The runs were decisive, as the Pirates lost the contest, 2–1. He followed his debut effort with seven innings of one-run baseball against the San Francisco Giants, although he did not earn a decision in that game. His lone Major League win followed six days later, as he defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 7–4 at Three Rivers Stadium, although he allowed ten hits and four earned runs in his 7⅓ innings pitched that day.A rough outing against the St. Louis Cardinals followed on September 9, pinning Cambria with his second career defeat. But eleven days later, Cambria faced his hometown Mets in his home borough, as the starting pitcher in the second game of a doubleheader at Shea Stadium. The Mets had won the opening game to climb within 2​1⁄2 games of the first-place Pirates, and Cambria drew reigning Cy Young Award winning pitcher Tom Seaver as his opponent in the nightcap. But Cambria outpitched Seaver, allowing only two earned runs in 5​1⁄3 innings. He left the game with his team ahead 5–3, and although the Pirate bullpen allowed the Mets to tie the score at five in the seventh inning, denying Cambria the win, Pittsburgh came back to win 9–5. They eventually won the division title by five games over the second-place Cubs. Cambria did not appear in the 1970 NLCS, which the Pirates dropped in three straight games to the Cincinnati Reds.

The 1970 campaign proved to be Cambria's one trial in Major League Baseball. An arm injury forced him to alter his delivery and he left baseball after the 1973 minor league season. He graduated from St. Leo's, and later became its baseball coach and also was a minor league instructor in the Padres' organization. He also served as commissioner of the Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League.

Grover Cleveland Alexander

Grover Cleveland Alexander (February 26, 1887 – November 4, 1950), nicknamed "Old Pete", was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. He played from 1911 through 1930 for the Philadelphia Phillies, Chicago Cubs, and St. Louis Cardinals. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1938.

Hit and run (baseball)

A hit and run is a high risk, high reward offensive strategy used in baseball. It uses a stolen base attempt to try to place the defending infielders out of position for an attempted base hit.

The hit and run was introduced to baseball by Ned Hanlon, who was often referred to as "The Father of Modern Baseball", at the beginning of the 1894 season of the National League, as part of what came to be called "inside baseball". Hanlon was manager of the Baltimore Orioles at the time. His team developed the hit and run along with other tactics during spring training at Macon, Georgia. After its implementation in the season's series opener against the New York Giants, the opposing manager objected to its use; however, it was deemed acceptable.

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum

The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American outdoor sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. Conceived as a hallmark of civic pride, the Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L.A. veterans of World War I. Completed in 1923, it will be the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympics three times: 1932, 1984, and 2028. It was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27, 1984, the day before the opening ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics.The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California (USC) Trojans football team of the Pac-12 Conference. USC, which operates and manages the Coliseum, granted naming rights to United Airlines in January 2018; after concerns were raised by Coliseum Commission, the airline became title sponsor of the playing field, naming it United Airlines Field at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The stadium is located in Exposition Park, which is owned by the State of California, and across the street from USC. The Coliseum is jointly owned by the State of California, Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles and is managed and operated by the Auxiliary Services Department of the University of Southern California.It is the temporary home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League (NFL). The Coliseum was home to the Rams from 1946 to 1979, when they moved to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. The Coliseum is serving as their home stadium again until the completion of Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood. The facility had a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football and Rams games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference and the NFL.The stadium also was the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3, 4, and 5 of the 1959 World Series. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game, later called Super Bowl I, and Super Bowl VII. Additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, and UCLA Bruins football.

From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum; the Sports Arena was closed in March 2016 and demolished. Banc of California Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium and home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, was constructed on the former Sports Arena site and opened in April 2018.

USC began a major renovation of the stadium in early 2018. During the renovation project the seating capacity will be 78,467 and will be 77,500 upon completion in 2019. The $315 million project is scheduled to be completed by the 2019 football season and is the first major upgrade of the stadium in twenty years. The project includes replacing the seating along with the addition of luxury boxes and club suites.

Mark McGwire

Mark David McGwire (born October 1, 1963), nicknamed Big Mac, is an American former professional baseball first baseman. His Major League Baseball (MLB) playing career spanned from 1986 to 2001 while playing for the Oakland Athletics and the St. Louis Cardinals, winning one World Series championship each with Oakland as a player in 1989 and with St. Louis as a coach in 2011. One of the most prolific home run hitters in baseball history, McGwire holds the major league career record for at bats per home run ratio (10.6), and is the former record holder for both home runs in a single season (70 in 1998) and home runs hit by rookie (49 in 1987).

He ranks 11th all time in home runs with 583, and led the major leagues in home runs in five different seasons, while establishing the major league record for home runs hit in a four-season period from 1996−1999 with 245. Further, he demonstrated exemplary patience as a batter, producing a career .394 on-base percentage (OBP) and twice leading the major leagues in bases on balls. Injuries cut short the manifestation of even greater potential as he reached 140 games played in just eight of 16 total seasons. A right-handed batter and thrower, McGwire stood 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) tall and weighed 245 pounds (111 kg) during his playing career.

From Pomona, California, the Athletics chose McGwire with the 10th overall selection in the 1984 MLB draft, and he was a member of the silver medal-winning entry of the United States national team that same year at the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. As a rookie in 1987, he quickly grabbed media attention with 33 home runs before the All-Star break, and would lead the major leagues in home runs that year with 49, while setting the single-season rookie record. He appeared in six straight All-Star Games from 1987 to 1992 despite a brief career decline related to injuries. Another string of six consecutive All-Star appearances followed from 1995 to 2001. Each season from 1996 to 1999, he again led the major leagues in home runs.

A part of the 1998 Major League Baseball home run record chase of Roger Maris' 61 with the Cardinals, McGwire set the major league single-season home run record with 70, which Barry Bonds broke three years later with 73. McGwire also led the league in runs batted in, twice in bases on balls and on-base percentage, and four times in slugging percentage. Injuries significantly cut into his playing time in 2000 and 2001 before factoring into his retirement. He finished with 583 home runs, which was fifth all-time when he retired.For his career, McGwire averaged a home run once every 10.61 at bats, the best at bats per home run ratio in baseball history (Babe Ruth is second at 11.76). He was the fastest player to hit 500 home runs, in 5,487 at-bats.McGwire was a central figure in baseball's steroids scandal. In 2010, McGwire publicly admitted to using performance-enhancing drugs during a large portion of his career. In his first ten years of eligibility, McGwire has not been elected into the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

Marty Brennaman

Franchester Martin Brennaman (born July 28, 1942) is an American sportscaster and has been the radio voice of Major League Baseball's Cincinnati Reds on the Cincinnati Reds Radio Network since 1974. Brennaman is known for his opinionated, zealous, and sometimes contentious style.

On January 16, 2019, Brennaman announced he will retire following the 2019 season.

Mickey Lolich

Michael Stephen Lolich (born September 12, 1940) is an American former professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball as a pitcher from 1962 until 1979, most notably for the Detroit Tigers. He is best known for his performance in the 1968 World Series against the St. Louis Cardinals when he earned three complete-game victories, including a win over Bob Gibson in the climactic Game 7. Lolich is one of only 21 major league pitchers to have struck out at least 2,800 batters in his career. He is of Croatian descent.

Ontario Sports Hall of Fame

The Ontario Sports Hall of Fame is an association dedicated to honouring athletes and personalities with outstanding achievement in sports in Ontario, Canada. The hall of fame was established in 1994 by Bruce Prentice, following his 15-year tenure as founder and president of the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame (CBHF). The inaugural class of honoured members was inducted in 1994.

The OSHOF currently lists 115 inductees, including 101 players and 14 sports personalities. Each year the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame also honours recipients of the Brian Williams Media Award, the Sandy Hawley Community Service Award, the Ferguson Jenkins Heritage Award, the Syl Apps Athlete of the Year Award, and the Bruce Prentice Legacy Award.

Roger Clemens

William Roger Clemens (born August 4, 1962), nicknamed "Rocket", is an American former baseball pitcher who played 24 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB) for four teams. Clemens was one of the most dominant pitchers in major league history, tallying 354 wins, a 3.12 earned run average (ERA), and 4,672 strikeouts, the third-most all time. An 11-time All-Star and two-time World Series champion, he won seven Cy Young Awards during his career, more than any other pitcher in history. Clemens was known for his fierce competitive nature and hard-throwing pitching style, which he used to intimidate batters.

Clemens debuted in the major leagues in 1984 with the Boston Red Sox, whose pitching staff he anchored for 12 years. In 1986, he won the American League (AL) Cy Young Award, the AL Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award, and the All-Star Game MVP Award, and he struck out an MLB-record 20 batters in a single game (Clemens repeated the 20-strikeout feat 10 years later). After the 1996 season, Clemens left Boston via free agency and joined the Toronto Blue Jays. In each of his two seasons with Toronto, Clemens won a Cy Young Award, as well as the pitching triple crown by leading the league in wins, ERA, and strikeouts. Prior to the 1999 season, Clemens was traded to the New York Yankees where he won his two World Series titles. In 2003, he reached his 300th win and 4,000th strikeout in the same game. Clemens left for the Houston Astros in 2004, where he spent three seasons and won his seventh Cy Young Award. He rejoined the Yankees in 2007 for one last season before retiring. He is the only pitcher in major league history to record over 350 wins and strike out over 4,500 batters.

Clemens was alleged by the Mitchell Report to have used anabolic steroids during his late career, mainly based on testimony given by his former trainer, Brian McNamee. Clemens firmly denied these allegations under oath before the United States Congress, leading congressional leaders to refer his case to the Justice Department on suspicions of perjury. On August 19, 2010, a federal grand jury at the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C., indicted Clemens on six felony counts involving perjury, false statements and Contempt of Congress. Clemens pleaded not guilty, but proceedings were complicated by prosecutorial misconduct, leading to a mistrial. The verdict from his second trial came in June 2012, when Clemens was found not guilty on all six counts of lying to Congress.

USA Baseball

USA Baseball is the national governing body for amateur baseball in the United States and is a member of the United States Olympic Committee and the World Baseball Softball Confederation.

The organization selects and trains the World Baseball Classic, Olympic, Premier12 and Pan American Games teams (and all other USA Baseball Professional Teams); the USA Baseball Collegiate National Team; the USA Baseball 18U, 15U and 12U National Teams; and the USA Baseball Women's National Team, all of which participate in various international competitions each year. In addition, USA Baseball selects players for the 14U, 16U and 17U National Team Development Programs.

The organization is responsible for the continued proliferation and health of the sport, and leads a number of amateur initiatives through its Sport Development department, including Play Ball and Pitch Smart. USA Baseball also presents the Golden Spikes Award annually to the top amateur baseball player in the country and is responsible for creating the USABat standard.

Yoon Myung-june

Yoon Myung-june (Hangul: 윤명준; born June 18, 1989) is a South Korean pitcher for the Doosan Bears of the KBO League. He bats and throws right-handed. Yoon was selected sixth overall by the Doosan Bears in the 2012 KBO Draft.

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