The Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas.[2]

Solitary rugosans (e.g., Caninia, Lophophyllidium, Neozaphrentis, Streptelasma) are often referred to as horn corals because of a unique horn-shaped chamber with a wrinkled, or rugose, wall. Some solitary rugosans reached nearly a meter in length. However, some species of rugose corals could form large colonies (e.g., Lithostrotion). When radiating septa were present, they were usually in multiples of four, hence Tetracoralla in contrast to modern Hexacoralla, colonial polyps generally with sixfold symmetry.

Rugose corals have a skeleton made of calcite that is often fossilized. Like modern corals (Scleractinia), rugose corals were invariably benthic, living on the sea floor or in a reef-framework. Some symbiotic rugose corals were endobionts of Stromatoporoidea, especially in the Silurian period.[3][4] Although there is no direct proof, it is inferred that these Palaeozoic corals possessed stinging cells to capture prey. They also had tentacles to help them catch prey. Technically they were carnivores, but prey-size was so small they are often referred to as microcarnivores.

Temporal range: OrdovicianPermian
Solitary rugose coral (Grewingkia canadensis) in three views; Ordovician, Indiana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Subclass: Hexacorallia
Order: Rugosa
Milne Edwards & Haime 1850[1]
  • †Columnariina
  • †Cystiphyllina
  • †Streptelasmatina
Haeckel Tetracoralla
"Tetracorallia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Stereolasma cross section
Cross-section of Stereolasma rectum, a rugose coral from the Middle Devonian of Erie County, New York


Streptelasma divaricans (Nicholson, 1875)
Streptelasma divaricans (Nicholson, 1875) from the Liberty Formation (Upper Ordovician) of southern Ohio

Rugose corals always show tabulae, horizontal plates that divide the corallite skeleton. The corallites are usually large relative to different types of coral. Rugose corals will sometimes have dissepiments, which are curved plates connected to septa and tabulae. The symmetry can be distinguished by the orientation of septa in a transverse section of the coral. Rugose corals always display bilateral symmetry whereas tabulate and scleractinian corals show radial symmetry. Initially there are only 4 major septa; later minor septa are added in the 4 resulting spaces. The complex arrangement of septa is diagnostic of rugose corals. Rugose corals will also always have a columella, an axial rod which supports the septa running up the center of the corallite. It is present in rugose corals because they were mainly solitary and so required the extra support. Tabulate corals have no columella because they were always colonial and relied on the support of neighboring corallites.[5]


  1. ^ "Rugosa". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. 2015.
  2. ^ "Rugosa". A Dictionary of Earth Sciences. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  3. ^ Vinn, O; Mõtus, M.-A. (2014). "Endobiotic Rugosan Symbionts in Stromatoporoids from the Sheinwoodian (Silurian) of Baltica". PLoS ONE. 9 (2): e90197. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090197. PMC 3934990. PMID 24587277. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
  4. ^ Vinn, O; Wilson, M.A.; Toom, U.; Mõtus, M.-A. (2015). "Earliest known rugosan-stromatoporoid symbiosis from the Llandovery of Estonia (Baltica)". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 431: 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.04.023. Retrieved 2015-06-18.
  5. ^ Ulrich, Ulrich; Hillmer, G. (2 Jun 1983). Fossil Invertebrates. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–71. ISBN 9780521270281.

Aldrovanda [aɫdrɔˈwanda] is a genus of carnivorous plants encompassing one extant species (Aldrovanda vesiculosa, the waterwheel plant) and numerous extinct taxa. The genus is named in honor of the Italian naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi, the founder of the Botanical Garden of Bologna, Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna. Aldrovanda vesiculosa has been reported from scattered locations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia.

Alnus incana

Alnus incana, the grey alder or speckled alder, is a species of tree in the birch family, with a wide range across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

Alternaria alternata

Alternaria alternata is a fungus which has been recorded causing leaf spot and other diseases on over 380 host species of plant. It is an opportunistic pathogen on numerous hosts causing leaf spots, rots and blights on many plant parts.

It can also cause upper respiratory tract infections and asthma in humans with compromised immunity.

Candida (fungus)

Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide. Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of hosts including humans; however, when mucosal barriers are disrupted or the immune system is compromised they can invade and cause disease, known as an opportunistic infection. Candida is located on most of mucosal surfaces and mainly the gastrointestinal tract, along with the skin. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species and can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and other animals. In winemaking, some species of Candida can potentially spoil wines.Many species are found in gut flora, including C. albicans in mammalian hosts, whereas others live as endosymbionts in insect hosts. Systemic infections of the bloodstream and major organs (candidemia or invasive candidiasis), particularly in patients with an impaired immune system (immunocompromised), affect over 90,000 people a year in the US.The genome of several Candida species has been sequenced.Antibiotics promote yeast (fungal) infections, including gastrointestinal (GI) Candida overgrowth and penetration of the GI mucosa. While women are more susceptible to genital yeast infections, men can also be infected. Certain factors, such as prolonged antibiotic use, increase the risk for both men and women. People with diabetes or the immunocompromised, such as those infected with HIV, are more susceptible to yeast infections.Candida antarctica and Candida rugosa are a source of industrially important lipases, while Candida krusei is prominently used to ferment cacao during chocolate production. Candida rugosa is also used as an enzyme supplement to support fat digestion with its broad specificity for lipid hydrolysis.

Common fig

Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig). It is the source of the fruit also called the fig and as such is an important crop in those areas where it is grown commercially. Native to the Middle East and western Asia, it has been sought out and cultivated since ancient times and is now widely grown throughout the world, both for its fruit and as an ornamental plant. The species has become naturalized in scattered locations in Asia and North America.

Cuban slider

Cuban slider (Trachemys decussata), is a species of turtle. It is native to Cuba and Isla de la Juventud, but has also been introduced to Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac in the Cayman Islands (where it is known as the Taco river slider or Hickatee, and Marie Galante (Guadeloupe).

Euphyllia glabrescens

Euphyllia glabrescens is a species of large-polyped stony coral belonging to the family Caryophylliidae. Its common name is the torch coral due to its long sweeper tentacles tipped with potent cnidocytes. It is a commonly kept species in the marine aquarium hobby, particularly specimens from Indonesia and Fiji, who fulfilled annual export quotas of 28,000 and 6,000 pieces, respectively, in 2005.


Heliophyllum is an extinct genus of corals that existed predominantly in the Devonian. Heliophyllum is of the order Rugosa and can be referred to as horn corals. The genus had a wide distribution. Fossils of H. halli have been found in the fossil rich Floresta Formation of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia. This genus used its nematocysts to stun prey.

Japanese wrinkled frog

The Japanese wrinkled frog, Glandirana rugosa, is a species of true frog native to Japan and introduced to Hawaii in the late 19th century. It has sometimes been regarded as a single species with the Imienpo Station frog, Glandirana emeljanovi, which is found on the East Asian mainland. The two species are distinguished from others by their rough and uneven skin. It lives and breeds in various freshwater environments, including ponds, streams and wetlands. The IUCN does not consider this species to be faced by any significant threats.

Munida rugosa

Munida rugosa, commonly known as the rugose squat lobster or plated lobster, is a species of decapod crustacean found in the north east Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

Northern snake-necked turtle

The northern snake-necked turtle (Chelodina rugosa) is a species of turtle in the family Chelidae or Austro-South American Side-necked Turtles. It is native to northern Australia and southern New Guinea.

The species was described in 1890 from material collected in Cape York of Queensland, Australia. The species has in recent years had several species of turtle synonymised with it, the distribution includes northern Australia, Indonesia and Pitcairn. As a member of the sub-family Pleurodira this species is a side-necked turtle and also a snake-necked strike and gape predator. This carnivorous turtle will consume fish, tadpoles, hatchling turtles, worms, crickets, etc.

It is not an aggressive species with a biting defense. Individuals tend to flail to escape rather than bite. This species can be found not only in fresh water, but due to the proximity of the south New Guinea coast and close off shore islands, it also can be found in brackish water. Chelodina rugosa tends to hide under and between rocks and logs where possible or buries itself in the mud to act as an ambush predator to fish, amphibian, and invertebrate prey (Schnirel, 2008). Sexual dimorphism is quite evident in this species. Females can be easily recognized by the very short, stubby tail.

Pseudomonas putida

Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. putida was taxonomically confirmed to be a Pseudomonas species (sensu stricto) and placed, along with several other species, in the P. putida group, to which it lends its name.A variety of P. putida, called multiplasmid hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas, is the first patented organism in the world. Because it is a living organism, the patent was disputed and brought before the United States Supreme Court in the historic court case Diamond v. Chakrabarty, which the inventor, Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty, won. It demonstrates a very diverse metabolism, including the ability to degrade organic solvents such as toluene. This ability has been put to use in bioremediation, or the use of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants. Use of P. putida is preferable to some other Pseudomonas species capable of such degradation, as it is a safe species of bacteria, unlike P. aeruginosa, for example, which is an opportunistic human pathogen.

Rosa rugosa

Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose, beach rose, Japanese rose, Ramanas rose, or letchberry) is a species of rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on beach coasts, often on sand dunes. It should not be confused with Rosa multiflora, which is also known as "Japanese rose". The Latin word "rugosa" means "wrinkled."

Rugged Island (South Shetland Islands)

Rugged Island (in Spanish Isla Rugosa, variant historical names Lloyds Island or Ragged Island) is an island 3 miles (4.8 km) long and 1 mile (1.6 km) wide, lying west of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands. Its surface area is 10.4 square kilometres (4.0 sq mi). The island's summit San Stefano Peak rises to 256 metres (840 ft) above sea level. Rugged Island is located at 62°38′S 61°15′W. Rugged Island was known to both American and British sealers as early as 1820, and the name has been well established in international usage for over 100 years.

Solidago rugosa

Solidago rugosa, commonly called the wrinkleleaf goldenrod or rough-stemmed goldenrod, is a species of flowering plant in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). It is native to North America, where it is widespread across eastern and central Canada (from Newfoundland to Ontario) and the eastern and central United States (Maine west as far as Wisconsin and Iowa, south to Florida and Texas). It is usually found in wet to mesic habitats.

Tiliqua rugosa

Tiliqua rugosa is a short-tailed, slow-moving species of blue-tongued skink found in Australia. Three of the four recognised subspecies are found only in Western Australia, where they are known collectively by the common name bobtail. The name shingleback is also used, especially for T. rugosa asper, the only subspecies native to eastern Australia.

T. rugosa has a heavily armoured body and can be found in various colours, ranging from dark brown to cream. It has a short, wide, stumpy tail that resembles its head and may confuse predators. The tail also contains fat reserves, which are drawn upon during brumation in winter. This skink is an omnivore; it eats snails and plants and spends much of its time browsing through vegetation for food. It is often seen sunning on roadsides or other paved areas.

Apart from bobtail and shingleback, a variety of other common names are used, including stump-tailed skink, bogeye, pinecone lizard and sleepy lizard. Aboriginal names include Yoorn in the Nyungar language.

Ulmus 'Rugosa'

The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rugosa' [:'wrinkled', the leaves], was first listed in Audibert's Tonelle (1817), as "U. campestris Linn. 'Rugosa' = orme d'Avignon [Avignon elm] (new species)", but without description. A description followed in the Revue horticole, 1829. Green (1964) identified this cultivar with one listed by Hartwig and Rümpler in Illustrirtes Gehölzbuch (1875) as Ulmus montana var. rugosa Hort.. A cultivar of the same name appeared in Loddiges' catalogue of 1836 and was identified by Loudon in Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum (1838) as Ulmus montana var. rugosa Masters, Masters naming the tree maple-bark elm. Ulmus montana was used at the time both for wych cultivars and for some cultivars of the Ulmus × hollandica group.Not to be confused with Späth's U. campestris rugosa, a suberose field elm.

Ulmus minor 'Rugosa'

The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor 'Rugosa' was distributed by the Späth nursery, Berlin, in the 1890s and early 1900s as U. campestris rugosa Kirchner. Kirchner's tree, like Späth's a level-branched suberose field elm, was received from Belgium in 1864 as Ulmus rugosa pendula. Kirchner stressed that it was different from Loudon's Ulmus montana var. rugosa, being "more likely to belong to U. campestris or its subspecies, the Cork-elm".

Green (1964) considered Ulmus rugosa pendula Kirchner a synonym of U. campestris suberosa pendula. Späth, however, listed U. campestris rugosa and U. campestris suberosa pendula as distinct cultivars in his 1903 catalogue, and distributed them separately.It is not known whether herbarium leaf-specimens from the Wageningen Arboretum originally labelled U procera 'Rugosa' and renamed U. carpinifolia (1962) show Späth's tree. They show, however, a different clone from herbarium specimens labelled Ulmus hollandica Mill. rugosa pendula from Arnold Arboretum (1930) (see 'External links').

Neither Kirchner's nor Späth's suberose 'Rugosa' is to be confused with the cultivar Ulmus montana var. rugosa.


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