Rufus King

Rufus King (March 24, 1755 – April 29, 1827) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress and the Philadelphia Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution in 1787. After formation of the new Congress he represented New York in the United States Senate. He emerged as a leading member of the Federalist Party, serving as the party's last presidential nominee in the 1816 presidential election.

The son of a prosperous Massachusetts merchant, King studied law before volunteering for the militia in the American Revolutionary War. He won election to the Massachusetts General Court in 1783 and to the Congress of the Confederation the following year. At the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, he emerged as a leading nationalist, calling for increased powers for the federal government. After the convention, King returned to Massachusetts, where he used his influence to help win ratification of the new Constitution. At the urging of Alexander Hamilton, he then abandoned his law practice and moved to New York City.

He won election to represent New York in the United States Senate in 1789, remaining in office until 1796. That year, he accepted President George Washington's appointment to the position of Minister to Britain. Though King aligned with Hamilton's Federalists, Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson retained his services after Jefferson's victory in the 1800 presidential election. King served as the Federalist vice presidential candidate in the 1804 and 1808 elections, running on an unsuccessful ticket with Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina. Though most Federalists supported Democratic-Republican DeWitt Clinton in the 1812 presidential election, King, without the support of his party, won few votes of those Federalists who were unwilling to support Clinton's candidacy. In 1813, he returned to the Senate and remained in office until 1825.

King was the informal de facto Federalist nominee for president in 1816, losing in a landslide to James Monroe. The Federalist Party became defunct at the national level after 1816, and King was the last presidential nominee the party fielded. Nonetheless, King was able to remain in the Senate until 1825, making him the last Federalist senator, due to a split in the New York Democratic-Republican Party. After that King accepted John Quincy Adams's appointment to serve another term as ambassador to Britain, but ill health forced King to retire from public life, and he died in 1827. King had five children who lived to adulthood, and he has numerous notable descendants.

Rufus King
Rufus King - National Portrait Gallery
3rd and 8th United States Minister to the United Kingdom
In office
November 11, 1825 – June 16, 1826
PresidentJohn Quincy Adams
Preceded byRichard Rush
Succeeded byAlbert Gallatin
In office
July 27, 1796 – May 16, 1803
PresidentGeorge Washington
John Adams
Thomas Jefferson
Preceded byThomas Pinckney
Succeeded byJames Monroe
United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 25, 1820 – March 3, 1825
Preceded byVacant
Succeeded byNathan Sanford
In office
March 4, 1813 – March 3, 1819
Preceded byJohn Smith
Succeeded byVacant
In office
July 25, 1789 – May 23, 1796
Preceded bySeat established
Succeeded byJohn Laurance
Personal details
BornMarch 24, 1755
Scarborough, Massachusetts, British America (now Maine)
DiedApril 29, 1827 (aged 72)
Jamaica, New York, U.S. (now New York City)
Resting placeGrace Episcopal Churchyard
Political partyFederalist
Spouse(s)Mary Alsop
Children5, including James, John, Charles, Edward
EducationHarvard University (BA)
Signature
Rufus King's signature

Biography

Early life

He was born on March 24, 1755, at Scarborough, which was then a part of Massachusetts but is now in the state of Maine.[1] He was a son of Isabella (Bragdon) and Richard King, a prosperous farmer-merchant, "lumberman, and sea captain"[1] who had settled at Dunstan Landing in Scarborough, near Portland, Maine, and had made a modest fortune by 1755, the year Rufus was born. His financial success aroused the jealousy of his neighbors, and when the Stamp Act 1765 was imposed, and rioting became almost respectable, a mob ransacked his house and destroyed most of the furniture. Nobody was punished, and the next year the mob burned down his barn.[2] This statement proves true as John Adams once referenced this moment discussing limitations of the "mob" for the Constitutional Convention writing a letter to his wife Abigail and describing the scene as:

I am engaged in a famous Cause: The Cause of King, of Scarborough vs. a Mob, that broke into his House, and rifled his Papers, and terrifyed him, his Wife, Children and Servants in the Night. The Terror, and Distress, the Distraction and Horror of this Family cannot be described by Words or painted upon Canvass. It is enough to move a Statue, to melt an Heart of Stone, to read the Story. ...[3] It was not surprising that Richard King became a loyalist. All of his sons, however, became patriots in the American War of Independence.[2]

Education, career and early politics

King attended Dummer Academy (now The Governor's Academy) at the age of twelve, located in South Byfield, MA.[4] Later on he attended Harvard College, where he graduated in 1777.[5] He began to read law under Theophilus Parsons, but his studies were interrupted in 1778 when King volunteered for militia duty in the American Revolutionary War. Appointed a major, he served as an aide to General Sullivan [4][6] in the Battle of Rhode Island. [5] After the campaign, King returned to his apprenticeship under Parsons. He was admitted to the bar in 1780 and began a legal practice in Newburyport, Massachusetts.[4][7] King was first elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1783, and returned there each year until 1785. Massachusetts sent him to the Confederation Congress from 1784 to 1787.[4][8] He was one of the youngest at the conference.

Politics (Constitutional Convention)

In 1787, King was sent to the Constitutional Convention held at Philadelphia. King held a significant position at the convention. Despite his youthful stature, "he numbered among the most capable orators". Along with James Madison, "he became a leading figure in the nationalist causus". Furthermore, he attended every session. King's "views underwent a startling transformation during the debates" originally changing a mindset supporting Articles of Confederation and utterly throwing out the idea that it could be sustained.[4] King's major involvements included serving on the Committee on Postponed Matters and the Committee of Style and Arrangement.[4] Although he came to the convention unconvinced that major changes should be made in the Articles of Confederation, his views underwent a startling transformation during the debates.[4] He worked with Chairman William Samuel Johnson, James Madison, Gouverneur Morris, and Alexander Hamilton on the Committee of Style and Arrangement to prepare a final draft of the United States Constitution. King is one of the more prominent delegates namely because of playing "a major role in the laborious crafting of the fundamental governing character.[9] The constitution was signed on September 17, only needing to be ratified by each of the subsequent states.[9] After signing the Constitution, he returned home and went to work to get the Constitution ratified and unsuccessfully position himself to be named to the U.S. Senate.[10] The ratification passed by the narrow margin of 187–168 votes.[9] With the ratification passed, Massachusetts "became the sixth state to ratify [the] constitution in early February 1788.[9] Rufus is indirectly responsible for the passing of this ratification seeing that his "learned, informative, and persuasive speeches" were able to convince a "popular, vain merchant and prince-turned-politicians to abandon his anti-federalism and approve the new organic law".[9]

Politics (post-Constitutional Convention)

After his early political experiences during the constitutional convention, King decided to switch his vocational calling by "[abandoning] his law practice [in 1788], [and] moved from the Bay State to Gotham, and entered the New York political forum".[4] At Hamilton's urging, he moved to New York City, and was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1789.[8] Shortly afterwards he was elected as Senator from New York and reelected in 1795. In 1795, King helped Hamilton defend the controversial Jay Treaty by writing pieces for New York newspapers under the pseudonym "Camillus." Of the thirty eight installments in the series, King wrote eight, numbers 23–30, 34, and 35, discussing the treaty's maritime and commercial aspects.[11] He was re-elected in 1795 but resigned on May 23, 1796, having been appointed U. S. Minister by George Washington to Great Britain.[4][8][12] "Even though King was an outspoken Federalist politically, Republican President Thomas Jefferson, upon his elevation to the presidency, refused to recall him. In 1803, King voluntarily relinquished. ... " this position.[12]

King then returned to elected politics, for a long time with little success, but later he returned to the Senate. In April 1804, King ran unsuccessfully for the Senate from New York. Later that year, and again in 1808, King and fellow-signer Charles Cotesworth Pinckney were the candidates for Vice President and President of the declining Federalist Party, respectively, but had no realistic chance against Democratic Republican Thomas Jefferson with only 27.2% of the popular vote, losing by 45.6%, marking the highest recess in Presidential election history. In 1808 both candidates were renominated and lost against James Madison, gaining 32.4% this time.[4]

In September 1812, when the unpopular War of 1812 against Great Britain helped the opposing Federalists to regain reputation, King led an effort at the Federalist party caucus to nominate a Federalist ticket for the presidential election that year, but the effort failed, as Democratic Republican DeWitt Clinton had the best chances to defeat his fellow party member Madison, which made the Federalists field no candidate. However, some sought to make King the nominee, in order to have a candidate under the Federalist banner on the ballot, and though little came of it, he did finish third in the popular vote with approximately 2% of the total. Shortly thereafter, King celebrated his first success after 10 years, when he was elected to his "second tenure on Senate" in 1813.[12]

In April 1816 he ran for Governor of New York and lost to Daniel D. Tompkins. In the fall of that year, he did become the informal presidential nominee for the Federalist Party, as they did not meet for any convention. He only received 30.9% and lost again, this time to James Monroe, whose running mate, coincidentally, was Tompkins.[12] King would be the last presidential candidate by the Federalists before their collapse. When he ran for re-election to the Senate in 1819, he ran as a Federalist even though the party was already disbanding and had only a small minority in the New York State Legislature. But, due to the split of the Democratic-Republicans, no successor was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1819, and the seat remained vacant until January 1820. Trying to attract the former Federalist voters to their side at the next gubernatorial election in April 1820, both factions of the Democratic-Republican Party now supported King, who served another term in the U.S. Senate until March 3, 1825. At the time the Federalist Party had already ceased to exist on the federal stage. During his second tenure in the Senate, he continued his career as an opponent of slavery, which he denounced as anathema to the principles underlying the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. In what is considered the greatest speech of his career, he spoke against admitting Missouri as a slave state in 1820.

Soon after his second term in the Senate ended, King was appointed Minister to Great Britain again, this time by President John Quincy Adams. However, he was forced to return home a few months later due to failing health. He subsequently retired from public life.[12]

Diplomat

Rufus King Minister Britain (JQA)
King's nomination to be Minister to the UK (1825)

King played a major diplomatic role as Minister to the Court of St. James from 1796 to 1803, and again from 1825 to 1826.[13] Although he was a leading Federalist, Thomas Jefferson kept him in office until King asked to be relieved.[12] Some prominent accomplishments that King had from his time as a national diplomat include a term of friendly relations with Britain and the United States (at least until it became hostile in 1805).[4] With that in mind, he was able to successfully reach a compromise on the passing of the Jay Treaty being an avid supporter of it.[4] King was outspoken against potential Irish immigration to the United States in wake of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. In a September 13, 1798 letter to the Duke of Portland, King said of potential Irish refugees, "I certainly do not think they will be a desirable acquisition to any Nation, but in none would they be likely to prove more mischievous than in mine, where from the sameness of language and similarity of Laws and Institutions they have greater opportunities of propagating their principles than in any other Country."[14] Also, while in Britain, he was in close personal contact with South American revolutionary Francisco de Miranda and facilitated Miranda's trip to the United States in search of support for his failed 1806 expedition to Venezuela.

Anti-slavery activity

Rufus King by Peale
Oil painting of King by Charles Willson Peale (1818)

King had a long history of opposition to the expansion of slavery and the slave trade. This stand was a product of moral conviction which coincided with the political realities of New England federalism. While in Congress, he successfully added provisions to the 1787 Northwest Ordinance which barred the extension of slavery into the Northwest Territory. [7] But he also said he was willing "to suffer the continuance of slaves until they can be gradually emancipated in states already overrun with them." He did not press the issue very hard at this time. At the Constitutional Convention, he indicated that his opposition to slavery was based upon the political and economic advantages it gave to the South, but he was willing to compromise for political reasons. In 1817, he supported Senate action to abolish the domestic slave trade and, in 1819, spoke strongly for the antislavery amendment to the Missouri statehood bill. In 1819, his arguments were political, economic, and humanitarian; the extension of slavery would adversely affect the security of the principles of freedom and liberty. After the Missouri Compromise, he continued to support gradual emancipation in various ways. [15]

Library

Rufus King Manor museum library 20190406 101154 bw
Rufus King in Library, Jamaica, Queens

At the time of his death in 1827, King had a library of roughly 2,200 titles in 3,500 volumes. In addition, King had roughly 200 bound volumes containing thousands of pamphlets. King's son John Alsop King inherited the library and kept them in Jamaica, Queens, until his death in 1867. The books then went to John's son Dr. Charles Ray King of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. They remained in Pennsylvania until donated to the New-York Historical Society in 1906, where most of them currently reside. Some books have extensive marginalia. In addition, six commonplace books survive in his papers at the New-York Historical Society.

Other accomplishments

In his lifetime, King had been an avid supporter of Hamilton and his Fiscal programs and unsurprisingly that he would find himself also become one of the directors of the Hamilton-sponsored First Bank of the United States.[4][12] Among other prominent things that occurred in King's life, he was first elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1805,[16] and was also elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814.[17] Contrary to his previous position on the national bank of the United States, King found himself denying the reopening of a Second National Bank in 1816.[12] Finally, in 1822, he was admitted as an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati.

Family

Coat of Arms of Rufus King
Coat of Arms of Rufus King

Many of King's family were also involved in politics and he had a number of prominent descendants. His brother William King was the first governor of Maine and a prominent merchant, and his other brother, Cyrus King, was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

His wife Mary Alsop was born in New York on October 17, 1769, and died in Jamaica, New York, on June 5, 1819. She was the only daughter of John Alsop, a wealthy merchant and a delegate for New York to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776.[18] She was also a great niece of Governor John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. She married Mr. King in New York City on March 30, 1786, he being at that time a delegate from Massachusetts to the Congress of the Confederation then sitting in that city.[18]

Mrs. Rufus King, (Mary Alsop) (NYPL Hades-254212-EM13199).tiff
Mrs. Rufus King, (Mary Alsop)

Mrs. King was a lady of remarkable beauty, gentle and gracious manners, and well cultivated mind, and adorned the high station, both in England and at home, that her husband's official positions and their own social relations entitled them to occupy.[18] A King family member once wrote to their wife of Mrs. King's beauty and personality as, "'Tell Betsy King [Rufus's half-sister] her sister is a beauty. She is vastly the best looking woman I have seen since I have been in this city. ... She is a good hearted woman, and, I think, possesses all that Benevolence and kind, friendly disposition, that never fail to find respectable admirers'".[18] As mentioned earlier her "remarkable beauty" and "well cultivated manner" seems to help the Kings in the type of lifestyle they lives, one where the Kings found themselves in "fashionable circles and entertained frequently"... (potentially helped by how "[Mrs. King] was widely admired in New York society; her retiring nature set her apart.").[18] The Kings found themselves having 7 children (of which 5 managed to live to adulthood).[18] On June 5, 1819, Mrs. King died. "She was buried in the old churchyard of Grace Church". Rufus King remarked on her death regarding his wife, "The example of her life is worthy of the imitation of us all".[19]

Rufus King died on April 29, 1827, and his funeral was held at his New York home in Jamaica, Queens. He is buried in the Grace Church Cemetery in Jamaica, Queens, New York. [20] The home that King purchased in 1805 and expanded thereafter and some of his farm make up King Park in Queens. The home, called King Manor, is now a museum and is open to the public.

The Rufus King School, also known as P.S. 26, in Fresh Meadows, New York, was named after King, as was the Rufus King Hall on the CUNY Queens College campus and King Street[21] in Madison, Wisconsin.

Confusingly, Rufus King International School – High School Campus, formerly Rufus King High School, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is named after his grandson, Rufus King, a general in the American Civil War.

Descendants

Rufus King's descendants number in the thousands today. Some of his notable descendants include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Passos, John Dos (2011). The Men Who Made the Nation: Architects of the Young Republic 1782–1802. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing. p. 480.
  2. ^ a b Ernst, pp. 1–15.
  3. ^ Adams, John (July 7, 1774). "John Adams to Abigail Adams, 7 July 1774" (Web). Founders Online. National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The Founding Fathers: Massachusetts". The Charters of Freedom. Archives.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  5. ^ a b Steven E. Siry. "King, Rufus"; American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  6. ^ John Vinci (2008). "Biography of Rufus King". Colonialhall.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  7. ^ a b Purvis, Thomas L. (1997). A Dictionary of American History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-57718-099-9. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  8. ^ a b c "King, Rufus, (1755–1827)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Congress. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e Morton, Joseph C. (2006). Shapers of the Great Debate at the Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Biographical Dictionary. Berkeley: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 160.
  10. ^ Morton, Joseph C. (2006). Shapers of the Great Debate at the Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Biographical Dictionary. Berkeley: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 160–61.
  11. ^ Robert Ernst, Rufus King: American Federalist, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p. 209.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Morton, Joseph C. (2006). Shapers of the Great Debate at the Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Biographical Dictionary. Berkeley: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 161.
  13. ^ Morton, Joseph C. (2006). Shapers of the Great Debate at the Constitutional Convention of 1787: A Biographical Dictionary. Berkeley: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 161–62.
  14. ^ Robert Ernst, Rufus King: American Federalist, Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1968, p. 263.
  15. ^ Arbena
  16. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter K" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  17. ^ American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
  18. ^ a b c d e f McKenney, Janice E. (2012). Women of the Constitution: Wives of the Signers. Lanham: Rrowman & Littlefield. p. 98.
  19. ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2012). Women of the Constitution: Wives of the Signers. Lanham: Rrowman & Littlefield. p. 100.
  20. ^ theclio
  21. ^ Wisconsin Historical Society (2011). "Origins of Madison Street Names". Wisconsinhistory.org. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
  22. ^ "Halsey", ArlingtonCemetery.net.
  23. ^ Halsey Minor Read the Hook November 27, 2008

Bibliography

  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "King, Rufus" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Arbena, Joseph L. "Politics or Principle? Rufus King and the Opposition to Slavery, 1785–1825." Essex Institute Historical Collections (1965) 101(1): 56–77. ISSN 0014-0953
  • Brush, Edward Hale. Rufus King and His Times. New York: Nicholas L. Brown, 1926.
  • Ernst, Robert (1968). Rufus King: American Federalist. University of North Carolina Press. OCLC 284601.
  • King, Charles R. The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, 4 vol. 1893–1897.
  • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement: England and the United States, 1795–1805. University of California Press, 1967.

External links

1795 United States Senate election in New York

The 1795 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 27, 1795 by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1813 United States Senate election in New York

The 1813 United States Senate election in New York was held on February 2, 1813, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1816 United States elections

The 1816 United States elections elected the members of the 15th United States Congress. Mississippi and Illinois were admitted as states during the 15th Congress. The election took place during the First Party System. The Democratic-Republican Party controlled the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while the Federalist Party provided only limited opposition. The election marked the start of the Era of Good Feelings, as the Federalist Party became nearly irrelevant in national politics after the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention.

In the Presidential election, Democratic-Republican Secretary of State James Monroe easily defeated Federalist Senator Rufus King of New York. Monroe faced a more difficult challenge in securing his party's nomination, but was able to defeat Secretary of War William H. Crawford in the Democratic-Republican congressional nominating caucus. The Federalists never again fielded a presidential candidate.

In the House, Democratic-Republicans won major gains, and continued to dominate the chamber.In the Senate, Democratic-Republicans picked up a moderate number of seats, increasing their already-dominant majority.

1816 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1816 was the eighth quadrennial presidential election. It was held from Friday, November 1 to Wednesday, December 4, 1816. In the first election following the end of the War of 1812, Democratic-Republican candidate James Monroe defeated Federalist Rufus King. The election was the last in which the Federalist Party fielded a presidential candidate.

As President James Madison chose to retire after serving two terms, the Democratic-Republicans held a congressional nominating caucus in March 1816. With the support of Madison and former President Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State Monroe defeated Secretary of War William H. Crawford to win his party's presidential nomination. Governor Daniel D. Tompkins of New York won the Democratic-Republican vice presidential nomination, continuing the party's tradition of balancing a presidential nominee from Virginia with a vice presidential nominee from either New York or New England. The Federalists did not formally nominate a ticket, but Senator King of New York emerged as the de facto Federalist candidate.

The previous four years of American politics were dominated by the effects of the War of 1812. While the war had not ended in victory, the peace concluded in 1815 was satisfactory to the American people, and the Democratic-Republicans received the credit for its conclusion. The Federalists found themselves discredited by their opposition to the war, as well as the secessionist rhetoric from New England embodied by the Hartford Convention. Furthermore, President Madison had succeeded in realizing certain measures favored by the Federalists, including a national bank and protective tariffs. The Federalists had little to campaign on, and King himself held little hope of ending the Democratic-Republican winning streak in presidential elections. Monroe won the Electoral College by the wide margin, carrying 16 of the 19 states. This would be the last election where Federalists

would run a candidate.

1816 United States presidential election in Connecticut

The 1816 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place between November 1 to December 4, 1816, as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. The state legislature chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

During this election, Connecticut cast its nine electoral votes to Federalist Party candidate Rufus King of New York. Nevertheless, Democratic Republican candidate and Secretary of State James Monroe won the election nationally.

With King's victory in the state, Connecticut became one of the only three states to vote for the Federalists, with the other two being neighboring Massachusetts and Delaware.

Although John Eager Howard was selected as King's running mate, Connecticut split its votes for Vice President between James Ross of Pennsylvania and Chief Justice John Marshall.

1816 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1816 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place as part of the 1816 United States presidential election. Voters chose 25 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

Pennsylvania voted for the Democratic-Republican candidate, James Monroe, over the Federalist candidate, Rufus King. Monroe won Pennsylvania by a margin of 18.66%.

1819–1820 United States Senate election in New York

The 1819/1820 United States Senate election in New York was held on February 2, 1819, and January 8, 1820, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

Cyrus King

Cyrus King (September 6, 1772 – April 25, 1817) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, half-brother of Rufus King.

John Eager Howard

John Eager Howard (June 4, 1752 – October 12, 1827) was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was elected as governor of the state in 1788, and served three one-year terms. He also was elected to the Continental Congress, the Congress of the United States and the U.S. Senate. In the 1816 presidential election, Howard received 22 electoral votes for vice president on the Federalist Party ticket with Rufus King. The ticket lost in a landslide.

Howard County, Maryland, is named for him, along with Eager Street and Howard Street in Baltimore.

King Manor

King Manor, also known as the Rufus King House, is in Jamaica, Queens. It was the home of Rufus King, a signer of the United States Constitution, a Senator from New York, and Ambassador to Great Britain immediately after the American Revolution. It is located at 150th Street and Jamaica Avenue. Descendants of King's family lived in the house until 1896 when Rufus' granddaughter Cornelia King died and sold the house to the Village of Jamaica. When Jamaica, along with the western half of Queens County was annexed by New York City in 1898, the house and the property were turned over to the New York City Parks Department which re-designated the land as "Rufus King Park."

It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1974.

Rufus K. Goodenow

Rufus King Goodenow (April 24, 1790 – March 24, 1863) was a United States Representative from Maine. Born in Henniker, New Hampshire, he moved with his parents to Brownfield, Maine in 1802. He received limited schooling, subsequently engaged in agricultural pursuits. He also made several voyages to European ports and served as a captain in the Thirty-third Regiment, United States Infantry, in the War of 1812. He moved to Paris, Maine in 1821. He was the brother of Robert Goodenow.

He served as clerk of the Oxford County Courts from 1821 to 1837. Goodenow was elected a member of the Maine House of Representatives. He was a delegate to the Whig National Convention at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1839. He studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced in the courts of Maine. He was elected as a Whig to the Thirty-first Congress (March 4, 1849 – March 4, 1851), and died in Paris, Maine. He was interred in Riverside Cemetery.

Rufus King (general)

Rufus King (January 26, 1814 – October 13, 1876) was an American newspaper editor, public servant, diplomat, and a Union brigadier general in the American Civil War.

Rufus King (lawyer)

Rufus King was a lawyer from Cincinnati, Ohio who served as Dean of the Cincinnati Law School and president of the University of Cincinnati in the late nineteenth century. He also served as president of a convention that met to write a new constitution for the state of Ohio, and authored a history of the state of Ohio.

Rufus King International School – High School Campus

Rufus King International School – High School Campus, or Rufus King, is a public magnet high school located on the north side of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, part of the Milwaukee Public Schools district. The school is ranked the 130th public high school in the country by U.S. News and World Report, making it the top performing public high school in the state of Wisconsin. The school offers the International Baccalaureate curriculum.

The school was formerly named Rufus King International Baccalaureate High School. After the addition of a feeder middle years program in the 2010-2011 school year, the high school was renamed Rufus King International School – High School Campus.Sixty percent of the students are of African American descent (compared to the state average of 11%), twenty percent of students are Caucasian and seven percent of students are Hispanic and Asian. Fifty-one percent of students are eligible for free school lunch.

Rufus King International School – Middle Years Campus

Rufus King International School – Middle School Campus, or Rufus King Middle School, is a public magnet intermediate school located on the north side of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, part of the Milwaukee Public Schools district. It was launched in September 2010 in the Ronald McNair building.

The middle school, which began its first school year in 2010, is part of the 6-12 program of Rufus King International School. The program incorporates the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme.

The curriculum includes English, math, science, social studies, Spanish, and an engineering program. Electives include physical education, music and art.

Rufus King Jr.

Rufus King Jr. (March 21, 1838 – March 18, 1900) was an artillery officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and a Medal of Honor recipient.

Rufus King Polk

Rufus King Polk (August 23, 1866 – March 5, 1902) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Rufus K. Polk was born in Columbia, Tennessee, the son of Confederate States Army Brigadier General Lucius E. Polk and great-nephew of Leonidas Polk. He attended Webb's Academy in Culleoka, Tennessee, graduated from Lehigh University in South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1887, and took a post-graduate course in mining engineering. He settled in Danville, Pennsylvania, and was employed as a chemist. He held supervisory positions with several steel companies and ultimately became engaged in the manufacture of structural iron. He served as first lieutenant of Company F, Twelfth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, in the Spanish–American War. He was a delegate to the 1900 Democratic National Convention.

Polk was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth and Fifty-seventh Congresses and served until his death in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He is buried in Fairview Cemetery in Danville, Pennsylvania.

William II of England

William II (Old Norman: Williame; c. 1056 – 2 August 1100), the third son of William the Conqueror, was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as William Rufus (Rufus being Latin for "the Red"), perhaps because of his ruddy appearance or, more likely, due to having red hair as a child that grew out in later life.William was a figure of complex temperament, capable of both bellicosity and flamboyance. He did not marry, nor did he father any offspring, which has led to speculations of possible homosexuality by historians. He died after being struck by an arrow while hunting, under circumstances that remain unclear. Circumstantial evidence in the behaviour of those around him raises strong, but unproven, suspicions of murder. His younger brother Henry I hurriedly succeeded him as king.

Barlow says he was "A rumbustious, devil-may-care soldier, without natural dignity or social graces, with no cultivated tastes and little show of conventional religious piety or morality—indeed, according to his critics, addicted to every kind of vice, particularly lust and especially sodomy." On the other hand, he was a wise ruler and victorious general. Barlow finds that, "His chivalrous virtues and achievements were all too obvious. He had maintained good order and satisfactory justice in England and restored good peace to Normandy. He had extended Anglo-Norman rule in Wales, brought Scotland firmly under his lordship, recovered Maine, and kept up the pressure on the Vexin."

William R. King

William Rufus DeVane King (April 7, 1786 – April 18, 1853) was an American politician and diplomat. He was the 13th vice president of the United States for six weeks in 1853 before his death. Earlier he had been elected as a U.S. representative from North Carolina and a senator from Alabama. He also served as minister to France during the reign of King Louis Philippe I.

A Democrat, he was a Unionist and his contemporaries considered him to be a moderate on the issues of sectionalism, slavery and westward expansion, which contributed to the American Civil War. He helped draft the Compromise of 1850. He is the only United States executive official to take the oath of office on foreign soil; he was inaugurated in Havana, Cuba, due to poor health. King died of tuberculosis after 45 days in office. With the exceptions of John Tyler and Andrew Johnson—both of whom succeeded to the presidency—he is the shortest-serving vice president.

King was the only U.S. vice president from the state of Alabama and held the highest political office of any Alabamian in American history. He was the third vice president to die in office.

Offices and distinctions

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