Royal free city

Royal free city or free royal city was the official term for the most important cities in the Kingdom of Hungary from the 15th century until the early 20th century. These cities were granted certain privileges by the king to limit the control of the Hungarian nobility, hence "royal", and exercised some self-government in relation to their internal affairs, hence "free".

The term "royal free city" in the languages of the kingdom is:

The status was similar to the Free Cities in the Holy Roman Empire.

List of Free Royal Cities of Hungary

A Rába kettős híd
Rába at Győr
Kezmarok
View from above Kežmarok (Késmárk)
Leithagebirge
Kleinhöflein (Kishöflány) im Burgenland at the foot of the Leitha Mountains (Lajta-hegység)
Levoca from mh
Levoča (Lőcse) from Mariánska hora (Máriahegy)
Novi Sad IMG 9190
Novi Sad (Újvidék)
Zvolen (Zólyom, Altsohl) - city center
Zvolen (Zólyom)
Current English name Hungarian name Other historical names
Alba Iulia Gyulafehérvár
Arad Arad
Baia Mare Nagybánya
Baia Sprie Felsőbánya
Banská Bystrica Besztercebánya[1]
Banská Štiavnica[2] Selmecbánya
Bardejov Bártfa[3]
Bistrița Beszterce
Braşov Brassó
Bratislava[4] Pozsony Pressburg, Prešporok, Požun
Brezno Breznóbánya
Budapest Buda[5][6]
Cluj-Napoca Kolozsvár Klausenburg, Cluj
Debrecen Debrecen
Eisenstadt Kismarton
Erzsébetváros Erzsébetváros[7]
Esztergom Esztergom
Gherla Szamosújvár
Győr Győr
Kežmarok[8] Késmárk
Komárom Komárom
Košice[9] Kassa
Kőszeg Kőszeg
Krapina Korpona[10]
Kremnica Körmöcbánya[11]
Levoča[12] Lőcse
Ľubietová Libetbánya[13]
Mediaș Medgyes[14]
Modra Modor
Nová Baňa[15] Újbánya
Novi Sad Újvidék
Orăștie Szászváros Broos
Pécs Pécs
Budapest Pest[16][17]
Pezinok Bazin[18]
Prešov[15] Eperjes
Pukanec Bakabánya[19]
Rijeka Fiume
Rust Ruszt
Sabinov Kisszeben
Satu Mare Szatmárnémeti Sătmar
Sebeș Szászsebes Mühlbach
Sfântu Gheorghe Szentgyörgy
Sibiu Nagyszeben Hermannstadt
Sighișoara Segesvár[20] Schäßburg
Skalica[21] Szakolca
Sombor Zombor
Sopron Sopron
Subotica Szabadka
Szeged Szeged
Székesfehérvár Székesfehérvár[22]
Târgu-Mureș Marosvásárhely
Timișoara Temesvár
Trenčín Trencsén
Trnava[4] Nagyszombat
Veľký Šariš Nagysáros
Vukovar Vukovár Valkóvár
Zvolen[23] Zólyom
Zagreb[24] Zágráb Gradec, Agram

Towns with only partial privileges

Current English name Hungarian name Other historical names
Banská Belá Bélabánya
Belá-Dulice Turócbéla
Berehove Beregszász
Nitra Nyitra
Podolínec Podolin
Sighetu Marmatiei Máramarossziget
Šamorín Somorja
Uzhhorod Ungvár
Vasvár Vasvár
Vršac Versec

See also

References

  1. ^ Az 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk megfosztotta törvényhatósági jogától.
  2. ^ Štefánik, Martin; Lukačka, Ján, eds. (2010). Lexikón stredovekých miest na Slovensku [Lexicon of Medieval Towns in Slovakia] (PDF) (in Slovak and English). Bratislava: Historický ústav SAV. p. 77. ISBN 978-80-89396-11-5.
  3. ^ Az 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk megfosztotta törvényhatósági jogától.
  4. ^ a b Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 549.
  5. ^ Budapest, one of the most beautiful towns in the World.
  6. ^ Buda és Pest az 1872. évi XXXVI. törvénycikk alapján egyesült Budapest néven.
  7. ^ 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk : némely városi törvényhatóságok megszüntetéséről.
  8. ^ Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 181.
  9. ^ Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 213.
  10. ^ 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk : némely városi törvényhatóságok megszüntetéséről.
  11. ^ 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk : némely városi törvényhatóságok megszüntetéséről.
  12. ^ Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 261.
  13. ^ 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk : némely városi törvényhatóságok megszüntetéséről.
  14. ^ A Királyföldön fekvő szabad királyi városok soha nem alakultak önálló törvényhatósággá.
  15. ^ a b Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 305.
  16. ^ Jaroslav Miller, Urban Societies in East-Central Europe: 1500-1700 (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008).page 157.
  17. ^ Jaroslav Miller, Urban Societies in East-Central Europe: 1500-1700 (Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008).page 157.
  18. ^ Az 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk megfosztotta törvényhatósági jogától.
  19. ^ 1876. évi XX. törvénycikk : némely városi törvényhatóságok megszüntetéséről.
  20. ^ A Királyföldön fekvő szabad királyi városok soha nem alakultak önálló törvényhatósággá.
  21. ^ Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 434.
  22. ^ Szekesfehervar (Hungary)
  23. ^ Štefánik & Lukačka 2010, p. 575.
  24. ^ "Zlatna bula Bele IV. | Hrvatska enciklopedija". www.enciklopedija.hr. Retrieved 2019-03-30.
Beiuș

Beiuș (Romanian pronunciation: [beˈjuʃ]; German: Binsch; Hungarian: Belényes) is a municipality in Bihor County, Romania near the Apuseni Mountains. The river Crișul Negru flows through Beiuș, and the city administers a single village, Delani (Gyalány).

Between the late 18th and very early 20th centuries, Beiuș constituted one of the most important learning centers of the Romanian language in Western Transylvania.

District (Austria)

In Austrian politics, a district (German: Bezirk) is a second-level division of the executive arm of the country's government. District offices are the primary point of contact between resident and state for most acts of government that exceed municipal purview: marriage licenses, driver licenses, passports, assembly permits, hunting permits, or dealings with public health officers for example all involve interaction with the district administrative authority (Bezirksverwaltungsbehörde).

Austrian constitutional law distinguishes two types of district administrative authority:

district commissions (Bezirkshauptmannschaften), district administrative authorities that exist as stand-alone bureaus;

statutory cities (Städte mit eigenem Statut or Statutarstädte), cities that have been vested with district administration functions in addition to their municipal responsibilities, i.e. district administrative authorities that only exist as a secondary role filled by something that primarily is a city (marked in the table with an asterix (*).As of 2017, there are 94 districts, 79 districts headed by district commissions and 15 statutory cities.

Many districts are geographically congruent with one of the country's 114 judicial venues.

Statutory cities are not usually referred to as "districts" outside government publications and the legal literature.

For brevity, government agencies will sometimes use the term "rural districts" (Landbezirke) for districts headed by district commissions, although the expression does not appear in any law and many "rural districts" are not very rural.

Fiume question

In the aftermath of the First World War, the Fiume Question ("La Questione di Fiume" in Italian, "Riječko Pitanje" in Croatian), part of the larger Adriatic Question or Adriatic Problem concerned the fate of the territory that was part of the Corpus Separatum of Fiume, the Royal Free City and one of the only two free ports of the Austro-Hungarian empire.

The roots of the problem lied in the ethnically very mixed population of the Corpus Separatum in a time of growing nationalism, Italian irredentism and Yugoslavism, which led ultimately to the creation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. The question was a major barrier to agreement at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, but was partially resolved by the Treaty of Rapallo between Italy and Yugoslavia on 12 November 1920.

Free city

Free city may refer to:

Special economic zone, a zone located within the national borders of, and controlled by, a sovereign country, but where business and trade laws differ from the rest of that country (and are usually less regulated).

City-state, region controlled exclusively by a sovereign city

Free city (antiquity) a self-governed city during the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras

Free City (album), album by the St. Lunatics

Free Imperial City, self-governed city in the Holy Roman Empire subordinate only to the emperor

Royal free city, or free royal city, a term for a self-governed city in the Kingdom of Hungary

Free City of Greyhawk, a fictional city-state

Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (German: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, Latin: urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, and as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town (Landstadt) which was subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord (prince-bishop, prince-abbot) or a secular prince (duke (Herzog), margrave, count (Graf), etc.).

Golden Bull of 1242

The Golden Bull of 1242 was a golden bull or edict, issued by King Béla IV of Hungary to the inhabitants of Gradec (part of today's Zagreb, the capital of Croatia) during the Mongol invasion of Europe. By this golden bull, King Béla IV proclaimed Gradec a royal free city. The document was issued on 16 November 1242 in Virovitica and reaffirmed in 1266. The original is written on a piece of parchment 57 by 46 centimetres (22 by 18 in) in size, and is kept in strictly controlled conditions in the Croatian State Archives in Zagreb, while a copy is exhibited in the Zagreb City Museum.

Independent city

An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a county).

Krosno

Krosno [ˈkrɔsnɔ] (in full The Royal Free City of Krosno, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Krosno) is a town and county in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland with 47,140 inhabitants (Metro: 115,617), as of 30 June 2014.Krosno is a medieval fortified town, a former Royal Free Town, a centre of cloth, linen, canvas, baize and Hungarian wine trade. Until recently it was a provincial capital. Today it is a medium-sized settlement, which ranks 6th among Polish towns with the best living conditions.

Center of regional and subregional levels. The seat of several institutions of supra-local: Regional Directorate of State Forests, Subcarpathian Provincial Veterinary Inspectorate, the District Election Commission, the Court and the Prosecutor's Office of the District, the District Mining Office, Regional Centre Road, the Sub-Carpathian Regional Hospital, Subcarpathian Center for Teacher Education, the Customs Office, the Institute of Oil and gas and Sucha Góra TV Tower.

Notably Krosno is the site of the first oil well (or "mine") in the world.

List of mayors of Novi Sad

This is a list of Mayors of Novi Sad from February 1, 1748, when the city got royal free city status by Maria Theresa of Austria.

The Mayor of Novi Sad is the head of the City of Novi Sad (the second largest city in Serbia and the administrative seat of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina). He acts on behalf of the City, and performs an executive function in the City of Novi Sad. The current Mayor of Novi Sad is Miloš Vučević (SNS).

Podgórze

Podgórze is a district of Kraków, Poland, situated on the right (southern) bank of the Vistula River, at the foot of Lasota Hill. The district was subdivided in 1990 into six new districts, see present-day districts of Kraków for more details. The name Podgórze roughly translates as the base of a hill. Initially a small settlement, in the years following the First Partition of Poland the town's development was promoted by the Austria-Hungary Emperor Joseph II who in 1784 granted it the city status, as the Royal Free City of Podgórze. In the following years it was a self-governing administrative unit. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 and the takeover of the entire city by the Empire, Podgórze lost its political role of an independent suburb across the river from the Old Town.The administrative reform of 1810 which followed the expansion of the Duchy of Warsaw brought Podgórze together with the rest of the historic city. However, after the Congress of Vienna made Kraków a free city in 1815, Podgórze fell back under the Austrian rule and remained there for the rest of the 19th century. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, in 1910 it was the 13th largest town in the Austrian-ruled Galicia (population 18,142 in 1900). In the years leading to the return of Polish independence, the city council discussions from July 1915 made Podgórze again a part of the Greater Kraków (Wielki Kraków); its president, the vice president of a single administrative unit.

Politics of Novi Sad

Novi Sad is the capital of the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and second largest city in Serbia.

Požega, Croatia

Požega (Croatian pronunciation: [pôʒeɡa]) is a city in western Slavonia, eastern Croatia, with a total population of 26,248 (census 2011). It is the administrative center of the Požega-Slavonia County.

Rust, Burgenland

Rust (Croatian: Rušta, Hungarian: Ruszt) is a city in the Austrian state of Burgenland, located on the western shore of Lake Neusiedl near the border with Hungary. With only about 1,900 inhabitants, it is the country's smallest statutory city, as it was endowed with the rights of a royal free city by the Hungarian crown in 1681. As a Statutarstadt, it also forms an administrative district (Bezirk) in its own right. The city is famous for its wines, especially for Beerenauslese, ice wine and - especially - Ruster Ausbruch.

Sanok

Sanok [ˈsanɔk] (in full the Royal Free City of Sanok - Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok, Ukrainian: Cянік Sianik, Latin: Sanocum, Yiddish: סאניק‎, Sonik) is a town in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland with 38,397 inhabitants, as of June 2016. Located on the San River and around 52 km south of Przemyśl, Sanok lies directly below the Carpathian Mountains.

Once settled by Poles, Jews and Lemkos, the town's history goes back almost 1000 years when it was part of a medieval trade route. The Museum of Folk Architecture as well as the refurbished Sanok Castle and Old Town are popular points of interest. The region also features a 70km trail for hikers and cyclists.

Satu Mare

Satu Mare (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈsatu ˈmare]; Hungarian: Szatmárnémeti [sɒtmaːrneːmɛti]; German: Sathmar; Yiddish: סאטמאר‎ Satmar or סאַטמער Satmer) is a city with a population of 102,400 (2011) and the capital of Satu Mare County, Romania, as well as the center of the Satu Mare metropolitan area. Mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as castrum Zotmar ("Zotmar's fort"), the city has a history going back to the Middle Ages. Today, it is an academic, cultural, industrial and business centre in northwestern Romania.

Senta

Senta (Serbian Cyrillic: Сента (pronounced [sɛ̌ːnta]); Hungarian: Zenta (pronounced [ˈzɛntɒ]); Romanian: Zenta) is a town and municipality located in the North Banat District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. It is situated on the bank of the Tisa river in the geographical region of Bačka. The town has a population of 18,704, whilst the Senta municipality has 23,316 inhabitants (2011 census).

Sombor

Sombor (Serbian Cyrillic: Сомбор, pronounced [sɔ̂mbɔr]; Hungarian: Zombor; Rusyn: Зомбор / Zombor) is a city and the administrative center of the West Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The city has a total population of 47,623 (as of 2011), while its administrative area (including neighboring villages) has 85,903 inhabitants.

University of Zagreb

The University of Zagreb (Croatian: Sveučilište u Zagrebu, pronounced [sʋeǔt͡ʃiliːʃte u zǎːgrebu]; Latin: Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.The history of the University began on September 23, 1669, when the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I issued a decree granting the establishment of the Jesuit Academy of the Royal Free City of Zagreb. The decree was accepted at the Council of the Croatian Kingdom on November 3, 1671. The Academy was run by the Jesuits for more than a century until the order was dissolved by Pope Clement XIV in 1773. In 1776, Empress Maria Theresa issued a decree founding the Royal Academy of Science which succeeded the previous Jesuit Academy. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer proposed the founding of a University to the Croatian Parliament in 1861. Emperor Franz Joseph signed the decree on the establishment of the University of Zagreb in 1869. The Act of Founding was passed by the Parliament in 1874, and was ratified by the Emperor on January 5, 1874. On October 19, 1874, the Royal University of Franz Joseph I was officially opened.

The University is composed of 29 faculties, 3 art academies and 1 university center with more than 70.000 students. The University is as of 2018 at the 463rd place out of 1000 on the list of Universities of the world made by the Center for University World Rankings.

Šamorín

Šamorín (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈʃamɔɾiːn]; Hungarian: Somorja, German: Sommerein) is a small Slovak town in western Slovakia, southeast of Bratislava.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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