Royal Red Cross

The Royal Red Cross is a military decoration awarded in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth for exceptional services in military nursing.

Royal Red Cross
Medal, order (AM 2001.25.863-1)

Badge of the Royal Red Cross
Medal, decoration (AM 2001.25.56-4)
Badge of an Associate of the Royal Red Cross
Awarded by United Kingdom
TypeMilitary decoration
EligibilityMembers of the Military Nursing Services
Awarded forExceptional services in military nursing
Post-nominalsRRC
ARRC
Statistics
Established27 April 1883
Order of Wear
Next (higher)Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC)
Air Force Cross (AFC)[1]
Next (lower)Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)[1]
Order of Saint John[2]
Royal Red Cross (UK) ribbon

Ribbon bar

Foundation

The award was established on 23 April 1883 by Queen Victoria, with a single class of Member and first awarded to the founder of modern nursing, Florence Nightingale. A second and lower class, Associate, was added during World War I in November 1915.[3]

The award is made to a fully trained nurse of an officially recognised nursing service, military or civilian, who has shown exceptional devotion and competence in the performance of nursing duties, over a continuous and long period, or who has performed an exceptional act of bravery and devotion at her or his post of duty. It is conferred on members of the nursing services regardless of rank. Holders of the second class who receive a further award are promoted to the first class, although an initial award can also be made in the first class. Holders of the first class who receive a further award are awarded a bar.[4]

The decoration was conferred exclusively on women until 1976, when men became eligible, with posthumous awards permitted from 1979.[5]

Recipients of the Royal Red Cross are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "RRC" or "ARRC" for Members and Associates respectively.[6]

Description

  • The badge for RRC is in the shape of a golden cross, 1.375 inches (3.49 cm) wide, the obverse enamelled red, with a circular medallion, bearing an effigy of the reigning monarch at its centre. The words "Faith", "Hope" and "Charity" are inscribed on the upper limbs of the cross, with the year "1883" in the lower limb.
    The reverse is plain except a circular medallion bearing the royal cypher of the reigning monarch.
  • The badge for ARRC is in the shape of a silver cross, 1.375 inches (3.49 cm) wide, the obverse enamelled red, with broad silver edges around the enamel; a circular medallion bearing an effigy of the reigning monarch at its centre.
    The reverse has a circular medallion bearing the royal cypher of the reigning monarch, with the words "Faith", "Hope" and "Charity" inscribed on the upper three limbs of the cross, with the year "1883" in the lower limb.
  • The ribbon for both grades is dark blue with crimson edge stripes. The decoration is worn by women from the ribbon in the form of a bow, although it can be worn by both sexes in military uniform on a straight ribbon alongside other medals.
  • To recognise further exceptional devotion and competency in the performance of nursing duties or exceptional act of bravery and devotion at her or his post of duty, a bar may be awarded to a recipient of the RRC. The bar is linked to the cross and is made of red enamel. A rosette is worn on the ribbon in undress to denote a bar to the RRC.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "No. 56878". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 March 2003. p. 3351.
  2. ^ "JSP 761 Honours and Awards in the Armed Forces" (PDF). p. 12A-1. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  3. ^ "No. 29368". The London Gazette. 16 November 1915. p. 11324.
  4. ^ P E Abbott & J M A Tamplin. British Gallantry Awards. pp. 259-270. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981.ISBN 0-902633-74-0
  5. ^ P E Abbott & J M A Tamplin. British Gallantry Awards. p. xx. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981.ISBN 0-902633-74-0
  6. ^ John Mussell (ed). Medal Yearbook 2015. p. 86. Token Publishing Ltd. Honiton, Devon.

External links

1899 Birthday Honours

The Queen's Birthday Honours 1899 were announced on 3 June 1899 in celebration of the birthday of Queen Victoria. The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and British India.

The list was published in The Times on 3 June 1899 and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 3 June 1899, and on 13 June 1899.The recipients of honours are displayed or referred to as they were styled before their new honour and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander etc.) then division (Military, Civil).

It was announced in the list that The Queen had been pleased to confer the title of Lord Mayor upon the Mayor of the City of Bristol.

1902 Birthday Honours

The 1902 Birthday Honours were announced on 10 November 1902, to celebrate the birthday of Edward VII the previous day. The list included appointments to various orders and honours of the United Kingdom and the British Empire.

The list was published in The Times 10 November 1902, and the various honours were gazetted in The London Gazette on 9 November 1902 and on 28 November 1902.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour and where appropriate by rank (Knight Grand Cross, Knight Commander, etc.) and then division (Military, Civil).

1906 New Year Honours

The New Year Honours 1906 were appointments by Edward VII to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by members of the British Empire. They were published on 1 December 1905 and 2 January 1906.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1965 New Year Honours (New Zealand)

The 1965 New Year Honours in New Zealand were appointments by Elizabeth II on the advice of the New Zealand government to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by New Zealanders. The awards celebrated the passing of 1964 and the beginning of 1965, and were announced on 1 January 1965.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.

Alicia Lloyd Still

Dame Alicia Frances Jane Lloyd Still, DBE, RRC (1869–1944) was a British nurse, teacher and hospital matron.Her papers helped to found the Florence Nightingale Museum (Museum and Galleries Commission Registration #584), opened in 1989, which was based on the life of Florence Nightingale. It is on the historical site of the first purpose built nurse training institution, the Nightingale Training School for Nurses, which closed in 1996, at St Thomas' Hospital.

Cynthia Cooke

Cynthia Felicity Joan Cooke, (11 June 1919 – 20 April 2016) was a British military nurse and nursing administrator who served as Matron-in-Chief of the Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, the nursing branch of the Her Majesty's Naval Service, from 1973 to 1976.Cooke was awarded the Royal Red Cross in 1969, became a Commander of the Order of St John in 1974, and a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1975.

Diana Anderson

Colonel Diana Geraldine Mary Anderson, (born 29 January 1935) is a British nurse, midwife and civil servant.

Edith MacGregor Rome

Edith Sheriff MacGregor Rome RRC SRN (died 6 June 1938) was a British nursing matron and administrator. She served as President of the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) from 1933–34 and again from 1937-38.

Flora Masson

Flora Masson (1856 – c. 4 October 1937) was a Scottish suffragette, nurse, writer and an editor.

Helen Cattanach

Brigadier Helen S. Cattanach, (21 June 1920 – 4 May 1994) was a British military nurse and nursing administrator who served as Director of British Army Nursing Services (DANS) and Matron-in-Chief of Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps from 1973 to 1977.

Helen Grace McClelland

Helen Grace McClelland (July 25, 1887—December 20, 1984), a United States Army nurse, was awarded the United States Distinguished Service Cross and the British Royal Red Cross Medal (First Class) for heroic actions during World War I while serving at a British Base Hospital in France. McClelland was one of only three women to receive the Distinguished Service Cross award during World War I. After returning to the United States, McClelland spent twenty-three years as Director of Pennsylvania Hospital's School of Nursing. In her role, McClelland advocated for the professionalization and modernization of nursing. McClelland was inducted into the Ohio Women's Hall of Fame in 1978.

Lady Randolph Churchill

Jennie Spencer-Churchill (née Jerome; 9 January 1854 – 29 June 1921), known as Lady Randolph Churchill, was an American-born British socialite, the wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and the mother of British prime minister Sir Winston Churchill.

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood (Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary; 25 April 1897 – 28 March 1965) was a member of the British royal family. She was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary and was born during the reign of Queen Victoria, her great-grandmother. Mary was the paternal aunt of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Her education started at home. World War I brought Mary out of seclusion as she launched a charity campaign to support British troops and sailors. She eventually became a nurse. Mary married Viscount Lascelles (later the Earl of Harewood) in 1922. She was an avid collector of jewellery.

Mary Willie Arvin

Margaret (Mary) Willie Arvin ( April 21, 1879 – September 9, 1947) was a nurse from Henderson, Kentucky who served in the First World War in France at a British Army Hospital, and was one of the few women who was honored by all three of the major allied countries, France, Britain and the United States. Arvin was the most decorated Kentucky woman veteran serving in World War I. She was awarded the British Royal Red Cross (2nd Associate) Medal, the U. S. Army citation for exceptionally meritorious and conspicuous service (later exchanged for a Purple Heart), and the French Croix de guerre. Arvin was one of the first women to earn a Purple Heart. In 2006, Arvin was honored by the Kentucky Women Remembered and her portrait hangs in an exhibit at the Kentucky State Capital Rotunda.

Mary of Teck

Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress consort of India as the wife of King George V.

Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in the United Kingdom. Her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, who was of German extraction, and Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, who was a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known as "May", after her birth month.

At the age of 24, she was betrothed to her second cousin once removed Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement, he died unexpectedly during an influenza pandemic. The following year, she became engaged to Albert Victor's only surviving brother, George, who subsequently became king. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall, and Princess of Wales.

As queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill health, and major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war. After George's death in 1936, she became queen mother when her eldest son, Edward VIII, ascended the throne, but to her dismay, he abdicated later the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, George VI, until his death in 1952. She died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned.

Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife

Princess Arthur of Connaught, 2nd Duchess of Fife, RRC, GCStJ (Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise Duff; Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife before marriage; 17 May 1891 – 26 February 1959) was a granddaughter of King Edward VII and great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (Helene Friederike Auguste; later Duchess of Albany; 17 February 1861 – 1 September 1922), who became a member of the British royal family by marriage, was the fifth daughter and child of George Victor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont and his first wife, Princess Helena of Nassau.

Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia

Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (Louise Margaret Alexandra Victoria Agnes; later Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn; 25 July 1860 – 14 March 1917) was a German princess, and later a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She also served as the Viceregal Consort of Canada, when her husband served as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Queens Margrethe II of Denmark and Anne-Marie of Greece are among her great-grandchildren.

Sarah Swift

Dame Sarah Ann Swift, GBE, RRC (22 November 1854, Kirton Skeldyke, Lincolnshire – 27 June 1937, Marylebone) was an English nurse and founder in 1916 of the Royal College of Nursing, thereby introducing Nurse registration.

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