Rubus fruticosus

Rubus fruticosus L. is the ambiguous name of a European blackberry species in the genus Rubus in the rose family. The name has been interpreted in several ways:

  • The species represented by the type specimen of Rubus fruticosus L., which is also the type specimen of the genus Rubus.[1] This specimen is considered to match the species R. plicatus, in Rubus subgenus Rubus, section Rubus.[2][3]
  • Various species consistent with Linnaeus' original description of the species, which was based on a mixture of specimens now considered to match Rubus ulmifolius and R. plicatus
  • a species aggregate (group of similar species) Rubus fruticosus agg. (a nomen ambiguum) that includes most (or rarely all) of a group called Rubus subgenus Rubus[3] (or less often: Rubus section Rubus [sensu latissimo] [4][5]):
    • in a narrow sense, sometimes separated as the section Glandulosus (alternative name: subsection Hiemales), with about 289 microspecies.[3] In this sense the species aggregate does not include the type of the genus Rubus.
    • in a broad sense: (1) (i) sections Glandulosus and Rubus [sensu stricto] (in non-British systems, these two sections are classified together as section Rubus [sensu lato], section Glandulosus being called subsection Hiemales and section Rubus [sensu stricto] being called subsection Rubus) [6][5][7] or (ii) "most of" these sections [8] ; or (2) sections Glandulosus, Rubus [sensu stricto] and Corylifolii.[3] Section Rubus [sensu stricto] (about 20 microspecies) are probably hybrids involving members of section Glandulosus with either R. idaeus or R. allegheniensis.[3] Section Corylifolii (about 24 microspecies) are probably hybrids involving members of section Glandulosus with R. caesius.[3]
    • even more broadly, including all the taxa in the subgenus Rubus[5][9]

As used by various authors

Apart from the established meaning of Rubus fruticosus L. as R. plicatus, the name R. fruticosus has been incorrectly applied to several species, including:

  • Rubus fructicosus Weihe & Nees, Rubi Germ. 24, 1822 -> Rubus montanus Lib. ex Lej., Fl. Spa 2: 317, 1813 (or part of Rubus montanus) [10][11]
  • Rubus fruticosus G.N.Jones -> Rubus vestitus Weihe [12]
  • Rubus fruticosus L. ex Dierb. -> Rubus vulgaris Weihe & Nees [12]
  • Rubus fruticosus Lour. -> Rubus cochinchinensis Tratt. [12]

References

  1. ^ Farr, E. R. and G. Zijlstra (ed.), Index Nominum Genericorum, Smithsonian Institution, retrieved 15 May 2015
  2. ^ "Rubus plicatus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Stace, C. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521707725.
  4. ^ Rubus. In: Flora of China [1]
  5. ^ a b c Jarvis, C.E. (1992). "Seventy-Two Proposals for the Conservation of Types of Selected Linnaean Generic Names, the Report of Subcommittee 3C on the Lectotypification of Linnaean Generic Names". Taxon. 41 (3): 552–583. doi:10.2307/1222833. JSTOR 1222833.
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ "Rubus L. subg. Rubus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Rubus fruticosus auct". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  9. ^ "Rubus fruticosus L. sensu typo". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  10. ^ Mansfeld, Rudolf (2001). Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops ((Except Ornamentals)). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 436. ISBN 978-3-540-41017-1.
  11. ^ KIRÁLYI, G et al. Reopening an old chapter: A revised taxonomic and evolutionary concept of the Rubus montanus group. in: Preslia 89(4):309–331 ·December 2017 [3] (accessed: 27 Apr 2019)
  12. ^ a b c The Plant List, retrieved 5 August 2016
Ancylis achatana

Ancylis achatana is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found from central and southern Europe including the United Kingdom, east to the Baltic region, Asia Minor, Ukraine and Russia to the southern part of Trans-Ural.

The wingspan is 14–18 mm. Adults are on wing from June to July.

The larvae spin or roll together leaves of Crataegus or Prunus spinosa and feed within or nearby. Other recorded food plants include Prunus domestica, Prunus mahaleb, Cotoneaster, Pyrus communis, Malus domestica, Malus sylvestris, Rubus fruticosus, Salix caprea and Urtica.

Argolamprotes micella

Argolamprotes micella, the bright neb, is a moth of the family Gelechiidae. It is found in most of Europe, except Ireland, the Iberian Peninsula and most of the Balkan Peninsula. Outside of Europe, it is known from Siberia, the Russian Far East, the southern Kuril Islands and Japan. The habitat consists of hedgerows, open woodland and gardens.

The wingspan is 10–14 mm. Adults are on wing in June and July.

The larvae feed on Rubus idaeus and Rubus fruticosus. They feed from within the flowering shoots and buds.

Blackberry

The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus. The taxonomy of the blackberries has historically been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have often been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, although the species R. fruticosus is considered a synonym of R. plicatus.

Boloria frigga

Boloria frigga, the Frigga fritillary, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae with a circumboreal distribution. It occurs in bogs and tundra in Northern Europe to the north of 60° N, very locally in more southern locations, as well as in the Urals, Siberia, Northern Mongolia, the Russian Far East, western parts of the United States and Canada. Larvae feed on Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium oxycoccos and occasionally on Vaccinium uliginosum. In experimentation they accept Polygonum viviparum and Rubus fruticosus. The species produces one generation every two years.

Boysenberry

The boysenberry is a cross among the European raspberry (Rubus idaeus), European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), American dewberry (Rubus aboriginum), and loganberry (Rubus × loganobaccus).It is a large 8.0-gram (0.28 oz) aggregate fruit, with large seeds and a deep maroon color.

Bramble

A bramble is any rough, tangled, prickly shrub, usually in the genus Rubus, the blackberries and raspberries and dewberries. "Bramble" is also used to describe other prickly shrubs such as roses (Rosa species). Bramble or brambleberry sometimes refers to the blackberry fruit or products of its fruit, such as bramble jelly. Many consider R. fruticosus a weed due its tendency to grow in neglected areas and its sharp, tough thorns which can be hazardous to children and pets.In British English, bramble usually refers to the common blackberry, Rubus fruticosus. Rubus fruticosus grows abundantly in all parts of the British Isles and harvesting the fruits in late summer and autumn is often considered a favourite pastime. An especially hardy plant, bramble bushes can also become a nuisance in gardens, sending down strong suckering roots amongst hedges and shrubs and being particularly resilient against pruning.

British NVC community W10

NVC community W10 (Quercus robur - Pteridium aquilinum - Rubus fruticosus woodland) is one of the woodland communities in the British National Vegetation Classification system. It is one of the six communities falling in the "mixed deciduous and oak/birch woodlands" group.

This is a widely distributed community, except in Scotland. There are five subcommunities.

Coptotriche heinemanni

Coptotriche heinemanni is a moth of the family Tischeriidae. It is found in most of Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is 8–9.5 mm.The larvae feed on Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimonia procera, Rubus caesius, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus idaeus and Rubus laciniatus. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine has the form of a large, transparent, upper-surface blotch. The frass is ejected through a small opening in the underside of the mine. Pupation takes place within the mine after hibernation. Larvae can be found from September to October.

Coptotriche marginea

Coptotriche marginea is a moth of the family Tischeriidae. It is found in most of Europe.

The wingspan is 7–8 mm. Adults are brownish with a slight metallic sheen. Forewings ochreous-yellow; costa anteriorly narrowly, posteriorly broadly suffused with dark purplish-fuscous; termen suffused with dark purplish-fuscous; a dark fuscous tornal dot. Hindwings rather dark grey.They are on wing from May to June and again in August.The larvae feed on Rubus caesius, Rubus canescens, Rubus discolor, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus grabowskii, Rubus hypargyrus, Rubus idaeus, Rubus laciniatus, Rubus macrophyllus, Rubus nemorosus and Rubus saxatilis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine has the form of a short corridor that widens into a long, elliptic blotch. The blotch is upper-surface and whitish to yellow-brown. The inside of the mine is lined with silk. The frass is ejected out of the mine through an opening in the underside of the mine. Pupation takes place within the mine in a pupa without a cocoon. Larvae can be found in June and again from September to March.

Ectoedemia rubivora

Ectoedemia rubivora is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Italy and Serbia, and from Ireland to central Russia and Ukraine.

The wingspan is 4.6–6 mm. The head is black or sometimes a ferruginous-brown. Antennal eyecaps are white. The forewing ground colour is black and there is a somewhat bent shining silvery fascia hardly beyond middle ; outer half of cilia beyond a black line whitish. Hindwings are grey.Adults are on wing from June to July. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Rubus arcticus, Rubus caesius, Rubus chamaemorus, Rubus fruticosus and Rubus saxatilis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a highly contorted gallery, strongly widening towards the end. The frass in the second half of the gallery is dispersed. The larve mines venter upwards. There are several mines in a single leaf most of the time.

Incurvaria praelatella

Incurvaria praelatella is a moth of the family Incurvariidae. It is found in all of Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula.

The wingspan is 11–14 mm.

The larvae feed on Achillea, Agrimonia, Alchemilla vulgaris, Filipendula, Fragaria vesca, Geum rivale, Potentilla reptans, Rubus fruticosus and Spiraea douglasii. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a small full depth blotch, which is transparent at first. The mine starts at the leaf margin, mostly near the leaf tip. The frass is scattered about the mine in grains. There may be several mines in a single leaf.

Lepteucosma huebneriana

Lepteucosma huebneriana is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in China (Hebei, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou), Korea, Japan, Russia and Europe, where it has been recorded from France, Liechtenstein, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Latvia and Lithuania.The wingspan is 13–15 mm.

The larvae feed on Rubus fruticosus, Rubus crataegifolius, Rubus sachalinensis and Lycium chinense.

Pimelea spicata

Pimelea spicata, the pink pimelea, is an endangered plant, native to New South Wales, Australia. It is also known as rice flower.

Invasive weeds which compete with the plant for resources include bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.), St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum), lantana (Lantana camara), African olive (Olea africana subsp. africana) and privet (Ligustrum lucidum).

Schreckensteinia festaliella

Schreckensteinia festaliella, the blackberry skeletonizer, is a moth of the family Schreckensteiniidae. It is native to Eurasia, but introduced to North America and now widespread from California and Alberta to at least Quebec and the north-eastern United States.

The wingspan is 10–12 mm. Adults are on wing from March to September. There are two or more generations per year in California.

The larvae feed on Rubus fruticosus and Rubus idaeus. They feed in a slight web.

Stigmella auromarginella

Stigmella auromarginella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Sweden to Portugal, Crete and Cyprus and from Ireland to Croatia. It is much more common in the southern part of the range.

The wingspan is 3–5 mm. Head ferruginous - orange. Antennal eyecaps ochreous-whitish. Forewings deep shining golden-bronze ; a shining golden -silvery fascia beyond middle, edged anteriorly with purple suffusion, apical area beyond this deep purple ; an apical shining golden -silvery fascia, partly in cilia. Hindwings grey.

Adults are on wing from June to August and from September to November.

The larvae feed on Agrimonia, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus sanctus and Rubus ulmifolius. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of an unusually short corridor with a central line of frass that is irregularly interrupted. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Stigmella pretiosa

Stigmella pretiosa is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Fennoscandia to the Alps, and from Scotland to the Baltic region and Slovakia.

The wingspan is 5.5-6.5 mm. There is one generation per year.

The larvae feed on Geum montanum, Geum rivale, Geum urbanum, Rubus caesius, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus idaeus and Rubus macrophyllus. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a long corridor. It runs along the vein. In the first part the frass is concentrated in a rather narrow, often interrupted central line.

Stigmella splendidissimella

Stigmella splendidissimella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found from Scandinavia to Italy and from Ireland to the Crimea. It is not found in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in).The thick erect hairs on the head vertex are black.The collar is black.Antennal eyecaps are white. The forewings are dark coppery-purple-brown with a suffused brassy or green basal patch ; a straight shining pale golden or shiny silver fascia beyond middle. Hindwings are grey. External image

The larvae feed on Agrimonia, Fragaria, Filipendula, Geum urbanum, Potentilla anserina, Rubus caesius, Rubus fruticosus and Rubus idaeus. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

Woodland and scrub communities in the British National Vegetation Classification system

This article gives an overview of the woodland and scrub communities in the British National Vegetation Classification system.

Xestia stigmatica

Xestia stigmatica, the square-spotted clay, is a moth of the Noctuidae family. It is found in most of Europe, Transcaucasia, Caucasus, Kazachstan, northern Turkey and northern Iran.

The wingspan is 37–44 mm. Distinguished from other Xestia species by the broad forewing coloured greyish dark brown (sometimes purple tinted) and the irregular broad dark band between the wavy line and the outer cross line.

Adults are on wing from in August.

The larvae feed on a variety of plants such as Rubus fruticosus, Urtica dioica, Prunus spinosa, Primula and Betula.

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