Rube Waddell

George Edward "Rube" Waddell (October 13, 1876 – April 1, 1914) was an American southpaw pitcher in Major League Baseball (MLB). In a career spanning 13 years, he played for the Louisville Colonels (1897, 1899), Pittsburgh Pirates (1900–01) and Chicago Orphans (1901) in the National League, and the Philadelphia Athletics (1902–07) and St. Louis Browns (1908–10) in the American League. Born in Bradford, Pennsylvania, Waddell was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946.

Waddell was a remarkably dominant strikeout pitcher in an era when batters mostly slapped at the ball to get singles. He had an excellent fastball, a sharp-breaking curveball, a screwball, and superb control (his strikeout-to-walk ratio was almost 3-to-1). He led the major leagues in strikeouts for six consecutive years.

Rube Waddell
Waddell
Waddell in 1901
Pitcher
Born: October 13, 1876
Bradford, Pennsylvania
Died: April 1, 1914 (aged 37)
Elmendorf, Texas
Batted: Right Threw: Left
MLB debut
September 8, 1897, for the Louisville Colonels
Last MLB appearance
August 1, 1910, for the St. Louis Browns
MLB statistics
Win–loss record193–143
Earned run average2.16
Strikeouts2,316
Teams
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Baseball Hall of Fame Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg Empty Star.svg
Induction1946
Election MethodVeteran's Committee

Early life

Born in 1876 outside Bradford, Pennsylvania, Waddell grew up in the country. Biographer Alan Levy writes that Waddell was "a decidedly different sort of child".[1] At the age of three, he wandered over to a local fire station and stayed for several days. Waddell did not attend school very often, but he was considered to be literate. He strengthened his arm as a child by throwing rocks at birds he encountered while plowing the family's land. He also worked on mining and drilling sites as a youngster, which helped his conditioning.[1]

Early baseball career

Waddell's career wound through a number of teams. Waddell was unpredictable – early in his career, he would leave mid-game to go fishing.[2] He had a longstanding fascination with fire trucks and had run off the field to chase after them during games.[3] He performed as an alligator wrestler in the offseason.[4] He was easily distracted by opposing fans who held up puppies and shiny objects, which seemed to put him in a trance on the mound.[5] An alcoholic for much of his short adult life, Waddell reportedly spent his entire first signing bonus on a drinking binge (Sporting News called him "the sousepaw"). Waddell's eccentric behavior led to constant battles with his managers and scuffles with bad-tempered teammates.

His first professional contract was with Louisville (for $500), pitching two league games and a couple of exhibitions with the team at the end of the 1897 season. When the season ended, he was lent to the Detroit Tigers of the Western League to gain professional experience. After defaulting on rent and being fined by owner George Vanderbeck, Waddell left Detroit in late May to pitch in Canada before eventually returning to Homestead, Pennsylvania, to pitch semi-pro baseball there.

Pittsburgh retained his rights, however, and he was lent to Columbus of the Western League in 1899, continued with the team when the franchise moved mid-season to Grand Rapids, and finished with a record of 26–8. He rejoined Louisville in the final month of the 1899 season and won seven of nine decisions. When the National League contracted to eight teams for the 1900 season, Louisville ownership bought the Pittsburgh franchise, and the Louisville franchise was terminated. Louisville's top players, including Waddell, Honus Wagner, and Fred Clarke, were transferred to Pittsburgh.

Waddell debuted with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1900, leading the National League (NL) in ERA. However, his erratic behavior led manager Fred Clarke to suspend him. After Waddell pitched in semi-pro ball in small towns such as Punxsutawney, Milwaukee Brewers manager Connie Mack learned of Waddell's availability. With Pittsburgh's approval, Mack convinced Waddell to pitch for Milwaukee for several weeks in the summer of 1900. Milwaukee was in the newly named American League (AL), formerly known as the Western League, which was not yet directly competing with the NL. On August 19, Waddell pitched the first game of a doubleheader for Milwaukee, winning in the 17th inning on his own triple. Mack offered Waddell a three-day fishing vacation if he agreed to pitch the second game. After Waddell threw a complete game shutout for the victory, he headed to Pewaukee Lake for fishing. Pittsburgh's management quickly recognized Waddell's talent and asked for his return.

Dominant seasons

By 1901, Waddell had worn out his welcome in Pittsburgh, and his contract was sold to the Chicago Orphans, then managed by Tom Loftus. Despite his previous successes managing Waddell in Columbus/Grand Rapids, Loftus was not given the latitude to cope with Waddell's problems as the Cubs manager. When problems led to his suspension, Waddell left the Cubs to pitch for semi-pro teams in northern Illinois, as well as Racine and Kenosha, Wisconsin.

Frank Chance and Joe Cantillon then invited Waddell to join a barnstorming team that traveled to California, where he was convinced to stay and joined the Los Angeles Loo Loos in a league that a year later would become the Pacific Coast League. Connie Mack, now in Philadelphia, was desperate for pitching, and when he learned Rube was pitching in California, he dispatched two Pinkerton agents to sneak Waddell back to Philadelphia, where he led the Philadelphia Athletics to the 1902 American League crown. Much later, Mack described his star left-hander as "the atom bomb of baseball long before the atom bomb was discovered." On July 1, 1902, Waddell became the second pitcher to strike out three batters on nine pitches in the third inning of a 2–0 win over the Baltimore Orioles.

Shortly after the 1902 baseball season, reports indicated Waddell would play for Connie Mack's Athletics football team. However, he never played for the football Athletics. "There was a little fellow from Wanamaker's [department store] who asked for the job of quarterback", Mack said. "I don't think he weighed more than 140. Well, the first practice Waddell tackled him and broke [the little fellow's] leg. It was the first inkling John [Shibe] and I had that players could be badly hurt in football. We got Rube out of there without delay. He was supposed to be pretty good, but we never found out." Waddell returned to his family's home in Western Pennsylvania and played with local football clubs there. Waddell played with various football teams in later years and had a brief stint as a goalkeeper in the St. Louis Soccer League.[6]

In his prime, Waddell was the game's premier power pitcher, with 302 strikeouts in 1903, 115 more than runner-up Bill Donovan. According to baseball historian Lee Allen in The American League Story, Waddell began the 1903 season "sleeping in a firehouse at Camden, New Jersey, and ended it tending bar in a saloon in Wheeling, West Virginia. In between those events, he won 22 games for the Philadelphia Athletics, toured the nation in a melodrama called The Stain of Guilt, courted, married and became separated from May Wynne Skinner of Lynn, Massachusetts, saved a woman from drowning, accidentally shot a friend through the hand, and was bitten by a lion."[7]

In Eliot Asinof's 1963 account of the 1919 World Series fix "Eight Men Out", mention is made of Waddell being bribed not to pitch in the 1905 World Series against the New York Giants. Further discussion of the 1905 World Series has taken place at SABR.[8]

Waddell followed that season with 349 strikeouts in 1904, 110 more than runner-up Jack Chesbro. No other pitcher compiled consecutive 300-strikeout seasons until Sandy Koufax in 1965 and 1966. Waddell was the opposing pitcher for Cy Young's perfect game on May 5, 1904, and hit a flyball for the final out. Waddell's 349 strikeouts represented the modern-era season record for more than 60 years, and remains sixth on the modern list. In 1946, it was initially believed that Bob Feller's 348 strikeouts had broken Waddell's single-season mark, but research into his 1904 season box scores revealed uncounted strikeouts that lifted him back above Feller. Waddell still holds the AL single-season strikeout record by a left-handed pitcher.

In 1905, Waddell won a Triple Crown for pitching, finishing with a 27–10 win-loss record, 287 strikeouts, and a 1.48 earned run average (ERA). It was Waddell's fourth consecutive season to finish with 20 or more wins.

Later career

Rube Waddell, St. Louis Browns, baseball card portrait LCCN2007685703
Baseball card of Waddell

Waddell's drinking problem was exacerbated by a horrific marriage to May Wynne Skinner (his second of three wives) and a series of injuries in 1905 and 1906. In time, his alcohol use began to erode his relationships with his Athletics teammates. Catcher Ossee Schreckengost, a one-time friend who regularly fetched alcohol and fishing poles for Waddell, squabbled with both Waddell and Mack for being treated differently for the same offenses.

Complaints from teammates forced Mack to send Waddell to the St. Louis Browns for $5,000 in early 1908 despite his continued success. Recent commentators (such as Bill James) have suggested that Waddell may have suffered from a developmental disability, mental retardation, autism, or attention deficit disorder (ADD). Not much was known about these mental conditions, or their diagnoses, at that time. Though eccentric and childlike, Waddell was not illiterate (as some sources have claimed), although Ken Burns' baseball documentary claimed he lost track of how many women he had married.

To make sure he stayed out of trouble during the offseason, Browns owner Robert Hedges hired him as a hunter over the winters of 1908 and 1909. He set the league record for strikeouts in a game (16) in 1908. However, further drinking and marital problems with his third wife, Madge Maguire, led to his release in 1910. He finished the season pitching with "Iron Man" Joe McGinnity for Newark in the Eastern League, and never played another major league game.

His career stats were 193–143, 2,316 strikeouts, and a 2.16 earned run average, with 50 shutouts and 261 complete games in 2961 innings pitched.

Final years

After his major league career was over, Waddell pitched for parts of three more years in the minor leagues, including a 20-win season for the Minneapolis Millers in 1911. In addition to pitching for the Millers, he pitched for the Minneapolis Rough Riders and with Virginia (MN) in the Northern League in 1913. By that season, however, his health had declined to such an extent that he no longer resembled the muscular, long-limbed hero of the prior decade.

While in spring training with the Millers, Waddell helped save the city of Hickman, Kentucky from a devastating flood in the spring of 1912. Catching pneumonia, he lost much of the vitality that had sustained him, and a second flood in Hickman and another ensuing case of pneumonia in 1913 took the rest. That same year while in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and moved to San Antonio, Texas to live with his sister. His health never recovered, and Waddell was placed in a sanitarium until his death on April 1, 1914 at the age of 37.

Honors

Waddell was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946 by the Veterans Committee that looked to enshrine a number of players from his era and the previous century who had contributed to the growth of the game. One of Waddell's contributions was that he was perhaps the greatest drawing card in the first decade of the century, a man whose unique talents and personality drew baseball fans around the country to ball parks.

In 1981, Lawrence Ritter and Donald Honig included him in their book The 100 Greatest Baseball Players of All Time. Under what they called "the Smoky Joe Wood Syndrome", they argued in favor of including players of truly exceptional talent whose career was curtailed by injury (or, in Waddell's case, substance abuse), despite not having had career statistics that would quantitatively rank them with the all-time greats. In this case, fans and peers recognized Waddell as a baseball great long before Ritter and Honig did.

Pitching style

Waddell's pitching repertoire usually consisted of only two pitches: one of the fastest fastballs in the league and a hard curve. However, he had command of many more pitches, including slow curves, screwballs, "fadeaways" and even a "flutterball". Mack once said that Waddell's curve was, "even better than his speed... [he] had the fastest and deepest curve I've ever seen".[9]

Waddell enjoyed waving his teammates off the field and then striking out the side. He actually did so only in exhibition games since official baseball rules prohibit playing with fewer than nine men on the field in regulation play. But in a league game in Detroit, Waddell actually had his outfielders come in close and sit down on the grass to watch him strike out the side. Once the stunt almost backfired. Pitching an exhibition game in Memphis, he took the field alone with his catcher, Doc Powers, for the last three innings. With two out in the ninth, Powers dropped the third strike, allowing the batter to reach first. The next two hitters blooped pop flies that fell just behind the mound. Despite running himself ragged, Waddell subsequently struck out the last man.[10]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Levy, pp. 9-10.
  2. ^ Levy, p. 11.
  3. ^ Levy, p. 7.
  4. ^ Macht, Norman L. (2007). Connie Mack and the Early Years of Baseball. University of Nebraska Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-8032-4003-2.
  5. ^ Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (1994). Baseball: An Illustrated History. A. A. Knopf. p. 74.
  6. ^ January 23, 1909 Sporting Life
  7. ^ Lee Allen (1965). The American League Story. Hill & Wang. p. 37.
  8. ^ http://sabr.org/research/strangest-month-strange-career-rube-waddell
  9. ^ Allen, Lee & Meany, Tom. Kings of the Diamond, 1965.
  10. ^ Rube Waddell at BaseballLibrary.com Archived 2008-12-29 at the Wayback Machine

References

  • Levy, Alan H. (2013). Rube Waddell: The Zany, Brilliant Life of a Strikeout Artist. McFarland. ISBN 9780786407866.

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Cy Young
American League Pitching Triple Crown
1905
Succeeded by
Walter Johnson
1899 Louisville Colonels season

The 1899 Louisville Colonels baseball team finished with a 75–77 record and ninth place in the National League. Following the season, owner Barney Dreyfuss bought the Pittsburgh Pirates organization and folded his Louisville team. Manager Fred Clarke and most of the players moved over to the Pirates where they enjoyed much more success in the coming years. The Colonels, a perennial also-ran through their National League run from 1892 to 1899, appeared to be on the cusp of becoming a strong team when the National League contracted from 12 teams to 8 after the end of the 1899 season. Louisville started the season with a 15–37 record after 52 games, but then went 60–40 in their last 100 in the first glimpse of what was to become a strong Pirates team in the years to come. Many star players, including several Hall of Famers, of the first decade of the 20th Century came from the 1899 Louisville squad including Clarke, Honus Wagner, Rube Waddell, Deacon Phillippe, Tommy Leach and Claude Ritchey.

1901 Chicago Orphans season

The 1901 Chicago Orphans season was the 30th season of the Chicago Orphans franchise, the 26th in the National League and the 9th at West Side Park. The Orphans finished sixth in the National League with a record of 53–86. The team was also known as the Remnants, due to many Orphans players leaving at the end of the 1900 season to join the upstart American League.

1902 Philadelphia Athletics season

The 1902 Philadelphia Athletics season was a season in American baseball. The team finished first in the American League with a record of 83 wins and 53 losses.

1903 Major League Baseball season

The 1903 Major League Baseball season, saw the relocation of the Baltimore Orioles to New York City, and become the Highlanders, the last relocation in MLB until 1953, when the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee, along with the playing of the first modern World Series with the Boston Americans defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates.

1905 Major League Baseball season

The 1905 Major League Baseball season, had the second modern World Series. The New York Giants defeated the Philadelphia Athletics to win the World Series.

1905 Philadelphia Athletics season

The 1905 Philadelphia Athletics season was a season in American baseball. The team finished first in the American League with a record of 92 wins and 56 losses, winning their first pennant. They went on to face the New York Giants in the 1905 World Series, losing 4 games to 1.

The pitching staff featured three future Hall of Famers: Rube Waddell, Eddie Plank, and Chief Bender. Waddell easily won the pitching triple crown in 1905, with 27 wins, 287 strikeouts, and a 1.48 earned run average.

1905 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1905 throughout the world.

1946 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1946 were conducted by methods refashioned and then fashioned again during the year. As in 1945 the Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent players and elected no one. Also as in 1945 the Old Timers Committee responded by electing the biggest class yet, then ten and now eleven people: Jesse Burkett, Frank Chance, Jack Chesbro, Johnny Evers, Clark Griffith, Tommy McCarthy, Joe McGinnity, Eddie Plank, Joe Tinker, Rube Waddell, and Ed Walsh.

Most of those "old timers" were star players from the 1900s and 1910s rather than the 19th century. Afterward the jurisdiction of the BBWAA was formally reduced to cover only players who retired during the last 25 years; in 1947 those would be players active in 1922 and later. Perhaps the relatively narrow scope would help the writers concentrate their votes on a few candidates. To make certain, the rules for 1947 provided a runoff in case of no winner on the first ballot. On Dec. 3, the BBWAA also limited voting to writers who had been members for at least ten years.

The eleven old timers were selected in the summer of 1946 and inducted as part of the 1947 ceremonies. Among them, Ed Walsh alone was present.

Chronicle-Telegraph Cup

The Chronicle-Telegraph Cup was the trophy awarded to the winner of a postseason competition in American professional baseball in 1900. The series, played only once, was a precursor to the current World Series.

The Pittsburgh Pirates finished in second place, 4.5 games behind the Brooklyn Superbas, in the 1900 National League season (the only Major League in American baseball at the time). Fans of the Pittsburgh club felt their club was every bit the equal of the Brooklyn nine. While Brooklyn led the league in offense, Pirates fans claimed their team, which led the NL in strikeouts and ERA, boasted the pitching to best Brooklyn. A local newspaper, the Pittsburgh Chronicle Telegraph, offered to award a silver cup to the winner of a best-of-five series between the two teams.

Despite the series being held in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, which was annexed into Pittsburgh in 1907, the Superbas prevailed, 3–1. The teams were evenly matched in most statistical categories — both totaled 15 runs apiece, batted about .230 and had comparable numbers of extra-base hits (neither team hit any home runs) and walks. Both teams' ERAs were below 1.30.

However, Pittsburgh committed 14 errors to Brooklyn's 4, letting the Superbas win by comfortable margins. Three unearned runs in the top of the sixth inning of Game 2 allowed the Superbas to break a 1–1 tie, and Pirates pitcher Sam Leever's crucial fourth-inning error in Game 4 broke the game open for Brooklyn. A 10–0 blowout behind Deacon Phillippe's six-hitter in Game 3 gave the Pirates their only win in the series.

Pirates' outfielder Honus Wagner led his team in batting average (.400), hits (6), doubles (1), RBIs (3) and stolen bases (2). Brooklyn's Wee Willie Keeler also cranked out 6 hits to lead his club, posting a .353 average. The Superbas' Fielder Jones had 4 RBIs.

The Pirates won the next three National League pennants and played in the inaugural World Series in 1903. The Brooklyn baseball club did not win another postseason series until 1955, their first World Series championship.

Cy Young's perfect game

Cy Young, pitcher for the Boston Americans, pitched a perfect game against the Philadelphia Athletics by retiring all 27 batters he faced on Thursday, May 5, 1904. This event took place in the Huntington Avenue Grounds in Boston, Massachusetts, in front of 10,267 fans in attendance.

After Athletics' pitcher Rube Waddell defeated Young on April 25 and one-hit Boston on May 2, Waddell taunted Young to face him so that he could repeat his performance against Boston's ace. Three days later, Young pitched a perfect game against Waddell and the Athletics. The third perfect game in Major League Baseball history, Young's perfect game was the first in baseball's modern era and in American League history.

Dan O'Brien (sports journalist)

Dan O'Brien is an American journalist, author and screenwriter with an emphasis in sports, having written books, television sports stories, magazine articles and a screenplay.

O’Brien collaborated with former NFL star and current ESPN College Football analyst Mark May on Mark May’s Tales from the Washington Redskins (with) Dan O’Brien. He co-authored MizzouRah! Memorable Moments in Missouri Tiger Football History, with popular Los Angeles sportscaster Todd Donoho.

A graduate of the University of Missouri’s School of Broadcast Journalism, O’Brien is a former television anchor, reporter and producer, including stints with network affiliates in Columbia, Missouri; Montgomery, Alabama; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Miami, Florida, Washington D.C., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Indianapolis, Indiana.

His documentaries and special programming earned numerous broadcasting honors, including an Emmy Award for his series on women’s athletics at the University of Miami. Speed, Crash, Rescue, a documentary written and produced by O’Brien about safety issues in the Indy Car Racing League, received worldwide distribution.

O’Brien was a script consultant for two films by director Ryan Little; Outlaw Trail: The Treasure of Butch Cassidy and Forever Strong.

He has written a screenplay based on the life of Hall of Famer George (Rube) Waddell titled Rube. Rube was a third place finisher in the "Free Screenplay Contest", which received nearly 2,000 entries worldwide. Rube was also a quarterfinalist in the "Bluecat Screenplay Contest."

A former committee member with the Society of American Baseball Research (SABR), O’Brien has written biographies of Rube Waddell and Osee Schrecongost for Deadball Stars of the American League, published by SABR.

He is a founding member of board of directors for the Pittsburgh Pandas of the Tri-State Summer Collegiate Baseball League.

List of Major League Baseball annual strikeout leaders

In baseball, the strikeout is a statistic used to evaluate pitchers. A pitcher earns a strikeout when he puts out the batter he is facing by throwing a ball through the strike zone, "defined as that area over homeplate (sic) the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap", which is not put in play. Strikeouts are awarded in four situations: if the batter is put out on a third strike caught by the catcher (to "strike out swinging" or "strike out looking"); if the pitcher throws a third strike which is not caught with fewer than two outs; if the batter becomes a baserunner on an uncaught third strike; or if the batter bunts the ball into foul territory with two strikes.Major League Baseball recognizes the player or players in each league with the most strikeouts each season. Jim Devlin led the National League in its inaugural season of 1876; he threw 122 strikeouts for the Louisville Grays. The American League's first winner was Hall of Fame pitcher Cy Young, who captured the American League Triple Crown in 1901 by striking out 158 batters, along with leading the league in wins and earned run average. Walter Johnson led the American League in strikeouts 12 times during his Hall of Fame career, most among all players. He is followed by Nolan Ryan, who captured 11 titles between both leagues (9 American League and 2 National League). Randy Johnson won nine strikeout titles, including five with his home state Arizona Diamondbacks. Three players have won seven strikeout championships: Dazzy Vance, who leads the National League; Bob Feller; and Lefty Grove. Grover Cleveland Alexander and Rube Waddell led their league six times, and five-time winners include Steve Carlton, Roger Clemens, Sam McDowell, Christy Mathewson, Amos Rusie, and Tom Seaver.There are several players with a claim to the single-season strikeout record. Among recognized major leagues, Matt Kilroy accumulated the highest single-season total, with 513 strikeouts for the Baltimore Orioles of the American Association in 1886. However, his name does not appear on Major League Baseball's single-season leaders list, since the American Association was independent of the constituent leagues that currently make up Major League Baseball. Several other players with high totals, including 1886 American Association runner-up Toad Ramsey (499) and 1884 Union Association leader Hugh Daily (483), do not appear either. In the National League, Charles "Old Hoss" Radbourn struck out 441 batters for the Providence Grays; however, the Providence franchise folded after the 1885 season and has no successor. Therefore, Major League Baseball recognizes his runner-up from that season, Charlie Buffinton, as the record-holder with 417 strikeouts. In the American League, Ryan leads with 383 strikeouts in 1973. The largest margin of victory for a champion is 156 strikeouts, achieved in 1883 when Tim Keefe of the American Association's New York Metropolitans posted 359 against Bobby Mathews' 203. The National League's largest margin was achieved in 1999, when Randy Johnson struck out 143 more batters than Kevin Brown. Ryan's 1973 margin of 125 strikeouts over Bert Blyleven is the best American League victory. Although ties for the championship are rare, they have occurred; Claude Passeau and Bucky Walters each struck out 137 National League batters in 1939, and Tex Hughson and Bobo Newsom tied in the American League with 113 strikeouts each in 1942. Their total is the lowest number of strikeouts accumulated to lead a league in Major League Baseball history.

List of Oakland Athletics team records

The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Oakland, California. The Athletics formed in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics; after moving to Kansas City for 12 years, the Athletics relocated to Oakland in 1969. Through 2014, the Athletics have played 17,757 games, winning 8,622, losing 9,048, and tying 87, for a winning percentage of approximately .488. This list documents the superlative records and accomplishments of team members during their tenures as Athletics.

Eddie Plank holds the most franchise records as of the end of the 2014 season, with ten, including the most career wins, losses and hit batsmen. He is followed by Jimmie Foxx, who holds nine records, including the best career on-base percentage and the single-season home runs record, as well as Al Simmons, who holds the single season hit and RBI records.Four Athletics hold Major League records. Offensively, Rickey Henderson holds the single-season modern day steals record, recording 130 over 149 games played during the 1982 season. Frankie Hayes is tied for the single-game doubles record, recording four in a game on July 25, 1936. Eddie Collins stole six bases twice in September 1912; his mark would later be tied by Otis Nixon, Eric Young and Carl Crawford. Defensively, Bruno Haas, who spent his only professional season with the Athletics, holds the single game walks allowed record, pitching 16 in his Major League debut.

National Football League (1902)

The first National Football League (NFL) was the first attempt at forming a national professional American football league in 1902. This league has no ties with the modern National Football League. In fact the league was only composed of teams from Pennsylvania, which meant it was actually regional, despite having locations in the two largest cities in Pennsylvania. Two of the teams were based in Philadelphia, while the third was based in Pittsburgh. This NFL was a curious mixture of football players and baseball players who adapted to playing football. Future Baseball Hall of Famer Rube Waddell was with the Philadelphia Athletics, and pitcher Christy Mathewson a fullback for Pittsburgh. Two of the three teams were owned by the Philadelphia Phillies and Philadelphia Athletics, with the third team suspected of being owned by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The league folded after the 1902 season.

Newark Indians

The Newark Sailors, later known as the Newark Indians, were a minor league baseball team in the early twentieth century. The team played its games at Wiedenmayer's Park in Newark, New Jersey. Newark played in the Eastern League between 1908 and 1911, and they played in the International League from 1912 to 1916.

The team featured strong pitching. In 1908, Tom Hughes led the Eastern League in strikeouts. In 1909, Joe McGinnity led in wins (29), games (55) and strikeouts (195) while allowing just 297 hits in 422 innings. In 1910, McGinnity won 30 games and Rube Waddell finished with a 5-3 record. McGinnity continued as player-manager for two more years.

The team won the International League pennant in 1913, but the following year they slipped to fifth. In 1915, the Indians suddenly had competition: the Indianapolis Hoosiers of the Federal League moved to town, renamed the Newark Peppers. The Indians could not compete with the major-league Peppers, and moved to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania on July 2, 1915.

The following season, the Federal League was dead and the Indians returned to Newark, even playing in the Peppers' old (but still brand-new) ballpark, Harrison Park. But the Indians finished dead last in 1916, and were replaced by the Newark Bears in 1917. (The Bears would continue playing in the old FL stadium until it burned down in 1924.)

Oakland Athletics award winners and league leaders

This is a list of award winners and league leaders for the Oakland Athletics professional baseball franchise.

The team was first known as the Philadelphia Athletics from 1901 to 1954 and then as the Kansas City Athletics from 1955 to 1967.

Ossee Schreckengost

Ossee Freeman Schreckengost (April 11, 1875 – July 9, 1914), born F. Osee Schrecongost, was an American professional baseball catcher and first baseman. He played for seven Major League Baseball (MLB) teams between 1897 and 1908. Between 1902 and 1908, he caught for the Philadelphia Athletics, where he was the roommate and battery mate for pitcher Rube Waddell. Schreckengost's first name is sometimes spelled "Ossie" and his last name is sometimes shortened to "Schreck" to suit the limited space in baseball box scores.

Philadelphia Athletics (NFL)

The Philadelphia Athletics were a professional American football team based in Philadelphia in 1902. The team was member of what was referred to as the National Football League. This league has no connection with the National Football League of today. The whole "league" was a curious mixture of baseball and football. During the league's only year in existence, two of the three teams that were financed by the owners of the Philadelphia Athletics and the Philadelphia Phillies, hence the names Philadelphia Athletics and Philadelphia Phillies. The Pittsburgh Stars made up the third team and was suspected of being financed by the Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team.

Vaccination Records

Vaccination Records was a record label based in Oakland, California throughout the 1990s and early millennium. It was managed by Dren McDonald and featured avant-garde and experimental music groups.

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