Rufous-vented ground cuckoo

The rufous-vented ground cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi) is a large terrestrial species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae. It is found in humid primary forests from southern Nicaragua, through Costa Rica and Panama, into north-western Colombia. Another population occurs in the western and southern Amazon Basin of south-eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Brazil, while a final population occurs in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. Much confusion exists over the exact limits of its distribution in the south-central Amazon, where the very similar scaled ground cuckoo occurs (the breast-markings typically used to separate the scaled and the rufous-vented ground cuckoos are known to vary clinally). Consequently, the scaled ground cuckoo has often been considered a subspecies of the rufous-vented ground cuckoo.[2]

Rufous-vented ground cuckoo
Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Cuculiformes
Family: Cuculidae
Genus: Neomorphus
N. geoffroyi
Binomial name
Neomorphus geoffroyi
(Temminck, 1820)


The rufous-vented ground cuckoo is a large ground-dwelling bird with sturdy legs and a long tail. It has a brown head, greenish-brown crest and curved beak. The upper parts and tail are dark with a greenish, bluish or purplish iridescence, and the underparts are whitish to pale tan. The subspecies vary primarily in the details of the chest—and crown—pattern, and the colour of the tail and wings.[2] There is extensive variation in the dark chest band, which hinders easy separation from the scaled ground cuckoo. Consequently, the latter is commonly regarded as a subspecies of the former.[3][4]


As other species in the genus Neomorphus, the rufous-vented ground cuckoo is generally highly inconspicuous and infrequently seen. While overall unlikely to be threatened due to its large range, one subspecies, the nominate (from Bahia, Brazil; syn. maximiliani[5]), may be extinct, and another, dulcis (from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Brazil), is very rare and likely to be threatened.[2][3][4] The remaining subspecies are salvini of Central America and northwestern Colombia, aequatorialis of the northwestern Amazon Basin, australis of the southwestern Amazon Basin, and amazonicus of the southeastern Amazon Basin.[2][3][4][5]

Overall, the rufous-vented ground cuckoo is listed by the IUCN as being of "vulnerable". Apart from habitat degradation, no particular threats have been identified and the bird has a wide range and presumed large population. The population trend is likely to be downward but not at such a rate as to justify putting this bird in a more threatened category.[6]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Neomorphus geoffroyi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T62144610A95189833. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T62144610A95189833.en. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Payne, R.B. (1997). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (eds.). Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 606–607. ISBN 84-87334-22-9.
  3. ^ a b c Erritzøe, Johannes; Mann, Clive F.; Brammer, Frederik; Fuller, Richard A. (2012). Cuckoos of the World. Helm Identification Guides. Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-0713660340.
  4. ^ a b c Payne, Robert B.; Klitz, Karen (2005). The Cuckoos. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198502135.
  5. ^ a b Raposo, Marcos A.; Simon, José Eduardo; Teixeira, Dante Martins (2009). "Correction of the type locality of Neomorphus geoffroyi (Temminck, 1820), with lectotype designation". Zootaxa (2176): 65–68. ISSN 1175-5326.
  6. ^ "Species factsheet: Neomorphus geoffroyi". BirdLife International. Retrieved 2013-12-18.

External links

1820 in birding and ornithology

This article provides a summary of significant events in 1820 in birding and ornithology. Notable occurrences in 1820 include the first description of the yellow-legged tinamou, and the commencement of ornithologist William John Swainson's Zoological Illustrations, a work including illustrations of many birds.


The antbirds are a large passerine bird family, Thamnophilidae, found across subtropical and tropical Central and South America, from Mexico to Argentina. There are more than 230 species, known variously as antshrikes, antwrens, antvireos, fire-eyes, bare-eyes and bushbirds. They are related to the antthrushes and antpittas (family Formicariidae), the tapaculos, the gnateaters and the ovenbirds. Despite some species' common names, this family is not closely related to the wrens, vireos or shrikes.

Antbirds are generally small birds with rounded wings and strong legs. They have mostly sombre grey, white, brown and rufous plumage, which is sexually dimorphic in pattern and colouring. Some species communicate warnings to rivals by exposing white feather patches on their backs or shoulders. Most have heavy bills, which in many species are hooked at the tip.

Most species live in forests, although a few are found in other habitats. Insects and other arthropods form the most important part of their diet, although small vertebrates are occasionally taken. Most species feed in the understory and midstory of the forest, although a few feed in the canopy and a few on the ground. Many join mixed-species feeding flocks, and a few species are core members. To various degrees, around eighteen species specialise in following swarms of army ants to eat the small invertebrates flushed by the ants, and many others may feed in this way opportunistically.

Antbirds are monogamous, mate for life, and defend territories. They usually lay two eggs in a nest that is either suspended from branches or supported on a branch, stump, or mound on the ground. Both parents share the tasks of incubation and of brooding and feeding the nestlings. After fledging, each parent cares exclusively for one chick.

Thirty-eight species are threatened with extinction as a result of human activities. Antbirds are not targeted by either hunters or the pet trade. The principal threat is habitat loss, which causes habitat fragmentation and increased nest predation in habitat fragments.

Army ant

The name army ant (or legionary ant or marabunta) is applied to over 200 ant species in different lineages. Due to their aggressive predatory foraging groups, known as "raids", a huge number of ants forage simultaneously over a certain area.Another shared feature is that, unlike most ant species, army ants do not construct permanent nests; an army ant colony moves almost incessantly over the time it exists. All species are members of the true ant family, Formicidae, but several groups have independently evolved the same basic behavioural and ecological syndrome. This syndrome is often referred to as "legionary behaviour", and may be an example of convergent evolution.Most New World army ants belong to the subfamily Ecitoninae, which contains two tribes: Cheliomyrmecini and Ecitonini. The former contains only the genus Cheliomyrmex, whereas the latter contains four genera: Neivamyrmex, Nomamyrmex, Labidus, and Eciton. The largest genus is Neivamyrmex, which contains more than 120 species; the most predominant species is Eciton burchellii; its common name "army ant" is considered to be the archetype of the species. Old World army ants are divided between the Aenictini and Dorylini tribes. Aenictini contains more than 50 species of army ants in the single genus, Aenictus. However, the Dorylini contain the genus Dorylus, the most aggressive group of driver ants; 70 species are known.Originally, some of the Old World and New World lineages of army ants were thought to have evolved independently, in an example of convergent evolution. In 2003, though, genetic analysis of various species suggests that several of these groups evolved from a single common ancestor, which lived approximately 100 million years ago at the time of the separation of the continents of Africa and South America, while other army ant lineages (Leptanillinae, plus members of Ponerinae, Amblyoponinae, and Myrmicinae) are still considered to represent independent evolutionary events. Army ant taxonomy remains in flux, and genetic analysis will likely continue to provide more information about the relatedness of the various taxa.


The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes. The cuckoo family includes the common or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals and anis. The coucals and anis are sometimes separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively. The cuckoo order Cuculiformes is one of three that make up the Otidimorphae, the other two being the turacos and the bustards.

The cuckoos are generally medium-sized slender birds. Most species live in trees, though a sizeable minority are ground-dwelling. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority of species being tropical. Some species are migratory. The cuckoos feed on insects, insect larvae and a variety of other animals, as well as fruit. Some species are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species, but the majority of species raise their own young.

Cuckoos have played a role in human culture for thousands of years, appearing in Greek mythology as sacred to the goddess Hera. In Europe, the cuckoo is associated with spring, and with cuckoldry, for example in Shakespeare's Love's Labour's Lost. In India, cuckoos are sacred to Kamadeva, the god of desire and longing, whereas in Japan, the cuckoo symbolises unrequited love.

Jurong Bird Park

Jurong Bird Park is an aviary and tourist attraction in Jurong, Singapore. The bird park, managed by Wildlife Reserves Singapore, covers an area of 0.2 square kilometres (49 acres) on the western slope of Jurong Hill, the highest point in the Jurong region.

Wildlife Reserves Singapore reported on 1 June 2016 that in 2020, Jurong Bird Park will be relocated to 80 Mandai Lake Road, 729826, with a new name for the Bird Park. For now, operation continues as per normal.

List of birds of Colombia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia. The avifauna of Colombia has 1851 confirmed species, of which 81 are endemic, three have been introduced by humans, and 62 are rare or vagrants. One of the endemic species is believed to be extinct. An additional 37 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is noted otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The Colombian province of San Andrés and Providencia is much closer to Nicaragua than to the South American mainland, so the SACC does not address records there. An additional 17 species are listed here whose only Colombian records are from that province. Three of them are also considered hypothetical.The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Colombia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Colombia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Colombia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

(SA) San Andrés - a species whose only Colombian records are from the province of San Andrés and Providencia

List of birds of Costa Rica

Although Costa Rica is a small country, it is in the bird-rich neotropical region and has a huge number of species for its area. The official bird list published by the Costa Rican Rare Birds and Records Committee of the Asociación Ornitológica de Costa Rica (AOCR) contains 921 species as of January 2018. This number is more than have been recorded in all of the United States and Canada combined. Of those species, seven are endemic (three of which are found only on Cocos Island), 66 are rare or accidental, and four have been introduced by humans. Another 73 are near-endemic with ranges that include only Costa Rica and Panama. Twenty-three species, including five of the seven endemics, are globally vulnerable or endangered. Over an area of 51,100 km2, an area smaller than West Virginia, this is the greatest density of bird species of any continental American country. About 600 species are resident, with most of the other regular visitors being winter migrants from North America. A "split" and a "lump" announced in July 2018 add one near-endemic species.

Costa Rica's geological formation played a large role in the diversification of avian species. North America and South America were initially separate continents, but millions of years of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions eventually fused the two continents together. When this happened, species from the north and south poured into the land bridge that became Central America. Birds like the hummingbird came from the south, while birds like the jay came from the north.Part of the diversity stems from the wide array of habitats, which include mangrove swamps along the Pacific coast, the wet Caribbean coastal plain in the northeast, dry northern Pacific lowlands, and multiple mountain chains that form the spine of the country and rise as high as 3,500 m. These mountain chains, the largest of which is the Cordillera de Talamanca, form a geographical barrier that has enabled closely related but different species to develop on either side of the chain. A good example of this speciation is the white-collared manakin of the Caribbean side, which is now distinct from the orange-collared manakin of the Pacific slope.

In the past, higher sea levels left the mountains as highlands, and isolation again led to distinct species developing, with over thirty now endemic to the mountains, especially the Talamanca range which extends from southern Costa Rica into Panama.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species on the list are considered to occur regularly in Costa Rica as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight certain categories of occurrence:

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Costa Rica

(R?) Residence uncertain - a species which might be resident

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Costa Rica

(E-R) Regional endemic - a species found only in Costa Rica and Panama

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Costa Rica as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Honduras

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Honduras. The avifauna of Honduras included a total of 766 species as of August 2015, according to La Asociación Hondureña de Ornitología (ASHO). Between that date and July 2018, an additional 10 species have been added through eBird.Of the 776 species listed here, one of them, the Honduran emerald, is endemic. Thirty-seven are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. Five species are hypothetical (see below) and a few have insufficient information to classify. Some of the "hypothetical" species have more recent eBird records with photographs. Two species have possibly been extirpated. Eleven species are globally vulnerable or endangered.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Honduras as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags are used by ASHO to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Honduras

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Honduras

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Honduras as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with no tangible evidence such as a photograph, according to the ASHO

(?) Insufficient information - Appended to a tag or note because of uncertainty

List of birds of Nicaragua

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nicaragua. The avifauna of Nicaragua included a total of 781 species as of December 2017, according to Bird Checklists of the World. Of the species, 55 are rare or accidental and five have been introduced by humans. None are endemic.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, the species on this list are considered to occur regularly in Nicaragua as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The tags and notes of population status are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nicaragua

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nicaragua as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of North America (Cuculiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Cuculiformes, and are native to North America.

List of recently extinct bird species

This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since 1500; for the list of birds known only from fossils, see List of fossil bird genera. For birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and usually known from specimens not completely fossilized, see List of Late Quaternary prehistoric bird species.Over 190 species of birds have become extinct since 1500, and the rate of extinction seems to be increasing. The situation is exemplified by Hawaii, where 30% of all known recently extinct bird taxa originally lived. Other areas, such as Guam, have also been hit hard; Guam has lost over 60% of its native bird taxa in the last 30 years, many of them due to the introduced brown tree snake.

Currently there are approximately 10,000 living species of birds, with an estimated 1,200 considered to be under threat of extinction.

Island species in general, and flightless island species in particular, are most at risk. The disproportionate number of rails in the list reflects the tendency of that family to lose the ability to fly when geographically isolated. Even more rails became extinct before they could be described by scientists; these taxa are listed in List of Late Quaternary prehistoric bird species.

The extinction dates given below are usually approximations of the actual date of extinction. In some cases, more exact dates are given as it is sometimes possible to pinpoint the date of extinction to a specific year or even day (the San Benedicto rock wren is possibly the most extreme example—its extinction could be timed with an accuracy of maybe half an hour). Extinction dates in the literature are usually the dates of the last verified record (credible observation or specimen taken); for many Pacific birds that became extinct shortly after European contact, however, this leaves an uncertainty period of over a century, because the islands on which they lived were only rarely visited by scientists.

List of threatened birds of Brazil

Brazil has more than 1900 birds species, and according to Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation and Ministry of the Environment, there are 240 species and subspecies of Brazilian birds enlisted as threatened species, 6 as extincts and two as extinct in the wild. the Brazilian definition uses the same criteria and categories of IUCN. Among the 33 bird orders which occurs in Brazil, 22 has threatened species. The passerines (songbirds), besides being the most diverse order in Brazil, is also the order with most species on Brazilian red list, immediately before the Parrots. The Brazilian Northeast, notably in Atlantic forest and Caatinga, has the most number of endemic and threatened birds, and two of them, the Alagoas curassow and the Spix's macaw, has been considered extinct in the wild. The "Pernambuco Center" of endemism presents many critically endangered species due the intense destruction of the Atlantic forest. Some species might be extinct in Brazil, like the Glaucous macaw and the Eskimo curlew.The actual list of threatened species was published in Diário Oficial da União, on December 17, 2014. Even though some species have been removed from the list, (for instance, the Hyacinth macaw), the number of threatened species has increased in comparison with the former list (which had had 160 taxa). Furthermore, the number of known species of birds has been increasing considerably since the last half of the 20th century, and this fact has influenced the number of enlisted species.In spite of using the same criteria, ICMBio list often shows a different conservation status than IUCN. That's because both assessments have been done in different moments and by different researchers.

List of vulnerable birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 799 vulnerable avian species. 7.1% of all evaluated avian species are listed as vulnerable.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

For a species to be assessed as vulnerable to extinction the best available evidence must meet quantitative criteria set by the IUCN designed to reflect "a high risk of extinction in the wild". Endangered and critically endangered species also meet the quantitative criteria of vulnerable species, and are listed separately. See: List of endangered birds, List of critically endangered birds. Vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered species are collectively referred to as threatened species by the IUCN.

Additionally 61 avian species (0.59% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of vulnerable avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.


In biological classification, Neomorphidae is a proposed family of birds, separating the ground cuckoos (including roadrunners) from the rest of the cuckoo family. It is traditionally nested within the family Cuculidae as the subfamily Neomorphinae.


The Neomorphinae are a subfamily of the cuckoo family, Cuculidae. Members of this subfamily are known as New World ground cuckoos, since most are largely terrestrial and native to the Americas. Only Dromococcyx and Tapera are more arboreal, and these are also the only brood parasitic cuckoos in the Americas, while the remaining all build their own nests.


Neomorphus is a genus of terrestrial cuckoos in the family Cuculidae. Despite their relatively large size, they are highly inconspicuous and rarely seen. They are restricted to the humid primary forests in the Neotropics, and despite their similar looks, not closely related to the Asian ground cuckoos of the genus Carpococcyx.

Scaled ground cuckoo

The scaled ground cuckoo (Neomorphus squamiger) is a species of cuckoo in the family Cuculidae.

It is endemic to the Amazon rainforest near the Tapajos River in Brazil, but much confusion exists over the exact limits of its range and the features useful for separating it from the very similar rufous-vented ground cuckoo (the breast-markings of the Amazonian taxa are known to vary clinally). Consequently, it has sometimes been considered a subspecies of the rufous-vented ground cuckoo.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 4

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Sooretama Biological Reserve

Sooretama Biological Reserve (Portuguese: Reserva Biológica de Sooretama is a biological reserve in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.


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