Royal Highness

Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness, both abbreviated HRH) and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

Origin

By the 17th century, all local rulers in Italy adopted the style Highness, that was once used by kings and emperors only. According to Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie, the style of Royal Highness was created on the insistence of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, Cardinal-Infante of Spain, a younger son of King Philip III of Spain. The Archduke was travelling through Italy on his way to the Low Countries and, upon meeting Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, refused to address him as Highness unless the Duke addressed him as Royal Highness. Thus, the first use of the style Royal Highness was recorded in 1633. Gaston, Duke of Orléans, younger son of King Henry IV of France, encountered the style in Brussels and assumed it himself. His children later used the style, considering it their prerogative as grandchildren of France.[1]

By the 18th century, Royal Highness had become the prevalent style for members of a continental reigning dynasty whose head bore the hereditary title of king or queen. The titles of family members of non-hereditary rulers (e.g., the Holy Roman Emperor, King of Poland, Princes of Moldavia and Wallachia—and even the kin of the Princes of Orange who held hereditary leadership though not monarchical position in much of the Netherlands, etc.) were less clear, varying until rendered moot in the 19th century. After dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, several of Germany's prince-electors and other now sovereign rulers assumed the title of grand duke and with it, for themselves, their eldest sons and consorts, the style of Royal Highness (Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg, Saxe-Weimar).

African usage

The vast majority of African royalty that make use of titles such as prince, chief and sheikh, eschew the attendant styles that one would ordinarily be accustomed to seeing or hearing in accompaniment. Even in the cases of the aforesaid titles, they usually only exist as courtesies and may or may not have been recognised by a reigning fons honorum. However, some traditional leaders and their family members use royal styles when acting in their official roles as representatives of sovereign or constituent states, distinguishing their status from others who may use or claim traditional titles.

For example, the Nigerian traditional rulers of the Yoruba are usually styled using the HRH The X of Y method, even though they are confusingly known as kings in English and not the princes that the HRH style usually suggests. The chiefly appellation Kabiyesi (lit. He (or She) whose words are beyond question) is likewise used as the equivalent of the HRH and other such styles by this class of royalty when rendering their full titles in the Yoruba language.

Furthermore, the wives of the king of the Zulu peoples, although all entitled to the title of queen, do not share their husband's style of Majesty but instead are each addressed as Royal Highness, with the possible exception of the great wife.

Holy Roman Empire

The title of Archduke or Archduchess of Austria was known to be complemented with the style of Royal Highness to all non-reigning of the members of the House of Habsburg and later the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. Even though the Habsburgs held the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire, it was nominally an elective office that could not be hereditarily transmitted, so the non-reigning family members took their style from them being members of the hereditary Royal family of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia, etc. This changed when Francis I of Austria dissolved the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, as the Archduchy of Austria was elevated to an Empire in 1804, the members of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine abandoned the style of Royal Highness in favour of the style of Imperial and Royal Highness to reflect the creation of the Empire of Austria. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Former Empress Marie Louise of France was restored to her Imperial and Royal Style and granted the title of Duchess of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, as well as being restored to her premarital title of Archduchess and Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.

Kingdom of the Netherlands

The title of "Prince/Princess of the Netherlands" with the accompanying style of H.R.H. is or may be granted by law to the following classes of persons:[2]

  • A former monarch upon abdication.
  • The heir apparent to the throne.
  • The husband of the monarch.
  • The spouse of the heir apparent.
  • The legitimate children of the monarch and the wife of any legitimate son of the monarch.
  • The legitimate children of the heir apparent.

A separate title of "Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau" may be granted by law to members of the Dutch royal house [2] or, as a personal and non-hereditary title to former members of the royal house within three months of loss of membership. A Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau who is not also a Prince/Princess of the Netherlands is addressed as "His/Her Highness" without the predicate "royal". That is the case for example of the children of Princess Margriet, younger daughter of the late Queen Juliana.[3]

Finally, members of the royal house or former members of the royal house within 3 months of loss of their membership may be also inducted by royal decree into the Dutch nobility [4] with a rank lower than prince/princess and, generally, the accompanying style of "His/Her Highborn Lord/Lady". That is the case for example of the children of the younger brother of King Willem-Alexander, Prince Constantijn, who were given the titles of "Count/Countess of Orange-Nassau" and the honorific predicate of "Jonkheer/Jonkvrouw van Amsberg", both hereditary in the male line.[3]

United Kingdom

In the British monarchy the style of Royal Highness is associated with the rank of prince or princess (although this has not always applied, the notable exception being Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who was given the style in 1947 but was not formally created a British prince until 1957). This is especially important when a prince has another title such as Duke (or a princess the title of Duchess) by which he or she would usually be addressed. For instance HRH The Duke of Connaught was a prince and a member of the royal family while His Grace The Duke of Devonshire and His Grace The Duke of Abercorn are non-royal dukes and are not members of the British Royal Family, but instead are members of the British peerage.

According to letters patent issued by King George V in 1917 the sons and daughters of sovereigns and the male-line grandchildren of sovereigns are entitled to the style. It is for this reason that the daughters of the Duke of York, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie carry the HRH status, but the children of the Princess Royal, Peter Phillips and Zara Tindall do not. The children of the Earl of Wessex, at the request of the Earl and Countess of Wessex, are styled as those of an Earl, thus are Lady Louise and Lord Severn. Under his letters patent, only the oldest son of the oldest living son of the Prince of Wales was also entitled to the style but not younger sons or daughters of the oldest living son of the Prince of Wales. Queen Elizabeth II changed this in 2012 prior to the birth of Prince George of Cambridge so that all the children of the oldest living son of the Prince of Wales would bear the style. This returned it to the format Queen Victoria had instituted in 1898. There is no mention of younger living sons of a Prince of Wales, however, in 2018, Prince Harry was married to Meghan Markle and they were awarded Duke and Duchess of Sussex. Her title is styled as, HRH The Duchess of Sussex. If Harry were to have children while his grandmother still lives, they would simply be styled as the sons and daughters of a Duke and would not be entitled to the style Royal Highness. Once their grandfather Charles, Prince of Wales ascended to the throne, they would then, as male-line grandchildren of a sovereign, acquire the style His/Her Royal Highness.

In the United Kingdom, letters patent dated 21 August 1996 stated that the wife of a member of the royal family loses the right to the style of HRH in the event of their divorce.[5] It was for this reason that when the Prince and Princess of Wales divorced, she ceased to be Royal Highness, and was styled Diana, Princess of Wales.

Similarly, HRH The Duchess of York was restyled Sarah, Duchess of York after her divorce from HRH The Duke of York.

In December 2012, Queen Elizabeth II issued a Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm declaring "all the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style, title and attribute of royal highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour".[6] This had the effect of extending the style equally to the female-line.

Denmark

In contrast to some other European kingdoms, the kingdom of Denmark reserves the superior style of Royal Highness only to the children of the monarch and the children of the crown prince; other grandchildren of a Danish monarch enjoy the style of Highness, e.g. Princess Elisabeth of Denmark.

Norway

In Norway the style of Royal Highness is reserved for the children of the monarch and the eldest child of the heir apparent. Other children of the heir apparent are simply styled as prince or princess, e.g. Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway.

Sweden

Royal Wedding Stockholm 2010-Slottsbacken-05 edit
The Crown Princess and Prince Daniel on their wedding day

When Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden married the commoner Olof Daniel Westling in 2010 the Swedish Royal Court announced that Westling would become "Prince Daniel" and "Duke of Västergötland",[7] corresponding in form to the style used by Swedish princes of royal birth, including Victoria's younger brother Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland, i.e. Prince + Given name + Duke of [Place]. Thus Westling was made a prince of Sweden and was granted the style Royal Highness, making him an official member of the Swedish Royal Family.

Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland married the commoner British-American banker Christopher O'Neill in 2013, but she did not adopt the surname O'Neill and instead remained without a surname, retaining the style of Royal Highness. Christopher O'Neill kept his own name, unlike his brother-in-law Prince Daniel (above).[8][9] O'Neill was not granted royal status and has remained a private citizen, since he wished to retain his UK and US citizenships and his business. He declined Swedish citizenship and for that reason could not be a member of the Swedish Royal Family or Duke of Hälsingland and Gästrikland (his wife's titles).[10][11] To remain Swedish royalty and have succession rights to the Swedish throne, the couple's children will have to be raised in Sweden and as protestants.[12]

Three of the sisters of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden were granted honorary titles of Princess (without nationality) when they married commoners but lost their Royal Highness, as did two of his uncles earlier in the 20th century.

Saudi Arabia

Sons, daughters, patrilineal grandsons and granddaughters of Ibn Saud are referred to by the style "His/Her Royal Highness" (HRH), differing from those belonging to the cadet branches, who are called "His/Her Highness" (HH) and in addition to that a reigning king has the title of Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques.[13][14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Royal Styles and the uses of "Highness"". heraldica.org.
  2. ^ a b "Wet lidmaatschap koninklijk huis". overheid.nl.
  3. ^ a b "Titels". koninklijkhuis.nl. Archived from the original on 2013-08-06.
  4. ^ "Wet op de adeldom". wetten.nl.
  5. ^ "No. 54510". The London Gazette. 30 August 1996. p. 11603.
  6. ^ Will Prince Harry and Meghan's children be princes and princesses?
  7. ^ "Engagement between Crown Princess Victoria and Daniel Westling" (Press release). Royal Court of Sweden. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  8. ^ "No O'Neill name change for Princess Madeleine". The Local. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  9. ^ "No O'Neill name change for Princess Madeleine Princess Estelle skirts Swedish naming laws". The Local. 24 March 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  10. ^ Adams, Rebecca (20 May 2013). "Christopher O'Neill Declines Title Before Wedding To Princess Madeleine Of Sweden". Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  11. ^ Törnkvist, Ann (17 May 2013). "American 'prince' says no to Swedish citizenship". The Local. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  12. ^ "'New York princess' risks heirs' right to the throne". The Local. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  13. ^ Amos, Deborah (1991). "Sheikh to Chic". Mother Jones. p. 28. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  14. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160807041830/https://americanbedu.com/2010/03/23/saudi-arabia-hrh-or-hh/
British prince

Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs. It is also held by the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II. The title is granted by the reigning monarch, who is the fount of all honours, through the issuing of letters patent as an expression of the royal will.

Individuals holding the title of prince will usually also be granted the style of Royal Highness. When a British prince is married, his wife, if not already a princess in her own right, gains the title in her husband's princely title. For example, the wife of Prince Michael of Kent is known by the title of Princess Michael of Kent.

British princess

This is a list of those who have held the title Princess of the United Kingdom from the accession of George I in 1714. This article deals with both princesses of the blood royal and women who become princesses upon marriage.

The use of the title of Princess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is entirely at the will of the sovereign. Individuals holding the title of princess are styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH). Since George V's Letters Patent of 30 November 1917, the title "Princess" and the use of the style "Royal Highness" has generally been restricted to the following persons:

the legitimate daughters of a British sovereign,

the legitimate male line granddaughters of a British sovereign,

the wife of a British prince.On 31 December 2012, Elizabeth II issued letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness, as opposed to only the eldest son.

Duke of Cambridge

Duke of Cambridge, one of the six current royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom, is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British royal family. The title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) is hereditary among male agnatic descendants of the titleholder by primogeniture, and has been conferred upon members of the British royal family several times. The wife of the titleholder is usually called the Duchess of Cambridge.

The title goes back to the 17th century, and superseded an earlier title of Earl of Cambridge. The title became extinct several times, before being revived after a hiatus of over a hundred years in 2011, when it was bestowed upon Prince William on 29 April 2011 upon his marriage on the same day to Catherine Middleton.

Duli Yang Maha Mulia

Duli Yang Maha Mulia (DYMM) is the title of the state anthem of Selangor, Malaysia, adopted in 1967. The lyricist is unknown but the music was written by Saiful Bahri.

The phrase is also the royal title, equivalent to His Royal Highness, used to refer to state rulers in Malaysia. This royal title is use especially on the head of states of Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perlis, Terengganu, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Johor, and Perak.

Grace (style)

His Grace or Her Grace is an English style used for various high-ranking personages. It was the style used to address Kings of England until Henry VIII and the King or Queen of Scots up to the Act of Union of 1707, which united the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England. Today, the style is used when referring to archbishops and non-royal dukes and duchesses in the United Kingdom.

Examples of usage include His Grace The Duke of Norfolk; His Grace The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury; or "Your Grace" in spoken or written address. Royal dukes, for example The Duke of York, are addressed with their higher royal style, Royal Highness. The Duchess of Windsor was styled "Your Grace" and not Royal Highness upon marriage to Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor.

Grand Ducal Highness

His or Her Grand Ducal Highness (abbreviation: HGDH) is a style of address used by the non-reigning members of some German ruling families headed by a Grand Duke. No currently reigning family employs the style, although it was used most recently by the younger sisters of the late Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. Since Grand Duchess Charlotte's marriage to Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, all of their male-line descendants have used the style Royal Highness, which he bore.

A reigning grand duke, his heir apparent, and their spouses would use the style of Royal Highness. The male line descendants of a reigning grand duke, other than the heir, would use the style Grand Ducal Highness. This practice was followed by the ruling families of Luxembourg, Hesse and by Rhine, and Baden. Other grand ducal families had either ceased to reign as grand dukes by the time this system developed following the 1815 Congress of Vienna or accorded only the style of "Highness" to cadet (Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg, Saxe-Weimar). At present, the style is used only by the former ruling family of Baden, as the Hessian grand ducal family has become extinct.

Russian grand dukes and grand duchesses were the children or grandchildren of an Emperor of Russia and used the style Imperial Highness. The Grand Dukes of Tuscany used the style Royal Highness for themselves but it is not clear what style other members of the family would have used. By the time the system of different classes of Highness came into regular use for the relatives of rulers (in the eighteenth century), the Tuscan grand dukes were also members of the House of Austria-Hungary. As such, they had the title of Archduke and used the style Imperial and Royal Highness.

In most of Europe, the style of Grand Ducal Highness was of lower rank than Royal Highness, and Imperial Highness but higher than Highness and Serene Highness. If a woman with the rank of Royal Highness married a man with the rank Grand Ducal Highness, the woman would usually retain her pre-marital style. Also, if a woman with the rank of Grand Ducal Highness married a man with the rank of Serene Highness, she would keep her pre-marital style. However if a woman bearing the style Grand Ducal Highness married a man bearing the style of Royal Highness or Imperial Highness she would, being consistent with the established tradition of conferring styles, assume her husband's style of Imperial Highness or Royal Highness. Cadets of grand ducal families who bore only the style of Highness were not, ipso facto, deemed of lesser rank than cadets of grand ducal families entitled to the style of Grand Ducal Highness.

Her Royal Highness..?

Her Royal Highness..? was a comedy/drama play (billed as "an affectionate comedy") by Royce Ryton and Ray Cooney, who also directed.

His Royal Highness (1953 film)

His Royal Highness (German: Königliche Hoheit) is a 1953 West German comedy film directed by Harald Braun and starring Dieter Borsche, Ruth Leuwerik and Lil Dagover. It is based on the eponymous 1909 novel by Thomas Mann.

The film was made at studios in Göttingen and on location around Fulda in Hesse. It was shot using Gevacolor. The film's sets were designed by Walter Haag.

Imperial and Royal Highness

Imperial and Royal Highness (abbreviation HI&RH) is a style possessed by someone who either through birth or marriage holds two individual styles, Imperial Highness and Royal Highness. His/Her Imperial Highness is a style used by members of an imperial family to denote imperial – as opposed to royal – status to show that the holder is descended from an Emperor rather than a King. Holders of the style Imperial Highness generally rank above holders of the style Royal Highness

A primary example of the contemporary usage of this style is the Belgian Royal Family. HI&RH Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince of Belgium is a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg-Lorraine by birth, but upon his marriage to HRH Princess Astrid of Belgium, he also became a member of the Belgian Royal Family by marriage. As such, their children currently use the styles HI&RH as members of both the Royal family of Belgium and the Imperial House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Jigme Namgyel Wangchuck

Jigme Namgyel Wangchuck (born 5 February 2016) is the first child and heir apparent of King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck of Bhutan and his wife, Jetsun Pema. His name was announced on 16 April 2016. Prior to the announcement, he was known only as The Gyalsey, which means "prince". Before his birth his paternal uncle Prince Jigyel Ugyen of Bhutan was the heir presumptive to King Jigme Khesar Namgyel. In honor of his birth, 108,000 trees were planted by thousands of volunteers in Bhutan. He is expected to become the sixth Druk Gyalpo (King of Bhutan).

Kottonmouth Kings

Kottonmouth Kings is an American hip hop group from Placentia, Orange County, California. The band officially formed in 1996, describing their eclectic sound as "psychedelic hip-hop punk rock". Kottonmouth Kings are composed of Daddy X (singer of Humble Gods, X Pistols, former singer of Doggy Style), Lou Dog (drummer of Humble Gods and former drummer of Doggy Style), D-Loc, DJ Bobby B, and newest member/ vocalist, The Dirtball. The group first attracted mainstream attention with the song "Suburban Life", which appeared on the soundtrack to the film Scream 2. The groups original lineup consisted of D-Loc and Saint Dog and Johnny Richter(Johnny left before the recording of Royal Highness) but later incorporated Daddy X and the Dirtball.

Lady Louise Windsor

Lady Louise Windsor (Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor; born 8 November 2003) is the elder child and only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, and Sophie, Countess of Wessex. She is the youngest granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. When Lady Louise was born, she was eighth in the line of succession to the British throne. Following the birth of her brother and the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's children, she is twelfth in the line of succession.

Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud

Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: نايف بن عبد العزيز آل سعود‎, Nāyif ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Sa‘ūd) (1934 – 16 June 2012), was the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia as well as first deputy prime minister from 2011 to 2012. He was also minister of interior from 1975 to 2012.

Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex

Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the only surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or navy career. He was known for his liberal views, which included reform of Parliament, abolition of the slave trade, Catholic emancipation, and the removal of existing civil restrictions on Jews and dissenters.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, who is queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.

William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile, Belize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell, then underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He then trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance.

In 2011, Prince William was made Duke of Cambridge and married Catherine Middleton. The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

Princess Eugenie of York

Princess Eugenie of York ( YOO-zhə-nee; Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British royal family, and the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is ninth in line of succession to the British throne, after her elder sister, Princess Beatrice of York.

Princess of Wales

Princess of Wales (Welsh: Tywysoges Cymru) is a British courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, who is, since the 14th century, the heir apparent of the English or British monarch. The first acknowledged title holder was Eleanor de Montfort, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. It has subsequently been used by wives of post-conquest princes of Wales.

The title is currently held by Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (the former Camilla Parker Bowles), second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, since their marriage on 9 April 2005. She does not, however, use the title, because of its association with the previous holder, Diana, Princess of Wales, who died in 1997. Instead, she uses the title of Duchess of Cornwall, the feminine form of her husband's highest-ranking subsidiary title.

Royal Highness (album)

Royal Highness is the 1st full-length LP released by Orange County, CA, rappers Kottonmouth Kings. Rappers on this album are Saint Dog, D-Loc, and Daddy X.

This album include guest appearances by Daddy X's other band, Humble Gods, along with Dog Boy from the band Too Rude. The album peaked at number 17 on Billboard's Top Heatseekers chart on 15 January 2000. The song "Bump" peaked at number 28 on the Hot Modern Rock Tracks chart. In a 2015 interview with Johnny Richter he stated that he was a member of the group but was not featured on it due to a personal issue with a member of the group at the time of the album's release date.

Third Treaty of San Ildefonso

The Third Treaty of San Ildefonso was a secret agreement signed on 1 October 1800 between the Spanish Empire and the First French Republic by which Spain agreed in principle to exchange their North American colony of Louisiana for territories in Tuscany. The terms were later confirmed by the March 1801 Treaty of Aranjuez.

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See also

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