The Royal Norfolk Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army until 1959. Its predecessor regiment was raised in 1685 as Henry Cornwall's Regiment of Foot. In 1751, it was numbered like most other British Army regiments and named the 9th Regiment of Foot.
It was formed as the Norfolk Regiment in 1881 under the Childers Reforms of the British Army as the county regiment of Norfolk by merging the 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot with the local Militia and Rifle Volunteers battalions.
The Norfolk Regiment fought in the Great War on the Western Front and in the Middle East. After the war, the regiment became the Royal Norfolk Regiment on 3 June 1935. The regiment fought with distinction in the Second World War, in action in the Battle of France and Belgium, the Far East, and then in the invasion of, and subsequent operations in, North-west Europe.
In 1959, the Royal Norfolk Regiment was amalgamated with the Suffolk Regiment, to become the 1st East Anglian Regiment (Royal Norfolk and Suffolk); this later amalgamated with the 2nd East Anglian Regiment (Duchess of Gloucester's Own Royal Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire), the 3rd East Anglian Regiment (16th/44th Foot) and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to form the Royal Anglian Regiment, of which A Company of the 1st Battalion is known as the Royal Norfolks.
Royal Norfolk Regiment
Cap badge of the Royal Norfolk Regiment.
|Size||2 Regular battalions|
|Garrison/HQ||Gorleston Barracks, Great Yarmouth (1881–1887)|
Britannia Barracks, Norwich (1887–1959)
|Nickname(s)||"The Holy Boys"|
"The Fighting Ninth"
"The Norfolk Howards"
|Anniversaries||Almanza, 25 April|
|Battle honours||see below|
|Shoulder titles||"Royal Norfolk"|
The regiment was raised for the English Army in Gloucester by Colonel Henry Cornewall as Henry Cornewall's Regiment of Foot at the request of James II in 1685 as part of the response to the Monmouth Rebellion. Cornewall resigned his post following the Glorious Revolution and command went to Colonel Oliver Nicholas in November 1688. In December 1688, Nicholas was also removed due to his personal Jacobite sympathies and command passed to John Cunningham. In April 1689 the regiment, under Cunningham’s command, embarked at Liverpool for Derry for service in the Williamite War in Ireland. Cunningham led a failed attempt to relieve the besieged city of Derry. The regiment briefly returned to England, but in May 1689 Cunningham was replaced by William Stewart, under whom the regiment took part in a successful relief of Derry in summer 1689. The regiment also saw action at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, the Siege of Limerick in August 1690 and the Siege of Athlone in June 1691. It went on to fight at the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691 and the Siege of Limerick in August 1691.
The regiment embarked for Holland in June 1701 and took part in the sieges of Kaiserswerth and of Venlo in spring 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In March 1704, the regiment embarked for Lisbon and took part in the Battle of Almansa in April 1707 before returning to England in summer 1708. The regiment was then based in Menorca from summer 1718 to 1746. The regiment was renamed the 9th Regiment of Foot in 1751 when all British regiments were given numbers for identification instead of using their Colonel's name. During the Seven Years' War the Regiment won its first formal battle honour as part of the expedition that captured Belle Île from the French in 1761. It sailed for Cuba with George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle in March 1762 and took part in the siege and subsequent capture of Havana in summer 1762.
Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and the end of the war, the regiment moved to a posting at St. Augustine in Florida, where it remained until 1769. In April 1776, the regiment embarked for Canada as part of an expedition under Major-General John Burgoyne and took part in the Siege of Fort Ticonderoga and the Battle of Fort Anne in July 1777 during the American Revolutionary War. It surrendered at the Battle of Saratoga in autumn 1777 and its men then spent three years as prisoners of war as part of the Convention Army.
On 31 August 1782, the regiment was linked with Norfolk as part of attempts to improve recruitment to the army as a whole and it became the 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot. In January 1788, the regiment embarked for the West Indies and took part in the capture of the island of Tobago and in the attack on Martinique. It went on to capture Saint Lucia and Guadeloupe before returning to England in autumn 1796. In 1799 the King approved the Regiment's use of Britannia as its symbol. The next period of active service was the unsuccessful Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland under the Duke of York when the regiment took part in the Battle of Bergen in September 1799 and the Battle of Alkmaar in October 1799. It also took part in the Ferrol Expedition in August 1800 under Sir James Pulteney. In November 1805, shortly after the Battle of Trafalgar, the Regiment suffered a significant tragedy: as the 1st battalion returned from Ireland a storm wrecked the troop transport Ariadne on the northern French coast and some 262 men were taken prisoner.
In June 1808, the regiment sail for Portugal for service in the Peninsular War. It saw action at the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808. Following the retreat from Corunna, the regiment buried Sir John Moore (commander of the British forces in the Iberian peninsula) and left Spanish soil. The regiment then took part in the disastrous Walcheren expedition to the Low Countries in summer 1809.
The regiment returned to the Peninsula in March 1810 and fought under Wellington at Battle of Bussaco, Portugal in September 1810, the Battle of Sabugal in April 1811 and the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro in May 1811. It also saw action at the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in January 1812, the Siege of Badajoz in March 1812 and the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812. It saw further combat at the Siege of Burgos in September 1812, the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and the Siege of San Sebastián in September 1813. The regiment pursued the French Army into France and fought them at the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813 and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813.
The regiment was sent to Canada with most of Wellington's veteran units to prevent the threatened invasion by the United States, and so arrived in Europe too late for the Battle of Waterloo. The 1st Battalion participated in the Army of Occupation in France, whilst the 2nd Battalion was disbanded at the end of 1815.
The regiment saw action at Kabul in August 1842 during the First Anglo-Afghan War and at the Battle of Mudki and the Battle of Ferozeshah in December 1845 and the Battle of Sobraon in February 1846 during the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Norfolk Artillery Militia was formed in 1853.
The regiment fought in the Crimean War at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter of 1854 In 1866 it landed at Yokohama, Japan as part of the British garrison stationed there in protection of British commercial and diplomatic interests in the recently opened treaty port. The regiment saw action at Kabul again in 1879 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
The regiment was not fundamentally affected by the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, which gave it a depot at Gorleston Barracks in Great Yarmouth from 1873, or by the Childers reforms of 1881 – as it already possessed two battalions, there was no need for it to amalgamate with another regiment. Under the reforms the regiment became The Norfolk Regiment on 1 July 1881. It had two regular battalions (1st and 2nd) and two militia battalions (the 3rd and 4th - the latter formed from the East Norfolk Militia). It inherited all the battle honours and traditions of its predecessor regiment.
The 3rd (Militia) Battalion (the former 1st Norfolk Militia) was embodied in January 1900 for service during the Second Boer War in South Africa. 540 officers and men left Queenstown in the SS Orotava the following month for Cape Town. As the Norfolk Regiment, it first saw action at the Battle of Poplar Grove in March 1900 during the Second Boer War.
In 1908, the Volunteers and Militia were reorganised nationally, with the former becoming the Territorial Force and the latter the Special Reserve; the regiment now had one Reserve and three Territorial battalions.
The 1st Battalion was serving in Ireland upon the outbreak of the war and was given orders to mobilise on 4 August, the day that Britain declared war on Germany. Part of the 15th Brigade, 5th Division the battalion left Belfast on 14 August and immediately embarked for France, where they became part of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). They saw their first action of the war against the German Army at the Battle of Mons in August 1914. The 2nd Battalion was serving in Bombay, India in the 18th (Belgaum) Brigade, part of the 6th (Poona) Division, of the British Indian Army, upon the outbreak of war. The 2nd Battalion of the Norfolks fought in the Mesopotamian campaign. The treatment of prisoners after the fall of Kut al Amara in April 1916 mirrors that that would later befall the Royal Norfolks in the Far East during the Second World War.
The two Territorial Force battalions, the 4th and 5th, were both part of the Norfolk and Suffolk Brigade, part of the East Anglian Division. In May 1915 these became the 163rd (Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade, 54th (East Anglian) Division. The two territorial battalions both served in the Gallipoli Campaign in mid-1915. The 1/5th included men recruited from the Royal estate at Sandringham.
On 12 August 1915, the 1/5th Battalion suffered heavy losses at Gallipoli when it became isolated during an attack. A myth grew up long after the War that the men had advanced into a mist and simply disappeared. A BBC TV drama, All the King's Men (1999), starring David Jason as Captain Frank Beck, was based upon their story.
In the Second Battle of Gaza in 1917, the 1/4th and 1/5th battalions suffered 75% casualties, about 1,100 men. The 1/6th (Cyclist) Battalion was in Norwich on the outbreak of war: however, the 1/6th never served overseas and remained instead in Norfolk throughout the war until 1918 when it was sent to Ireland.
The 2/4th and 2/5th battalions were both raised in September 1914 from the few men of the 4th and 5th battalions who did not volunteer for Imperial Service overseas when asked. Therefore, Territorial units were split into 1st Line units, which were liable to serve overseas, and 2nd Line units, which were intended to act as a reserve for the 1st Line serving overseas. To distinguish them, all battalions adopted the '1/' or '2/' prefix (1/4th Norfolks as a 1st Line unit, 2/4th Norfolks as a 2nd Line unit). The 2/4th and 2/5th were part of the 2nd Norfolk and Suffolk Brigade, 2nd East Anglian Division, later, in August 1915, they became 208th (2/1st Norfolk and Suffolk) Brigade, 69th (2nd East Anglian) Division. However, both battalions were disbanded in 1918: the 2/4th in June and the 2/5th in May. The 2/6th (Cyclist) Battalion, formed in October 1914 as a duplicate of the 1/6th (Cyclist) Battalion, had much the same history as the 1/6th Battalion and remained in the United Kingdom until May 1918 when it was disbanded.
The Norfolk Yeomanry (TF), having fought dismounted in the Gallipoli Campaign, were withdrawn to Egypt, where they were reorganised as infantry and redesignated as the 12th (Norfolk Yeomanry) Battalion, Norfolk Regiment, in the 74th (Yeomanry) Division (the 'Broken Spur' division). The battalion fought in the Palestine Campaign at the Third Battle of Gaza (the Battles of Beersheba and Nebi Samwi) in 1917, and distinguished itself at the Battle of Tell Azur in March 1918. The 74th Division was then sent to reinforce the BEF in France, where the 12th Norfolks were detached to the 31st Division, with which the battalion served during the final Hundred Days Offensive.
The 7th (Service) Battalion, Norfolk Regiment was raised in August 1914 from men volunteering for Kitchener's New Armies: it landed at Boulogne-sur-Mer as part of the 35th Brigade in the 12th (Eastern) Division in May 1915 for service on the Western Front. The 8th (Service) Battalion landed at Boulogne as part of the 53rd Brigade of the 18th (Eastern) Division in July 1915 and was present on the first day of the Battle of the Somme on 1 July 1916. The 9th (Service) Battalion landed at Boulogne as part of the 71st Brigade in the 24th Division in August 1915 for operations on the Western Front. The 10th (Service) Battalion, raised in 1914, became the 10th (Reserve) Battalion in April 1915.
During the war, Lieutenant Colonel Jack Sherwood Kelly, a Norfolk Regiment officer, was awarded the Victoria Cross while leading a trench assault by Irish troops during the Battle of Cambrai in 1917.
The regiment was renamed to the Royal Norfolk Regiment on 3 June 1935 to celebrate 250 years since the regiment was first raised and also to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of King George V. In 1940, the first decorations for gallantry awarded to the British Expeditionary Force in France were gained by men of the 2nd Battalion. Captain Frank Peter Barclay, was awarded the Military Cross, and Lance-Corporal Davis the Military Medal. Captain F.P. Barclay would later lead the 1st Battalion in the North West Europe Campaign towards the end of the war. Five members of the Royal Norfolks, the highest number of any British Army regiment during the Second World War, were awarded the Victoria Cross:
The 1st Battalion was a regular army unit that was stationed in India at the outbreak of war and was recalled to Britain, arriving in July 1940 during the Battle of Britain. They were part of the 185th Infantry Brigade originally assigned to the 79th Armoured Division but the brigade (including the 2nd Royal Warwickshire Regiment and 2nd King's Shropshire Light Infantry) transferred to the 3rd Infantry Division, with which it would remain with for the rest of the war. The battalion landed on Red Queen Beach, the left flank of Sword Beach, at 07:25 on 6 June 1944, D-Day, and fought with distinction through the Normandy Campaign and throughout the North West Europe Campaign. On 6 August 1944 at Sourdeval, Sidney Bates of B Company was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for his great courage in the Battle of Sourdevallee against the crack 10th SS Panzer Division. Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey, the British Second Army commander, stated that by holding their ground in the battle the battalion made the subsequent breakthrough in August possible. By the end of the war in Europe, the 1st Battalion had gained a remarkable reputation and was claimed by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, the 21st Army Group commander, as 'second to none' of all the battalions in the 21st Army Group. The 1st Royal Norfolks had suffered 20 officers and 260 other ranks killed with well over 1,000 wounded or missing in 11 months of almost continuous combat.
During the Battle of France in 1940, Company Sergeant-Major George Gristock of the 2nd Royal Norfolks was awarded the Victoria Cross. During the battle, members of the Royal Norfolks were victims of a German war crime at Le Paradis in the Pas-de-Calais on 26 May.
The 2nd Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Eric Hayes, were attached to the 4th Infantry Brigade, part of the 2nd Infantry Division, which was holding the line of the La Bassée Canal and covering the retreat to Dunkirk. Units became separated from each other and HQ Company had formed a defensive position based at the Duriez farmhouse. They carried on their defence until the afternoon, by which point many were injured and the enemy were shelling the farm. Making a last stand in the open they were outnumbered and surrendered to a unit of the 2nd Infantry Regiment of the SS 'Totenkopf' (Death's Head) Division, under SS Obersturmfuhrer Fritz Knoechlein. The 99 prisoners were marched to some farm buildings on another farm where they were lined up alongside a barn wall. They were then fired upon by two machine guns; 97 were killed and the bodies buried in a shallow pit. Privates Albert Pooley and William O'Callaghan had hidden in a pigsty and were discovered later by the farm's owner, Mme Creton, and her son. The two soldiers were later captured by a Wehrmacht unit and spent the rest of the war as prisoners of war.
The bodies of the murdered soldiers were exhumed in 1942 by the French and reburied in the local churchyard which now forms part of the Le Paradis War Cemetery. A memorial plaque was placed on the barn wall in 1970. The massacre was investigated by the War Crimes Investigation Unit and Knoechlein was traced and arrested. Tried in a court in Hamburg, he was found guilty and hanged on 28 January 1949.
The 2nd Battalion, still as part of the 4th Infantry Brigade of the 2nd Infantry Division, also served in the Far East in the Burma Campaign participating in battles such as the Battle of Kohima until the end of the war against Japan in 1945. They served with the British Fourteenth Army, known as the 'Forgotten Army' as their actions were generally over-looked and the main focus was in the North West Europe Campaign. The Fourteenth Army was commanded by the popular and highly respected William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim. Both John Niel Randle and George Arthur Knowland were posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross whilst serving with the 2nd Battalion in the Far East, both for extraordinary heroism.
The 4th, 5th and 6th battalions, all part of the Territorial Army, served in the Far East. The 5th and 6th (City of Norwich) were both assigned to the 53rd Infantry Brigade, and the 4th Battalion the 54th Infantry Brigade. Both brigades were part of the 18th Infantry Division. Throughout most of their existence, all three battalions remained in the United Kingdom assigned to coastal defence duties and training to repel a German invasion and, in October 1941, the division left, destined for the Middle East. The 18th Division fought in the defence of Singapore and Malaya against the Japanese advance. The men of these battalions, and other East Anglian battalions of other regiments, ended up as prisoners of war when Singapore fell in February 1942. They would remain so until August 1945, during which time they were used as forced labour on projects such as the Death Railway through Burma.
The 7th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment was formed in May 1939 as a 2nd Line Territorial Army duplicate of the 5th Battalion and, therefore, contained many former members of the 5th. Together with the 5th and 6th battalions, the 7th was assigned to the 53rd Infantry Brigade, part of the 18th Infantry Division until November when it assigned to pioneer duties in France with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). In May 1940, it was assigned to the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division. The 51st Division was stationed on the Maginot Line and therefore escaped encirclement with the rest of the BEF during the Battle of France where they spent some time attached to the French Tenth Army. The 7th Royal Norfolks suffered heavy casualties when the 51st (Highland) Infantry Division was surrounded and had no choice but to surrender, on 12 June 1940, with only 31 members of the battalion managing to return to Britain. In October 1940 the battalion was assigned to 205th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home), then the 220th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home). On 14 October 1942, the battalion was transferred to the 176th Infantry Brigade, alongside the 7th Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment and 6th Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment, of the 59th (Staffordshire) Infantry Division. The 59th Division was one of the follow-up units after D-Day in June 1944 and was considered by General Bernard Montgomery as one of his best divisions. On the night of 7/8 August 1944, Captain David Auldjo Jamieson of D Company was awarded the Victoria Cross for his heroic leadership which greatly helped to fend off several enemy counter-attacks in a 36-hour period. Due to an acute shortage of infantrymen in the British Army at the time, the battalion and division were disbanded in late August 1944 and its men used as replacements for other British divisions in the 21st Army Group who had also suffered heavy casualties in Normandy.
The 8th Battalion was raised in 1939 alongside the 9th Battalion with many veterans of the Great War. Both battalions were used mainly to supply reinforcements to those battalions of the regiment that were overseas. Neither of these battalions saw service overseas and remained in the United Kingdom throughout the war as part of the Home Forces with the 9th Battalion apparently being disbanded in August 1944 when its parent unit (25th Brigade attached to 47th (Reserve) Infantry Division) was disbanded.
The 8th Battalion was renumbered as the 30th Battalion and used for garrison duties in Italy during which the 43rd Infantry Brigade, which included 30th Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry and 30th Battalion, Dorset Regiment, was made to appear as a full division for deception purposes. The battalion remained in Italy until it was disbanded in 1946.
The 50th (Holding) Battalion was raised in late May 1940. The role of the Holding battalion was to temporarily 'hold' men who were homeless, medically unfit, awaiting orders, on a course or returning from abroad. The battalion was renumbered as the 9th Battalion in October and was assigned to the 220th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home), part of Norfolk County Division in early 1941.
The 70th (Young Soldiers) Battalion was raised in late 1940 for those young soldiers, mostly around the ages of 18 or 19, who had volunteered for the Army and therefore had not reached the compulsory age for conscription. The battalion spent most of its time in the UK guarding against a German invasion. However, the battalion was disbanded in 1943 due to the British government lowering the age of conscription to the British Armed Forces to 18 earlier in the year. This decision was due to a growing shortage of manpower, especially in the British Army and in the infantry in particular and the young soldiers of the disbanded 70th were sent to other battalions of the regiment serving overseas.
The regiment served in Korea in 1951–52 during the Korean War, and in Cyprus in the fight against EOKA in 1955–56. In 1959 the Royal Norfolk Regiment was amalgamated as part of the reorganisation of the British Army resulting from the 1957 Defence White Paper becoming part of a new formation, the 1st East Anglian Regiment, part of the East Anglian Brigade.
The history of the Royal Norfolk Regiment and its predecessors and successors is recorded at the Royal Norfolk Regimental Museum. The museum moved from the Britannia Barracks, now part of Norwich prison, to the Shirehall and then to the Norwich Castle Museum. Although archives and the reserve collections are still held in the Shirehall, the principal museum display there closed in September 2011, and relocated to the main Norwich Castle Museum, reopening fully in 2013. Its exhibits illustrate the history of the Regiment from its 17th-century origins to its incorporation into the Royal Anglian Regiment in 1964, along with many aspects of military life in the Regiment. There is an extensive and representative display of medals awarded to soldiers of the Regiment, including two of the six Victoria Crosses won.
The dress worn by the Regiment's predecessor units in the late 17th and early 18th centuries included orange and subsequently green facings. In 1733, official permission was given to change from bright green back to light orange facings. By 1747, this unusual shade had evolved into yellow, which was retained until 1881 when, in common with all English and Welsh regiments, the newly renamed Norfolk Regiment was given white distinctions on its scarlet tunics. In 1905, the traditional yellow facings were restored for full dress and mess uniforms. Another distinction of the Norfolk Regiment was the inclusion of a black line in the gold braid of officers' uniforms from 1881 onwards. When the regiment was redesignated as the "Royal Norfolk Regiment" in 1935, it was specially permitted to retain the yellow facings instead of changing to blue.
The figure of Britannia was officially recognised in 1799 as part of the insignia of the 9th Regiment of Foot. Regimental tradition claimed that it was granted to the regiment by Queen Anne in 1707 in recognition of its service at the Battle of Almanza. However, there is no evidence that it was used before the 1770s, and it was not listed as an authorised device in the royal warrants of 1747, 1751 or 1768. It subsequently became a central part of the badge of the Norfolk Regiment.
The Royal Norfolk Regiment held an anniversary on 25 April for the Battle of Almansa, which they inherited along with the regimental nickname of the "Holy Boys" from the 9th Regiment of Foot. They gained the "Holy Boys" nickname during the Peninsular War from the misidentification by a Spanish soldier of Britannia on their cap badge as the Virgin Mary.
The following were the regiment's battle honours:
In total, six members of the Norfolk or Royal Norfolk Regiment were awarded the Victoria Cross:
Colonels of the regiment were:
His Majesty has further approved that the following regiments be permitted to retain their present facings:- ...The Royal Norfolk Regiment (yellow)
Lieutenant-General Albemarle Bertie, 9th Earl of Lindsey (17 September 1744 – 17 September 1818) was a British nobleman and general.
He was the son of Peregrine Bertie, a barrister and great-great-grandson of Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey.Charles Wintour
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Under Charles Wintour's leadership, the Evening Standard was described as a "blend of popular and serious news and opinion" which prefigured many of the broadsheets of the 21st century.” Wintour was educated at the University of Cambridge where he edited the Granta magazine.David Fleming (priest)
David Fleming (b 8 June 1937) is an Anglican priest: he was Archdeacon of Wisbech from 1984 to 1993; Chaplain-General of Prisons from 1994 to 2001; and an Honorary Chaplain to the Queen from 1995 to 2007.Fleming was educated at King Edward VII School, King's Lynn and Kelham Theological College. After National Service with the Royal Norfolk Regiment he was ordained in 1963. After curacies in Liverpool and Sandringham he was Vicar of Great Staughton and Chaplain of HM Borstal, Gaynes Hall from 1968 to 1976 (and Rural Dean of St Neots from 1972 to 1976. He was Vicar of Whittlesey and Rural Dean of March from 1977 to 1982. He was Priest in charge of Pondersbridge from 1983 to 1985 and Vicar of Wisbech from 1985 to 1988. He was an Honorary Canon of Ely Cathedral from 1982 to 2001.East Anglian Brigade
The East Anglian Brigade was an administrative formation of the British Army from 1948 to 1968. The Brigade administered the regular infantry regiments of East Anglia, England.
After the Second World War the British Army had fourteen infantry depots, each bearing a letter. The depots were territorially organised, and Infantry Depot G at Colchester was the headquarters for the county regiments of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Northamptonshire and Suffolk.In 1948, the depots adopted names and this depot became the East Anglian Brigade, with all regiments being reduced to a single battalion at the same time. The East Anglian Brigade was formed on 14 July 1948 at Gibraltar Barracks, Bury St Edmunds as an administrative apparatus for the infantry regiments from East Anglia:
The Royal Norfolk Regiment (until 1959)
The Suffolk Regiment (until 1959)
The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment (until 1958)
The Essex Regiment (until 1958)
The Northamptonshire Regiment (until 1960)Under the Defence Review announced in July 1957, the infantry of the line was reorganised: In 1958, the Royal Lincolnshire Regiment was transferred from the Forester Brigade, and by 1960 the six individual regiments had amalgamated to form three "East Anglian Regiments":
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment and Essex Regiment - 3rd East Anglian Regiment (16th/44th Foot) on 2 June 1958
Royal Norfolk Regiment and Suffolk Regiment - 1st East Anglian Regiment (Royal Norfolk and Suffolk) on 29 August 1959
Royal Lincolnshire Regiment and Northamptonshire Regiment - 2nd East Anglian Regiment (Duchess of Gloucester's Own Royal Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire) on 1 June 1960At the same time East Anglian Brigade cap badges and buttons replaced those of the individual regiments. The cap badge was a silver eight-pointed star bearing the castle and key of Gibraltar, with a scroll inscribed "East Anglia". The key and castle was a badge awarded to predecessors of all three regiments for their part in the Great Siege of Gibraltar from 1779 - 1783. The brigade buttons were identical to those of the Royal Norfolk Regiment, bearing the figure of Brittania.The three regiments could be distinguished by their collar badges and coloured lanyards:
The 1st East Anglian Regiment wore collar badges consisting of Brittania in front of the Castle of Gibraltar and a yellow lanyard
The 2nd East Anglian Regiment wore collar badges consisting of a sphinx on a tablet inscribed "Egypt" over a scroll with the battle honour Talavera and a black lanyard
The 3rd East Anglian Regiment wore collar badges depicting a Napoleonic eagle enclosed within the Garter and a pompadour purple (claret purple) lanyardIn 1963, the Royal Leicestershire Regiment was transferred from the Forester Brigade. The regiment wore collar badges comprising a royal tiger within an unbroken wreath of laurel and a pearl grey, black and scarlet lanyard.
In 1964, all four were amalgamated to form a new, large regiment called the Royal Anglian Regiment. The new regiment's cap badge was similar to that of the East Anglian Brigade except that the scroll was now inscribed "Royal Anglian" and the cap badge is now smaller..
On 1 July 1968 the East Anglian Brigade was united with the Fusilier Brigade and the Home Counties Brigades, to form the Queen's Division.Eric Hayes
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Knowland was born on 16 August 1922 in Catford, Kent and attended Elmwood Primary School in Croydon. He joined the British Army, the Royal Norfolk Regiment, in 1940 as a private and was commissioned before the end of the next year.
At 22 years old, and a lieutenant in the Royal Norfolks but now attached to No. 1 Commando in Burma, he took part in the Battle of Hill 170 where he was to earn the VC.
On 31 January 1945 near Kangaw, Burma, Lieutenant Knowland was in command of a forward platoon of a troop which was being heavily attacked – some 300 of the enemy concentrating on his 24 men. During the attacks he moved among the men distributing ammunition and contributing with rifle fire and throwing grenades at the enemy. When the crew of one of his forward Bren light machine guns had been wounded, he rushed forward to man it himself. The enemy was only 10 yards (9.1 m) away but below the level of the trench so to fire into them he stood up. He continued to fire until the casualties had been evacuated. A replacement gun team that had been sent for were injured while moving up and he stayed with the gun until a third team arrived.
In a subsequent attack he took over a 2 inch (51 mm) mortar which he fired from the hip directly into the enemy. He returned to the trench for more ammunition and fired the mortar from out in the open. When this was used up he fired his rifle. The enemy were then very close and without time to reload his rifle, he picked up a "Tommy gun" (sub machine gun) and used it. He killed more of the enemy but received mortal wounds. Despite over 50% losses in the platoon the remainder held on. By the time they were relieved the men had held the ground for 12 hours; they prevented the enemy from advancing further on that hill.His grave is in the Taukkyan War Cemetery, Burma.George Ingle
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Born into an ecclesiastical family in 1895, he was educated at Felsted and Jesus College, Cambridge. After wartime service with the Royal Norfolk Regiment, he embarked on an ecclesiastical career with a curacy at St Peter’s, Cranley Gardens, Hammersmith. Following this, he was Chaplain to the London Irish Rifles then of the British Embassy Church, Paris. A long period as a master at his old school, Felsted, was followed by short posts as Vicar of St John's, Greenhill, Harrow and as Rural Dean of the British Zone of Germany before he was elevated to the episcopate as the third Bishop of Fulham, a post he held for only seven years. Translated to Willesden, he died on 10 June 1964.Gorden Calthrop Throne
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Under Edward Heath, Prior was Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food from 1970 to 1972, then Leader of the House of Commons until Heath lost the election of 1974. His party returned to office under Margaret Thatcher in 1979, and Prior was Secretary of State for Employment from 1979 to 1981, disagreeing with some of her views on trade unions and her monetarist economic policies generally. This made him a leader of the so-called "wet" faction in the Conservative ranks. In 1981 he was moved to the less pivotal role of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, standing down in 1984 and never returning to government.John Archer (British Army officer)
General Sir (Arthur) John Archer, KCB, OBE (12 February 1924 – 12 March 1999) was a senior officer of the British Army and a former Commander in Chief, UK Land Forces.John Niel Randle
John Niel Randle VC (22 December 1917 – 6 May 1944) was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
His was one of three World War II VC's awarded for action in India, the others being awarded to John Pennington Harman (also at the Battle of Kohima) and Abdul Hafiz (VC) at the Battle of Imphal.Joseph Yorke, 1st Baron Dover
General Joseph Yorke, 1st Baron Dover KB, PC (24 June 1724 – 2 December 1792), styled The Honourable Joseph Yorke until 1761 and The Honourable Sir Joseph Yorke between 1761 and 1788, was a British soldier, diplomat and Whig politician.Norfolk County Division
The Norfolk County Division was an infantry division of the British Army formed during the Second World War named after the County of Norfolk. It was formed on 24 December 1940. On 18 November 1941 it was redesignated as the 76th Infantry Division.
It was under command of II Corps and was commanded by Major General W. M. Ozanne and its constituent infantry brigades were:
213th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)
13th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment
9th Battalion, Royal Berkshire Regiment
14th Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment220th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)
7th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
9th Battalion, Royal Norfolk Regiment
9th Battalion, Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment222nd Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)
8th Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment
8th Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment
11th Battalion, Royal Scots FusiliersPaul Hawkins (politician)
Sir Paul Lancelot Hawkins (7 August 1912 – 29 December 2002) was a British Conservative Party politician.
Hawkins was educated at Cheltenham College and served in the Royal Norfolk Regiment of the Territorial Army 1933–45. He was a livestock auctioner and chartered surveyor, and served as a councillor on Norfolk County Council.
Hawkins was Member of Parliament (MP) for South West Norfolk from 1964 to 1987 when he retired. Future minister Gillian Shephard was his successor. Sir Paul was a Government Whip under Edward Heath (1970–1974), serving as an assistant whip 1970–1971, a Lord of the Treasury 1971–1973, and Vice-Chamberlain of the Household 1973–1974. He was knighted in 1982.Peter Hunter
Lieutenant-General Peter Hunter (11 July 1746 – 21 August 1805) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator. He was eldest son to John Hunter laird of Knapp and his spouse Euphemia Jack of Longforgan, Perthshire, Scotland.
In 1767 he entered the British Army by purchasing an Ensign's commission in the 1st Foot. He rose to Lieutenant in 1770 and served in Menorca from 1771 to 1775 being promoted to Captain on the regiment's return to England. He became a Major in the 92nd Foot in 1779 and went to the West Indies where he rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, transferring to the 60th Foot in 1781.
His unit was posted to Nova Scotia in 1786 and he assumed command of the battalion in 1787.
In 1789 Hunter, after leave in England, was appointed temporary superintendent of British Honduras holding that position until 1791 and was said to have administered the new colony in an authoritarian manner. He returned to England in 1793 and was given the rank of Colonel serving in Europe and then the Caribbean before becoming a military governor in County Wexford, Ireland following the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
On 10 April 1799 Hunter was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada, succeeding John Graves Simcoe. He was also made commander of military forces in both Upper and Lower Canada with the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1802. He became Colonel of the 9th Foot in 1804.
Hunter died unexpectedly in 1805 in Quebec. Alexander Grant became administrator of Upper Canada and continued Hunter's policies until a new Lieutenant Governor, Francis Gore, arrived from Britain in August 1806.Peter Strickland (British Army officer)
Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Peter Strickland KCB KBE CMG DSO (3 August 1869 - 24 June 1951) was a British Army officer who commanded 1st Infantry Division during World War I.Richard Bertie, 14th Earl of Lindsey
Richard Henry Rupert Bertie, 14th Earl of Lindsey and 9th Earl of Abingdon (born 28 June 1931) is an English peer.
Lindsey is the son of Hon. Arthur Michael Bertie (1886–1957), the second son of Montagu Bertie, 7th Earl of Abingdon, and his first wife, Aline. Through his ancestor Emily Gage he is descendant from the Schuyler and Van Cortlandt families of British North America.
He was educated at Ampleforth College and did his national service with the Royal Norfolk Regiment, becoming a second lieutenant on 6 February 1952 with seniority from 3 February 1951. On 25 July 1952, he was given the acting rank of lieutenant, and the promotion was made substantive on 28 June 1954 with seniority from the date of his acting rank. Bertie was transferred to the Regular Army Reserve from the Army Emergency Reserve on 24 September 1957. In 1957, Bertie married Norah Elizabeth Farquhar-Oliver, by whom he has two sons and a daughter:
Henry Mark Willoughby Bertie, Lord Norreys (born 6 June 1958), married Lucinda Sol Morsoom in 1989 and has two sons:Hon. Willoughby Henry Constantine St Maur (born 15 January 1996)
Hon. James Frederick Christopher Ninian (born 26 August 1997)
Lady Annabel Frances Rose Bertie (born 1969)
Hon. Alexander Michael Richard Willoughby Bertie (born 1970), married Catherine Davina Cameron, daughter of Gordon Cameron, in 1998 and has two children:Fergus Bertie (born 2000)
Emily Bertie (born 2004)In 1963, he succeeded his half-cousin as Earl of Lindsey and Abingdon and hereditary High Steward of Abingdon. He lives at Gilmilnscroft House, near Mauchline, a seat of his wife's family, the Farquhars.Robert Brownrigg
General Sir Robert Brownrigg, 1st Baronet, GCB (1759 – 27 April 1833) was a British statesman and soldier. Brownrigg brought the last part of Sri Lanka under British rule.