Royal New Zealand Navy

The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN; Maori: Te Taua Moana o Aotearoa, "Warriors of the Sea of New Zealand") is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. The fleet currently consists of ten ships and eight naval helicopters.

Royal New Zealand Navy
Te Taua Moana o Aotearoa
Four major units of the RNZN cruise in the Cook Strait in 2011 (clockwise from foreground – Otago, Wellington, Te Mana and Canterbury)
Four units of the RNZN cruise in the Cook Strait in 2011 (clockwise from foreground – Otago, Wellington, Te Mana and Canterbury)
Founded1 October 1941
Country New Zealand
TypeNavy
RoleNaval Warfare
SizePersonnel:
  • 2,050 Regular
  • 392 Reserve
  • 108 civilian staff

Ships:

Part ofNew Zealand Defence Force
Garrison/HQDevonport Naval Base
Motto(s)Te Taua Moana o Aotearoa, "Warriors of the Sea of New Zealand")
MarchQuick — Heart of Oak Slow — E Pari Ra
Mascot(s)Anchor
Anniversaries1 October 1941 (founded)
EngagementsWorld War II
Korean War
Malayan Emergency
Cross border attacks in Sabah
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Iran–Iraq War
Gulf War
Solomon Islands
East Timor
Operation Enduring Freedom
Websitenavy.mil.nz
Commanders
Governor-General and Commander-in-ChiefDame Patsy Reddy
Chief of Defence ForceAir Marshal Kevin Short
Chief of NavyRear Admiral John Martin
Warrant officer of the NavyWO Wayne Dyke
Insignia
Naval ensign
Naval Ensign of New Zealand
Naval jack
Flag of New Zealand
Aircraft flown
ReconnaissanceKaman SH-2G Super Seasprite

History

Pre–World War I

The first recorded maritime combat activity in New Zealand occurred when Māori in war waka attacked Dutch explorer Abel Tasman off the northern tip of the South Island in December 1642.

The New Zealand Navy did not exist as a separate military force until 1941.[1] The association of the Royal Navy with New Zealand began with the arrival of Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook in 1769, who completed two subsequent journeys to New Zealand in 1773 and 1777. Occasional visits by Royal Navy ships were made from the late 18th century until the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. William Hobson, a crucial player in the drafting of the treaty, was in New Zealand as a captain in the Royal Navy. The signing of the Treaty of Waitangi made New Zealand a colony in the British Empire, so the defence of the coastline became the responsibility of the Royal Navy. That role was fulfilled until World War I, and the Royal Navy also played a part in the New Zealand Wars: for example, a gunboat shelled fortified Māori from the Waikato River in order to defeat the Māori King Movement.

World War I and the Inter-War period

In 1909, the New Zealand government decided to fund the purchase of the battlecruiser HMS New Zealand for the Royal Navy, which saw action throughout World War I in Europe. The passing of the Naval Defence Act 1913 created the New Zealand Naval Forces, still as a part of the Royal Navy. The first purchase by the New Zealand government for the New Zealand Naval Forces was the cruiser HMS Philomel, which escorted New Zealand land forces to occupy the German colony of Samoa in 1914. Philomel saw further action under the command of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. By 1917, she was worn out and dispatched back to New Zealand where she served as a depot ship in Wellington Harbour for minesweepers. In 1921 she was transferred to Auckland for use as a training ship.

From 1921 to 1941 the force was known as the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy.[2] The cruiser Chatham along with the sloop Veronica arrived in 1920, Philomel was transferred to the Division in 1921, as was the sloop Torch, HMS Laburnum arrived in 1922 and then HMS Dunedin in 1924. HMS Diomede and the minesweeper HMS Wakakura arrived in 1926. Between World War I and World War II, the New Zealand Division operated a total of 14 ships, including the cruisers HMS Achilles (joined 31 March 1937) and HMS Leander, which replaced Diomede and Dunedin (replaced by Leander in 1937).

From 1919–21 to October 1940, the Royal Navy formation around New Zealand was the New Zealand Station, sometimes rendered New Zealand Squadron.

World War II

USS St. Louis (CL-49) and HMNZS Leander firing during the Battle of Kolombangara, 13 July 1943 (80-G-342763)
HMNZS Leander and USS St. Louis fire on Jintsu

When Britain went to war against Germany in 1939, New Zealand officially declared war at the same time, backdated to 9.30 pm on 3 September local time. But the gathering in Parliament in Carl Berendsen's room (including Peter Fraser) could not follow Chamberlain's words because of static on the shortwave and waited until the Admiralty notified the fleet that war had broken out before Cabinet approved the declaration of war (the official telegram from Britain was delayed and arrived just before midnight).[3]

HMS Achilles participated in the first major naval battle of World War II, the Battle of the River Plate off the River Plate estuary between Argentina and Uruguay, in December 1939.[4] Achilles and two other cruisers, HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter, severely damaged the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. The German Captain Hans Langsdorff then scuttled Graf Spee rather than face the loss of many more German seamen's lives. This decision apparently infuriated Hitler.

Achilles moved to the Pacific, and was working with the United States Navy (USN) when damaged by a Japanese bomb off New Georgia. Following repair, she served alongside the British Pacific Fleet until the war's end.

The New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy became the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) from 1 October 1941, in recognition of the fact that the naval force was now largely self-sufficient and independent of the Royal Navy. The Prime Minister Peter Fraser reluctantly agreed, though saying "now was not the time to break away from the old country".[5] Ships thereafter were prefixed HMNZS (His/Her Majesty's New Zealand Ship).

HMNZS Leander escorted the New Zealand Expeditionary Force to the Middle East in 1940 and was then deployed in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, and the Indian Ocean. Leander was subjected to air and naval attack from Axis forces, conducted bombardments, and escorted convoys. In February 1941, Leander sank the Italian auxiliary cruiser Ramb I in the Indian Ocean. In 1943, after serving further time in the Mediterranean, Leander returned to the Pacific Ocean. She assisted in the destruction of the Japanese cruiser Jintsu and being seriously damaged by torpedoes during the Battle of Kolombangara. The extent of the damage to Leander saw her docked for repairs until the end of the war.

As the war progressed, the size of the RNZN greatly increased, and by the end of the war, there were over 60 ships in commission. These ships participated as part of the British and Commonwealth effort against the Axis in Europe, and against the Japanese in the Pacific. They also played an important role in the defence of New Zealand, from German raiders, especially when the threat of invasion from Japan appeared imminent in 1942. Many merchant ships were requisitioned and armed for help in defence. One of these was HMNZS Monowai, which saw action against the Japanese submarine I-20 off Fiji in 1942. In 1941–1942, it was decided in an agreement between the New Zealand and United States governments that the best role for the RNZN in the Pacific was as part of the United States Navy, so operational control of the RNZN was transferred to the South West Pacific Area command, and its ships joined United States 7th Fleet taskforces.

In 1943, the light cruiser HMS Gambia was transferred to the RNZN as HMNZS Gambia. In November 1944, the British Pacific Fleet, a joint British Commonwealth military formation, was formed, based in Sydney, Australia. Most RNZN ships were transferred to the BPF, including Gambia and Achilles. They took part in the Battle of Okinawa and operations in the Sakishima Islands, near Japan. In August 1945, HMNZS Gambia was New Zealand's representative at the surrender of Japan.

Post-war

HMNZS Royalist in Waitemata Harbour, 1956
HMNZS Royalist in Waitemata Harbour, 1956

During April 1947 a series of non-violent mutinies occurred amongst the sailors and non-commissioned officers of four RNZN ships and two shore bases. Overall, up to 20% of the sailors in the RNZN were involved in the mutinies. The resulting manpower shortage forced the RNZN to remove the light cruiser Black Prince, one of their most powerful warships, from service, and set the navy's development and expansion back by a decade. Despite this impact, the size and scope of the events have been downplayed over time.[6]

RNZN ships participated in the Korean War. On 29 June, just four days after 135,000 North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel in Korea, the New Zealand government ordered two Loch-class frigates – Tutira and Pukaki to prepare to make for Korean waters, and for the whole of the war, at least two NZ vessels would be on station in the theater.[7]

On 3 July, these two first ships left Devonport Naval Base, Auckland and joined other Commonwealth forces at Sasebo, Japan, on 2 August. These vessels served under the command of a British flag officer (seemingly Flag Officer Second in Command Far East Fleet)[8] and formed part of the US Navy screening force during the Battle of Inchon, performing shore raids and inland bombardment. Further RNZN Loch-class frigates joined these later – Rotoiti, Hawea, Taupo and Kaniere, as well as a number of smaller craft. Only one RNZN sailor was killed during the conflict – during the Inchon bombardments.

The Navy later participated in the Malayan Emergency, and the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation. The Confrontation was the RNZN's last large-scale operation with the Royal Navy. In a security crisis and threat to Malaysia and Sarawak and Brunei, two thirds of the Royal Navy's operational warships were deployed from 1963 to the end of 1966 with Royalist, Taranaki, and Otago, heavily involved in boarding ships, shore patrols, presence, maintaining the use of seaways and support of the RN's amphibious carriers. In the past three decades, the RNZN has operated in the Middle East a number of times. RNZN ships played a role in the Iran–Iraq War, aiding the Royal Navy in protecting neutral shipping in the Indian Ocean. Frigates were also sent to participate in the first Gulf War, and more recently Operation Enduring Freedom.[9] The RNZN has played an important part in conflicts in the Pacific as well. Naval forces were utilised in the Bougainville, Solomon Islands and East Timor conflicts of the 1990s. The RNZN often participates in United Nations peacekeeping operations. The Navy's operational authority was the Commodore, Auckland, from 1 January 1961[10] which changed to the Maritime Commander in March 1993.[11] Among the Commodores Auckland was Commodore J O'C Ross, who later wrote The White Ensign in New Zealand, and later Rear Admiral and Chief of Naval Staff John McKenzie.[12]

The RNZN has played a much broader role than just conflict-related activities. Since 1946, it has policed New Zealand's territorial waters and exclusive economic zone for fisheries protection. It also aids New Zealand's deployment in Antarctica, at Scott Base.

One of the best-known roles that the RNZN played on the world stage was when the frigates Canterbury and Otago were sent by the Labour Government of Norman Kirk to Moruroa Atoll in 1973 to protest against French nuclear testing there. The frigates were sent into the potential blast zone of the weapons, where both ships witnessed one airburst test each which forced France to then change to underground testing.

In May 1982 Prime Minister Rob Muldoon seconded the frigate Canterbury to the Royal Navy for the duration of the Falklands War. Canterbury was deployed to the Armilla Patrol in the Persian Gulf, to relieve a British frigate for duty in the South Atlantic. Canterbury was herself relieved by Waikato in August.[13]

Until the 1960s, the RNZN had, in common with other Dominion navies, flown the White Ensign as a common ensign. Post-war, the foreign policies of these independent states had become more distinctive and there was a wish and a need for separate identities, particularly if one Dominion was engaged in hostilities where another was not. Thus, in 1968, the RNZN adopted its own ensign, which retains the Union Flag in a top quarter but replaces the St George's Cross with the Southern Cross constellation that is displayed on the national flag.

HMNZS Te Mana (F111) alongside USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72), 30 July, 2008
The RNZN frigate HMNZS Te Mana alongside the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln in the North Arabian Sea whilst taking part in Operation Enduring Freedom.

The hydrographic survey ship of the RNZN until 2012 was HMNZS Resolution, succeeding the long-serving HMNZS Monowai. Resolution was used to survey and chart the sea around New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. A small motor boat, SMB Adventure, was operated from Resolution. Resolution carried some of the most advanced survey technology available.[14] HMNZS Resolution was decommissioned at Devonport Naval Base on 27 April 2012.[15]

Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom

White Ensign 1945–1968

Naval Ensign of New Zealand

White Ensign 1968–present

Queen's Colour for Royal New Zealand Navy

Queen's Colour of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Modern navy

Current fleet

The RNZN is currently in a transitional period where its role is being broadened into a navy that is more versatile than in the more recent past. Formerly combat-oriented and based on the frigate, a number of new ships have been incorporated into the fleet that have given the RNZN a much broader potential platform from which to work.

Combat Force

HMZMS Te Kaha
HMNZS Te Kaha in Hong Kong.

The Combat Force consists of two Anzac-class frigates: HMNZS Te Kaha and HMNZS Te Mana.[16] Both ships are based at the Devonport Naval Base on Auckland's North Shore. Te Kaha was commissioned on 26 July 1997 and Te Mana on 10 December 1999.

The specifications and armaments of the two ships are identical.[17][18]

Patrol Force

HMNZS Wellington
HMNZS Wellington in port at Wellington

The Patrol Force consists of two Offshore Patrol (OPV) and four Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPV).[16] The Patrol Force is responsible for policing New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone, one of the largest in the world. In addition, the Patrol Force provides assistance to a range of civilian government agencies, including the Department of Conservation, New Zealand Customs and Police, Ministry of Fisheries and others. The Patrol Force consists of:

Support Force

HMNZS MATATAUA

HMNZS MATATAUA (MAT) structure is two operational groups the Military Hydrographic Group (Mil-HG) and the Clearance Diving Group (CDG), and one support group the Logistics Support Group.[16][20] MAT is responsible for ensuring access to and the use of harbours, inshore waters and associated coastal zones.[16] HMNZS MATATAUA combined the former Mine Counter Measures Team, Maritime Survey Team and the Operational Diving Team.[20] HMNZS MATATAUA operates four REMUS 100 Autonomous underwater vehicles.

The Clearance Diving Group is responsible for clearance diving, including Maritime Explosive Ordnance Disposal (MEOD), beach reconnaissance in support of amphibious operations; underwater engineering and underwater search and recovery in support of the NZ Police.[21][22][23] The CDG comprises 40 divers split into thee teams capable of operating three independent detachments.[21] Clearance Diving Team 1 (CDT 1) is the Mine Counter Measures team responsible for mine and obstacle clearance in support of Amphibious Operations. CDT 2 is responsible for Sub-surface Operational Maintenance and Repair, salvage, search and recovery. CDT 3 is responsible for Maritime Explosive Ordnance Disposal support to the NZ Police and Expeditionary. To become a fully qualified diver involves completion of the 4 week Defence Diver course and the 24-week Able Diver course.[23][24]

Aviation

The Royal New Zealand Air Force operates eight Kaman SH-2G Super Seasprite helicopters for use on the two frigates, the new multi-role vessel and two offshore patrol craft.[25] These eight aircraft are part of No. 6 Squadron. The squadron is based at Whenuapai in Auckland, and helicopters are assigned to the ships as they are sent on deployments across the globe. The roles of the helicopters include:[25]

  • surface warfare missions and surveillance operations
  • underwater warfare
  • helicopter delivery services/logistics
  • search and rescue
  • medical evacuation
  • training
  • assistance to other Government agencies

Future fleet

Some Of New Zealand Navy's Newest
Two of the fleet's newest vessels, the frigate Te Kaha and the multi-role vessel Canterbury.

The New Zealand Government defence white paper released in November 2010 called for an upgrade of the Anzac-class frigates and the replacement of HMNZS Endeavour (decommissioned in December 2017) with a more capable ship. The hydrographic ship, HMNZS Resolution (decommissioned in 2012) and HMNZS Manawanui are to be replaced with a single ship.[26]

During these upgrades the navy suffered from a shortage of skilled staff and lacked the crew to operate an offshore patrol vessel. This is expected to improve as the NZDF's resources are directed to the South Pacific following the end of its commitments to Afghanistan, East Timor and the Solomon Islands. A modest Joint Force Amphibious Capability is planned to be operational in 2015.[27]

In 2016 the Ministry of Defense announced that $493 NZD million has been approved to replace Endeavour with a "maritime sustainment capability ship" built by the same yard as her predecessor, Hyundai Heavy Industries.[28] The replacement, to be named HMNZS Aotearoa, will displace 24,000 tonnes and will be ice-strengthened.[29]

In August 2018, it was announced that a new hydrographic and diving support vessel has been procured to replace the decommissioned HMNZS Resolution and HMNZS Manawanui. This vessel, the Norwegian built MV Edda Fonn, was purchased second-hand as a means of ensuring a faster entry into service than a new-build ship. Edda Fonn was operating under lease in the North Sea when procured, and is currently undergoing conversion for its new role in the RNZN. The converted ship will be named HMNZS Manawanui, and is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2019.[30]

Role

Defence

In its Statement of Intent, the NZDF states its primary mission as:

"to secure New Zealand from external threat, to protect our sovereign interests, including in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and to be able to take action to meet likely contingencies in our strategic area of interest."[31]

The intermediate outcomes of the NZDF are listed as:

  1. Secure New Zealand, including its people, land, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone, natural resources and critical infrastructure.
  2. Reduced risks to New Zealand from regional and global insecurity.
  3. New Zealand values and interests advanced through participation in regional and international security systems.
  4. New Zealand is able to meet future national security challenges.[32]

The role of the navy is to fulfil the maritime elements of the missions of the NZDF.

International participation

The RNZN has a role to help prevent any unrest occurring in New Zealand. This can be done by having a presence in overseas waters and assisting redevelopment in troubled countries. For example, any unrest in the Pacific Islands has the potential to affect New Zealand because of the large Pacific Island population. The stability of the South Pacific is considered in the interest of New Zealand. The navy has participated in peace-keeping and peace-making in East Timor, Bougainville and the Solomon Islands, supporting land based operations.

Civilian roles

The 2002 Maritime Forces Review identified a number of roles that other government agencies required the RNZN to undertake. Approximately 1,400 days at sea are required to fulfil these roles annually.

Roles include patrolling the Exclusive Economic Zone, transport to offshore islands, and support for the New Zealand Customs Service.

The RNZN formerly produced hydrographic information for Land Information New Zealand under a commercial contract arrangement, however with the decommissioning of the dedidcated Hydrographic survey ship HMNZS Resolution this has lapsed and the Navy now focuses on military hydrography.

Current deployments

Since 2001, both Anzac-class frigates have participated in the United States' Operation Enduring Freedom in the Persian Gulf and have conducted maritime patrol operations in support of American and allied efforts in Afghanistan.

On 21 June 2006 Te Mana was in South East Asia, and Te Kaha was in New Zealand waters, to be deployed to South East Asia in the second half of 2006.

Personnel

US Navy 040506-N-7586B-314 Sailors assigned to boarding team from the New Zealand frigate HMNZS Te Mana (F 111) man a Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat (RHIB) to conduct a search of fishing dhows in the area
A boarding team from HMNZS Te Mana during the ship's deployment to the Gulf of Oman in 2004

On 30 June 2014 the RNZN consisted of 2,050 Regular Force personnel, 392 Naval Reserve personnel.[33]

Reserves

Fleet Reserve

All regular force personnel on discharge from the RNZN are liable for service in the Royal New Zealand Navy Fleet Reserve. The Fleet reserve has an active and inactive list. RNZNVR personnel can choose to serve four years in the fleet reserve on discharge.

The RNZN has not published Fleet Reserve numbers since the early 1990s.

Volunteer Reserve

The primary reserve component of the RNZN is the Royal New Zealand Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNZNVR), which is organised into four units based in Auckland (with a satellite unit at Tauranga), Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin:

  • HMNZS Ngapona: Naval Reserve, Auckland[34]
  • HMNZS Olphert: Naval Reserve, Wellington[35]
  • HMNZS Pegasus: Naval Reserve, Christchurch[36]
  • HMNZS Toroa: Naval Reserve, Dunedin[37]

At present civilians can join the RNZNVR in one of three branches: Administration, Sea Service (for service on IPVs), and Maritime Trade Organisation (formerly Naval Control of Shipping). In addition ex regular force personnel can now join the RNZNVR in their former branch, and depending on time out of the service, rank. The requirement to attend compulsory training one night a week has recently been removed.

Training

Naval Ratings begin an 18-week basic training course (Basic Common Training) prior to commencing their branch training (Basic Branch Training) which focuses on their chosen trade.

Naval Officers complete 22 weeks of training in three phases before commencing specialist training.

Finance

Routine funding

The RNZN is funded through a "vote" of the Parliament of New Zealand. The New Zealand Defence Force funds personnel, operating and finance costs. Funding is then allocated to specific "Output Classes", which are aligned to policy objectives.

Funding allocation in each Output Class includes consumables, personnel, depreciation and a 'Capital Charge'. The Capital Charge is a budgetary mechanism to reflect the cost of Crown capital and was set at 7.5% for the 2009/2010 year.[38]

Large projects

The Ministry of Defence is responsible for the acquisition of significant items of military equipment needed to meet New Zealand Defence Force capability requirements. Funding for the Ministry of Defence is appropriated separately.

Onshore establishments

The Navy Museum

The Navy Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy is located at 64 King Edward Parade, Devonport, Auckland, New Zealand [39][40] and contains important collections of naval artefacts, and extensive records.

Naval Communications Facility Irirangi

HMNZS Irirangi was a Naval Communication Station at Waiouru from 1943 to 1993.

Uniforms and insignia

Uniforms of the RNZN are very similar to those of the British Royal Navy and other Commonwealth of Nations navies. However, RNZN personnel wear the nationality marker "NEW ZEALAND" on a curved shoulder flash on the service uniform and embroidered on shoulder slip-ons. Also, the RNZN uses the rank of Ensign as its lowest commissioned rank.

Rank structure and insignia

Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
New Zealand New Zealand
(Edit)
Admiral of the Fleet

Admiral of the fleet
No equivalent Vice Admiral

Vice admiral
Rear Admiral

Rear admiral
Commodore

Commodore
Captain

Captain
Commander

Commander
Lieutenant Commander

Lieutenant commander
Lieutenant

Lieutenant
Sub Lieutenant

Sub lieutenant
Ensign

Ensign
None.svg
Admiral of the fleet Vice admiral Rear admiral Commodore Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Sub lieutenant Ensign Midshipman
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
New Zealand New Zealand
(Edit)
Warrant officer No equivalent Chief petty officer Petty officer No equivalent Leading hand No equivalent Able rate Ordinary rate
Warrant officer Chief petty officer Petty officer Leading hand Able rate Ordinary rate

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Much of this discussion is taken from "RNZN History". RNZN Official Website. Accessed 15 April 2006.
  2. ^ McGibbon, Ian (2000). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558376-0, pp.45–46
  3. ^ Hensley 2009, p. 20.
  4. ^ The Royal New Zealand Navy, Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War, Chapter 2: Outbreak of War: Cruise of HMS Achilles, Historical Publications Branch, Wellington, 1956.
  5. ^ McGibbon 1981, p. 374.
  6. ^ Frame, Tom; Baker, Kevin (2000). Mutiny! Naval Insurrections in Australia and New Zealand. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen & Unwin. p. 185. ISBN 1-86508-351-8. OCLC 46882022.
  7. ^ Korean ScholarshipsNavy Today, Defence Public Relations Unit, Issue 133, 8 June, Page 14-15
  8. ^ Coalition Air Warfare in the Korean War, 1950–1953: Proceedings, Air Force Historical Foundation Symposium, Andrews AFB, Maryland, 7–8 May 2002, 142 onwards
  9. ^ Defence Force Mission In Afghanistan Updated: 24 April 2013.
  10. ^ J O'C Ross, 'The White Ensign in New Zealand,' AH & AW Reed, 1967, p. 115
  11. ^ East – New Chief Of Naval Staff Announced Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Executive.govt.nz. Retrieved on 22 November 2011.
  12. ^ "McKENZIE, Rear Admiral John". National Museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  13. ^ EX RNZN Navy Club – HMNZS Canterbury 1981/82 Commission Archived 4 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "RNZN – HMNZS Resolution". RNZN Official Website.
  15. ^ New Zealand Defence Force – "BON VOYAGE WELLINGTON" – LAST VISIT FROM HMNZS RESOLUTION
  16. ^ a b c d "Meet The Fleet". Royal New Zealand Navy. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  17. ^ "RNZN – Te Kaha". RNZN Official Website. Accessed 15 June 2014.
  18. ^ "RNZN – Te Mana" Archived 19 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. RNZN Official Website. Accessed 15 June 2014.
  19. ^ "RNZN – Endeavour". RNZN Official Website. Accessed 15 June 2014.
  20. ^ a b "Littoral Warfare Force". Royal New Zealand Navy. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Littoral Warfare Support Force". Royal New Zealand Navy. Archived from the original on 27 March 2016.
  22. ^ Leslie, LT CDR Trevor (March 2015). "Dive Team Bomb Disposal – doctrine explained and new equipment described" (PDF). Navy Today – official magazine of the Royal New Zealand Navy. No. 187. p. 26. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  23. ^ a b "Diver". Defence Careers. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  24. ^ "Navy Dive School". Royal New Zealand Navy. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013.
  25. ^ a b Naval Aviation. RNZAF Official Website. Accessed 15 June 2014.
  26. ^ Defence White Paper 2010 Ministry of Defense, New Zealand Government. ISBN 978-0-478-27831-6.
  27. ^ Lee-Frampton, Nick (23 September 2013). "Annual Report Shows Light at End of the Tunnel for NZDF". www.defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  28. ^ New naval tanker to have enhanced capabilities Official website of the New Zealand Government, 18 July 2016.
  29. ^ 'Aotearoa' The Name Chosen for Navy’s Largest Ship, Royal New Zealand Navy website, 10 April 2017.
  30. ^ "New Zealand Navy getting Norwegian OSV for dive and hydrographic ops". Naval Today. 22 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  31. ^ "NZDF Statement of Intent". NZDF Official Website. Accessed 28 April 2006.
  32. ^ "NZDF Outcomes and Objectives". NZDF Official Website. Accessed 28 April 2006.
  33. ^ [1]. NZDF. Retrieved on 24 November 2015.
  34. ^ HMNZS Ngapona. navy.mil.nz
  35. ^ HMNZS Olphert. navy.mil.nz
  36. ^ HMNZS Pegasus. navy.mil.nz
  37. ^ HMNZS Toroa. navy.mil.nz
  38. ^ Capital Charge – Treasury Guidance — The Treasury – New Zealand. Treasury.govt.nz (16 December 2009). Retrieved on 2011-11-22.
  39. ^ "Navy Museum". Visit Us. Royal New Zealand Navy. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
  40. ^ "Map: Naval Museum at Torpedo Bay". Google Maps. Retrieved 19 January 2012.

Further reading

  • McGibbon, Ian C. (1981). Blue-water Rationale: The naval defence of New Zealand, 1914–1942. Wellington: Government Printer. ISBN 0-477-01072-5.
  • Rear-Admiral Jack Welch, "New Zealand's navy seeks 'credible minimum'", International Defence Review 9/1995, Vol. 28, No. 9, pages 75–77.

External links

Chief of Navy (New Zealand)

Chief of Navy (CN) commands the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) and is responsible to the Chief of Defence Force (CDF) for raising, training and sustaining those forces necessary to meet agreed government outputs. The CN acts as principal advisor to the CDF on Navy matters, and is the most senior appointment in the RNZN. The rank associated with the position is rear admiral, and CNs are generally appointed on a three-year term.The position was originally created as Chief of Naval Staff and First Naval Member upon the formation of the RNZN on 1 October 1941. The title changed to Chief of Naval Staff in 1970, and CN in 2003. Rear Admiral John Martin, the incumbent CN, assumed the post on 30 November 2015.

Coastal Forces of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Coastal Forces was a division of the Royal Navy established during World War II. It consisted of small coastal defence craft such as motor launches, submarine chasers, air-sea rescue launches, motor gun boats and motor torpedo boats. It did not include minesweepers, naval trawlers or landing craft. This article is about the equivalent boats used in the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN).

From 1921 until 1941 the New Zealand Navy was a Division of the Royal Navy. The RNZN was not created until 1 October 1941. Within six months of its creation the RNZN commissioned twelve Class B Fairmiles and sixteen Harbour Defence Motor Launches (HDMLs)

Devonport Naval Base

Devonport Naval Base is the home of the Royal New Zealand Navy, located at Devonport, New Zealand on Auckland's North Shore. It is currently the only base of the navy that operates ships, and has been in use as a navy base since 1841. The base consists of HMNZS Philomel (the administration centre for the base), the Fleet Support Organisation, and the Fleet Personnel and Training Organisation.

HMAS Inverell

HMAS Inverell, named for the town of Inverell, New South Wales, was one of 60 Bathurst-class corvettes constructed during World War II, and one of 36 initially manned and commissioned solely by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).After World War II, the corvette was transferred to the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN), where she served from 1952 to 1976.

HMNZS Achilles (70)

HMNZS Achilles was a Leander-class light cruiser which served with the Royal New Zealand Navy in the Second World War, the second of five in the class. Originally constructed by the Royal Navy, she was loaned to New Zealand in 1936 before formally joining the new Royal New Zealand Navy in 1941. She became famous for her part in the Battle of the River Plate, alongside HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter and notable for being the first Royal Navy cruiser to have fire control radar, with the installation of the New Zealand-made SS1 fire-control radar in June 1940.After Second World War service in the Atlantic and Pacific, she was returned to the Royal Navy. She was sold to the Indian Navy in 1948 and recommissioned as INS Delhi. She was scrapped in 1978.

HMNZS Arabis (K385)

HMNZS Arabis was a modified Flower-class corvette of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN). Built for the Royal Navy as HMS Arabis, she was transferred to the RNZN on completion. She was commissioned in 1944 and decommissioned in 1948.

After a refit, Arabis sailed for the Solomons, arriving at Renard Sound on 14 December 1944 where her captain took over as senior officer, 25th Minesweeper Flotilla, from Matai. She returned to Auckland on 20 June 1945. Two voyages to Nouméa followed in July 1945 to escort with Tui the twelve RNZN Fairmiles back home to Auckland.

HMNZS Arbutus (K403)

HMNZS Arbutus was a modified Flower-class corvette of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN). Built for the Royal Navy as HMS Arbutus, the corvette was transferred to the RNZN on completion in 1944, and operated during the final years of World War II. In April 1947, Arbutus was one of the units involved in a mutiny over poor pay and working conditions. She was decommissioned in 1948 and broken up for scrap in 1951.

HMNZS Leander

HMNZS Leander was a light cruiser which served with the Royal New Zealand Navy during World War II. She was the lead ship of a class of eight ships, the Leander-class light cruiser and was initially named HMS Leander.

HMNZS Moa (T233)

HMNZS Moa (T233) was a Bird class minesweeper of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) that served during World War II.

HMNZS Wellington (F69)

HMNZS Wellington was a Leander class frigate of the Royal Navy and the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN). Originally commissioned in 1969 for the Royal Navy as HMS Bacchante, she joined the RNZN in 1982. She was decommissioned in 1999 and sunk in 2005.

History of the Royal New Zealand Navy

The history of the Royal New Zealand Navy leads back to early New Zealand-based gunboats used in controlling the British interests in the new colony, as well as to the strong linkages to the British Navy itself.

List of active Royal New Zealand Navy ships

This is a list of current Royal New Zealand Navy ships. The affiliations (and home ports) are ceremonial only, with the navy operationally stationed at the Devonport Naval Base, Auckland. The Navy operates 9 commissioned ships and a number of non commissioned vessels.

List of ships of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Sortable list of commissioned vessels of the Royal New Zealand Navy from its formation on 1 October 1941 to the present. It does not include vessels of the New Zealand Division (1921–1941) or New Zealand Naval Forces (1913–21) or earlier vessels up to 1913.

Minesweepers of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Commissioned minesweepers and danlayers of the Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) from its formation on 1 October 1941 to the present. The RNZN was created two years into World War II. For coherence this article covers the war years from the start, and thus includes also the New Zealand minesweepers operating from the beginning of the war.

New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy

The New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy also known as the New Zealand Station was formed in 1921 and remained in existence until 1941. It was the precursor to the Royal New Zealand Navy. Originally, the British Royal Navy was solely responsible for the naval security of New Zealand. The passing of the Naval Defence Act 1913 created the New Zealand Naval Forces as a separate division within the Royal Navy.

Patrol boats of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Commissioned patrol boats of the Royal New Zealand Navy after World War II to the present.

Philip Connolly

Philip George Connolly (14 November 1899 – 13 February 1970) was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party.

Torpedo Bay Navy Museum

The Torpedo Bay Navy Museum is the official museum of the Royal New Zealand Navy. It opened in 2010, to replace an earlier naval museum. The museum is in Devonport, Auckland.

New Zealand public service departments

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