The Royal Canadian Mint (French: Monnaie royale canadienne) is a Crown corporation, operating under the Royal Canadian Mint Act. The shares of the Mint are held in trust for the Crown in right of Canada.
The Mint produces all of Canada's circulation coins, and manufactures circulation coins on behalf of other nations. The Mint also designs and manufactures: precious and base metal collector coins; gold, silver, palladium, and platinum bullion coins; medals, as well as medallions and tokens. It further offers gold and silver refinery and assay services.
The Mint serves the public's interest but is also mandated to operate "in anticipation of profit" (i.e., to function in a commercial manner without relying on taxpayer support to fund its operations). Like private-sector companies, the Mint has a board of directors consisting of a chair, the president and CEO of the Mint, and eight other directors.
Traditionally, the President of the Royal Canadian Mint is known as the Master of the Mint. The president is Jennifer Camelon, who was appointed to the position in 2018. The Board of Directors, through the Chair, is accountable to the Minister of Finance. The Minister serves as the link between the Mint, Cabinet and Parliament.
The Mint was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. from 2007 to 2010.
In April 2012, the Mint announced it was developing MintChip, a digital currency to allow anonymous transactions backed by the Government of Canada and denominated in a variety of currencies.
|Royal Canadian Mint|
Monnaie royale canadienne
|Founded||January 2, 1908|
Number of locations
|Marie Lemay (CEO)|
|Services||Precious metal storage, assay, refinery and coin production|
|Revenue||CAN$ 2,641.4 million (2016)|
|CAN$ 34.563 million (2016)|
|CAN$ 24.488 million (2016)|
|Total assets||CAN$ 444.097 million (2016)|
|Total equity||CAN$ 185.356 million (2016)|
|Owner||Government of Canada|
Number of employees
For the first fifty years of Canadian coinage (cents meant to circulate in the Province of Canada were first struck in 1858), the coins were struck at the Royal Mint in London, though some were struck at the private Heaton Mint in Birmingham, England. As Canada emerged as a nation in its own right, its need for coinage increased. As a result, a branch of the Royal Mint was authorized to be built in Ottawa in 1901 after being first proposed in 1890.
During a short ceremony, Lord Grey and his wife, Lady Grey, activated the presses for the Canadian Mint on January 2, 1908, officially opening the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint. When the facility first opened, it had 61 employees. Three years later the Mint began refining gold by electrolysis in its assay department. This method proved to be too time-consuming and in 1915 the Mint introduced a new chlorination process developed in Australia to reduce processing times and increase the Mint's gold refining capacity. Since then, the Mint's refinery has undergone several changes and expansions. Today's process is a combination of chlorination and electrolysis.
Over the years the Mint had used different processes to recover and sell the silver often found in unrefined gold, but, in 2006, the Mint opened a new, state-of-the-art silver refinery that finally allowed it to refine silver. The silver is first upgraded in an oxygen converter and then refined by electrolysis.
It wasn’t until the Great Depression that the Ottawa Mint negotiated its independence from the British Royal Mint. In 1931, the Ottawa Mint was renamed the Royal Canadian Mint and began reporting solely to the Department of Finance. Although the Mint continued to rely on the Royal Mint to produce the master tools required for the creation of its punches and dies, the Mint was finally under Canadian control. In 1969, the Government of Canada reorganized the Mint as a Crown corporation. As such, the Mint was no longer a branch of the Department of Finance. It would operate like a corporation with its own Board of Directors and increased decision-making powers.
In 1979, the Royal Canadian Mint building in Ottawa was designated a National Historic Site, on the grounds the building is representative of the federal government's approach to using the Tudor Gothic architectural style to create a distinctive identity in Canada's capital, and of the patriation of control over Canada's currency from Britain.
The Mint's facility in Ottawa is responsible for producing collector and commemorative coins, bullion in the form of coins, bars, wafers and grain, medals and medallions. This is also where the master tooling is done to create the dies that strike coin designs for both circulation and commemorative issues. The Mint's gold and silver refineries and assay labs are also in Ottawa, as is a full-time Advanced Engineering Research team dedicated to R+D projects.
The last surviving member of the Mint's original staff was Owen Toller. He started in the Mint as a Junior Clerk and retired as an Administrative Officer. He retired after 45 years of service on January 6, 1953. Mr. Toller died in November 1987 at the age of 102.
In November 1960 the Master of the Mint, N.A. Parker, advised the Minister of Finance that there was a need for a new facility. The Ottawa facility had reached capacity, the Philadelphia Mint was producing a large number of Canadian 10¢ coins and all numismatic coins were being produced in Hull, Quebec. It was finally recognized the Mint required an additional facility. In 1963 and 1964, the government discussed the possibility of building a facility that would be functional within two years. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson suggested building the facility in Elliot Lake, Ontario. A 1968 study showed the Ottawa Mint facility was antiquated. When the Royal Canadian Mint became a Crown corporation in 1969, many believed a decision would be reached. But although funds had been allocated for a new facility, no real planning had begun. Emphasis was made on finding space in Ottawa. It was decided the Royal Canadian Mint would keep the historic building and have a new facility for manufacturing circulation coins.
The federal government of the time, led by Pierre Trudeau, decided to decentralize many public services. The result was a claim for restitution from the province of Manitoba, complaining about its loss of many military bases. In February 1970, Supply and Services Minister James Richardson, the Minister responsible for the Mint, proposed the possibility of a new facility in Winnipeg.
This proposal was cause for debate because it was legally stipulated the Mint was unlike any other government operation and money should be produced in Canada's capital region. Another point of tension was that the Cabinet Minister was from Winnipeg. Plants that are over 1,000 miles apart would endure communication and distribution difficulties. A study had shown the division had merit because raw materials could be purchased from a supplier in Alberta, rather than a competitor outside of Canada. Eventually, it was agreed upon in December 1971 the Mint would build a facility in Winnipeg. The land was purchased in 1972 and construction began at the end of the year.
The new facility was completely different in appearance from the facility in Ottawa. Architect Étienne Gaboury designed a striking triangular building that rises up dramatically from the surrounding prairie. Gaboury was Design Architect, in collaboration with the Number Ten Architectural Group led by partner-in-charge Allan Hanna. The Mint facility in Winnipeg was officially opened in 1976. The Winnipeg branch of the Royal Canadian Mint allowed the Ottawa facility to concentrate solely on collector coins while Winnipeg would produce the entire supply of circulation and foreign coins.
The Winnipeg facility is also responsible for producing the circulation currency of other nations. Since opening its doors in 1976, the Mint's Winnipeg facility has produced coinage for over 70 countries: centavos for Cuba, kroner for Norway, fils for Yemen, pesos for Colombia, kroner for Iceland, baht for Thailand, and a thousand-dollar coin for Hong Kong. Other client nations include Barbados, New Zealand and Uganda.
The Royal Canadian Mint is a Crown corporation and operates under the Royal Canadian Mint Act. In serving the public's interest, a Crown corporation has greater managerial independence than other government entities, meaning it may operate in a commercial manner. Like private sector companies, the Mint has a Board of Directors composed of a chairman, the President and CEO of the Mint and eight other directors.
Traditionally, the President and CEO of the Royal Canadian Mint is known as the Master of the Mint. The president is [Marie Lemay] (appointed in 2019), and the Chairman of the Board is Phyllis Clark. In descending chronological order, the individuals who have served as the Mint's Master Engraver are: Cosme Saffioti, Sheldon Beveridge, Ago Aarand, Walter Ott, Patrick Brindley, Myron Cook, and Thomas Shingles.
The government department responsible for the Royal Canadian Mint is the Department of Finance. There are 10 members of the Mint's Board of Directors, and 12 members on its Executive Team. The Royal Canadian Mint has four lines of business: Bullion and Refinery Service, Canadian Circulation, Foreign Business, and Numismatics.
A listing of all the Masters of the Mint is as follows:
|Arthur H.W. Cleave||1919–1925|
|John Honeyford Campbell||1925–1937|
|Henry Edward Ewart||1938–1944|
|Alfred Percy Williams||1946–1947 (acting)|
|Walter Clifton Ronson||1947–1953|
|Alfred Percy Williams||1954–1959|
|Norval Alexander Parker||1959–1968|
|E.F. Brown||1968–1970 (acting)|
|Gordon Ward Hunter||1970–1975|
|D.M. Cudahy||1981–1982 (acting)|
|James C. Corkery||1982–1986|
|Emmanuel Triassi||2002–2003 (acting)|
|David C. Dingwall||2003–2005|
|Marguerite Nadeau||2005–2006 (acting)|
|Marc Brûlé||2014–2015 (acting)|
|Jennifer Camelon||2018–2019 (acting)|
A listing of the Mint's Board of Directors:
|Deborah Shannon Trudeau||2017|
|Fiona L. MacDonald, ICD.D.||2018|
|Victor L. Young||2017|
|Phyllis Clark (Chairman)||2018|
|Serge Falardeau, ASC, CPA, CA||2017|
|Sandip K. Lalli, FCPA, ICD.D||2018|
|Gilles Patry, C.M.M O.Ont||2018|
|The Honourable Carol Skelton||2015|
|N. William C. Ross||2015|
The Mint produces and markets a family of high-purity gold, silver, palladium, and platinum Maple Leaf bullion coins, wafers, and bars for the investment market as well as gold and silver granules for the jewellery industry and industrial applications. The Mint also provides Canadian and foreign customers with gold and silver processing, including refining, assaying, and secure storage.
Additionally, the Royal Canadian Mint operates a technically advanced refinery in which it refines precious metals from a variety of sources, including primary producers, industry, recyclers, and financial institutions. The Mint refines raw gold to 995 fine through the Miller chlorination process. The gold is then cast into anodes for electrolytic purification to 9999 fine using the Wohlwill process.
In May 2007, the Mint produced the world's first and only 99.999% pure gold Maple Leaf Bullion (GML) coins. Offered in limited-edition one–troy ounce gold bullion coins, three series of these special GML coins were produced (2007, 2008, 2009) in addition to the 99.99% pure GML coin, which is produced on demand. A 100 kg version of the 99.999% pure GML coin was produced as a promotional tool and was later sold as a product when interested buyers came forward.
The Mint's core mandate is to produce and manage the distribution of Canada's circulation coinage and provide advice to the Minister of Finance on all matters related to coinage.
Recently, up to two billion Canadian circulation coins are struck each year at the Mint's facility in Winnipeg. While the effigy of the reigning monarch has appeared on every Canadian coin produced by the Mint since 1908, reverse designs have changed considerably over the years. The Mint often introduces new commemorative designs which celebrate Canada's history, culture and values.
Since 2000, all of Canada's circulation coins have been produced using the Mint's patented multi-ply plated steel technology except for the $1 and $2 circulation coins, which started using this technology as of April 10, 2012.
Many foreign countries have had coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint, including circulation coins, numismatic coins, and ready-to-strike blanks. In 1970, Master of the Mint, Gordon Ward Hunter, relaunched the Foreign Circulation division. A contract for Singapore was won in January 1970, to produce six million rimmed blanks in a copper-nickel alloy. This was their first export contract since a contract for the Dominican Republic 32 years earlier. The second contract came in April 1970 with the Central Bank of Brazil. The RCM produced 84 million blanks for the 50-centavo piece. In August 1971, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen placed an order for 2 million five-fil pieces. This was followed by an order from Iceland for 2.5 million one-crown pieces.
In October 1971, the Bank of Jamaica asked the RCM to produce a commemorative ten-dollar coin in sterling silver, and a twenty-dollar gold coin of proof quality. Also in 1971, the RCM made coins for the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Iran, and the Isle of Man. An order for 100 million general circulation five-centime and ten-centimo coins for Venezuela was received as well. By 1973, orders totalled 65 million coins, and seventy million blanks. By 1974, the Ottawa facility produced a total of 1.2 billion coins (foreign and domestic), a facility record.
Part of the Winnipeg Mint's legacy is its role in producing the circulation currency of other nations. 50 million units of the 20¢ Australian coin featuring a platypus were minted in 1981. These have included centavos for Cuba, kroner for Norway, fils for Yemen, pesos for Colombia, kroner for Iceland, rupiah for Indonesia, baht for Thailand, and a thousand-dollar coin for Hong Kong. Other client nations include Barbados and Uganda.
More recently, the Mint has produced coins for a variety of other countries such as New Zealand and Papua New Guinea.
In 2005, the Mint was awarded a contract valued at US$1.2 million to produce 50 million toea coins for Papua New Guinea. The circulation coins were produced in denominations of 5 toea, 10 toea and 20 toea, and were manufactured at the Mint's facility in Winnipeg.
In 2008, the Mint produced over three million coloured 50-toea coins for Papua New Guinea. These were the world's first coloured coins to circulate outside of Canada. In addition to adding a painted design to more than three million coins, the Mint was required to identically orient the design on every coin. To accomplish this, the Mint, in collaboration with Canadian robotic equipment manufacturer PharmaCos Machinery, developed its own robotic arm to “pick and place” each coin on the painting line, creating a new technical capability unique to the Royal Canadian Mint.
The Mint has also supplied 230 million low-denomination coins to the Reserve Bank of New Zealand in 2006. The Reserve Bank chose to reduce the size of its existing 50-, 20- and 10-cent coins and manufacture them using the Mint's multi-ply plating technology.
The customers have included governments, central banks, and treasuries. In 2005 alone, the RCM manufactured 1.062 billion coins and blanks for 14 countries. From 1980 to 2005, the RCM has manufactured approximately 52 billion coins for 62 countries. These coins are manufactured at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg.
The Mint produces circulation and numismatic coins, ready-to-strike blanks, medals, medallions and tokens for customers around the world. They also offer dies, die coatings, master punches and tooling, plus roll and wrap and other coin packaging. The Mint has the capacity to produce over 2 billion circulation coins or blanks per year for foreign governments.
The mint makes collector coins and related products for collectors and enthusiasts in Canada and all over the world. Several of these coins have earned international industry awards and in 2010, the mint sold out the entire mintage of a record 25 collector coins.
Made of base and precious metals, several of the mint's numismatic coins are enhanced by special technologies including holograms, enamelling, lasering and embedded crystals. The mint also produces medals, medallions and tokens as part of this business line.
The mint produces a great number of military decorations for the Department of National Defence including: the Sacrifice Medal, the Canadian Forces Decoration and Clasp, the General Campaign Star, the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) and Bars, the General Service Medal, the Special Service Medal, the Operational Service Medal, the Memorial Cross and the Canadian Victoria Cross. It also produces military decorations for Veterans Affairs Canada, as well as long-service medals for the RCMP and artistic achievement awards for the Governor General of Canada.
The mint also produced the athletes' medals of the Montreal 1976 Olympic Games and the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. The mint produced 615 Olympic and 399 Paralympic medals at their headquarters in Ottawa for the 2010 Winter Games.
In 1979, the Mint began producing its own branded bullion coins, which feature a maple leaf on the reverse. Since 1979, the fineness of the gold used to strike the Gold Maple Leaf (GML) coins has increased from .999 to .9999, and finally, to .99999 (for a special series from 2007 to 2009). In addition, GMLs are produced in fractional sizes: 1 ounce, 1⁄2 ounce, 1⁄4 ounce, 1⁄10 ounce, 1⁄15 ounce, 1⁄20 ounce, 1⁄25 ounce, and in sets that combine some or all of these weights. Special-edition designs have commemorated the tenth anniversary of the GML (1989), the 125th anniversary of the RCMP (1997), and the 25th anniversary of the GML (1994). A three-coin set was released to commemorate the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games (2008–2010), and a fractional GML set was issued in 2011 to commemorate the centennial of the Mint's gold refinery. Renowned for its unrivalled purity, the Mint's Gold Maple Leaf remains one of the world's most popular bullion coins.
The Royal Canadian Mint's Silver Maple Leaf (SML) was first issued in 1988 and featured the same design as the Gold Maple Leaf bullion coin. These coins are available to investors in 1 oz. 1⁄2 oz., 1⁄4 oz., 1⁄10 oz., and 1⁄20 oz. sizes.
In 2004–05, the coins were sold in sets of four coins that featured two wildlife species: the Arctic fox (2004) and the Canada lynx (2005). Each coin was of a different value and depicted the animals in a separate pose. Colour and selective gold plating have also been applied to special issues of SML. Holograms have proved popular applications, having been featured on SML coins in 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2005.
In 2010, the Mint introduced a new series of silver 9999 fine one-ounce bullion coins featuring Canadian wildlife. The first coin, launched in late 2010, depicts a wolf, while the second features a grizzly bear. The third design, depicting a cougar, was released on September 24, 2011, for public sales. The fourth in the series was a moose, the fifth coin was the pronghorn antelope, and the sixth and final coin was the wood bison.
While the Silver and Gold Maple Leafs have proved endearingly popular among investors and bullion collectors, the Mint has also produced limited numbers of Platinum and Palladium Maple Leaf coins. From 2005 to 2009, Palladium Maple Leaf coins were offered in one-ounce coins of .9995 fineness.
Platinum Maple Leafs were struck in 1 oz., 1⁄2 oz., 1⁄4 oz., 1⁄10 oz., 1⁄15 oz., and 1⁄20 oz. weights, between 1988 and 1999 and again in 2009. In addition, the Platinum Maple Leafs were sold in special issue sets in 1989 to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the GML and in 2002 as a five-coin set featuring holograms. In 1999, the coins featured the polar bear design appearing on the inner ring of the $2 circulation coin.
World War II saw low mintages of most coins, as the metals (especially copper and nickel) were needed for the war effort. The composition of the 5¢ coin was changed to tombac in 1942; and the design was changed to a V for Victory in 1943. The composition was changed again to nickel-chromium-plated steel in 1944.
The concept for the V design came from Winston Churchill's famous V sign, and the V denomination mark on the US 5¢ pieces of 1883–1912. A novel feature was an inscription of Morse code on the coin. This International Code message meant "We Win When We Work Willingly" and was placed along the rim on the reverse instead of denticles. The regular reverse and composition were resumed in 1946. Chromium-plated steel was again used for the 5¢ coin from 1951 to 1953 during the Korean War, but the reverse was unchanged.
In 1967, the mint introduced a series of commemorative coins in honour of the Canadian centennial. Designed by Alex Colville, every coin produced that year featured a creature native to Canada: a rock dove on the 1¢ coin, a rabbit on the 5¢ coin, a mackerel on the 10¢ coin, a lynx on the 25¢ coin, a howling wolf on the 50¢ coin, and a Canada goose on the dollar. A commemorative gold $20 coin was also struck for collectors' sets, with a coat of arms on the reverse. It is worth noting the Royal Canadian Mint wanted to commemorate Canada's 60th anniversary in 1927 with variant coin designs.
For 1973, the usual 25¢ coin reverse depicting a caribou was replaced with a Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer astride a horse, to celebrate the centennial of the founding of the North-West Mounted Police (now the RCMP).
In 2007, the mint also released a $75 coloured gold coin featuring RCMP officers astride their horses, as part of an extensive program of collector coins celebrating the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games. This coin, designed by Cecily Mok, is composed of 58.33% gold and 41.67% silver.
The mint has also issued two bullion coins in celebration of the RCMP. The first is a 1997 one-troy-ounce gold coin, which was produced for the 125th anniversary of the RCMP. The second is a 2010 1⁄25-troy-ounce gold coin and was designed by Janet Griffin-Scott.
The major change to Canadian coinage in the 1980s was the introduction of a circulating $1 coin, widely known as the loonie because of the common loon gracing its reverse. A voyageur canoe had been planned initially, but the master reverse die was lost in shipment between Ottawa and Winnipeg, so a new design was necessary. Introduced in 1987, the coin began to replace the $1 banknote in February 1989. In 1996, the Mint introduced a $2 circulating coin (known widely as the toonie) that featured a polar bear on the reverse and replaced the $2 banknote. The $2 coin was also a first for the mint in that it used a bi-metallic structure – the coin's centre is bronze-coloured and the circumference is nickel-coloured.
In September 2010, the Mint released 3 million $1 circulation coins in celebration of the Saskatchewan Roughriders’ centennial. This coin’s reverse is engraved with the Saskatchewan Roughriders’ logo and a stylized ‘100’ framed by the dates 1910 and 2010.
In October 1971, the Bank of Jamaica asked the RCM to produce a commemorative ten-dollar coin in silver and a twenty-dollar gold coin of proof quality. Also in 1971, the RCM made coins for the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Iran, and the Isle of Man. An order for 100 million general circulation five centime and ten centimo coins for Venezuela was received as well. By 1973, orders totaled sixty five million coins, and seventy million blanks. By 1974, the Ottawa facility produced a facility record 1.2 billion coins (foreign and domestic).
Two years later, the Monetary and Foreign Exchange Authority of Macau commissioned the Royal Canadian Mint to create a commemorative coin to recognize the transfer of the Macau region to the People's Republic of China. The coin is silver and featured a gold cameo. The face value is 100 patacas and had a diameter of 37.97mm and a guaranteed weight of at least 1 troy ounce (31.1034768 grams), while most 1 oz silver R.C.M. coins weigh 31.3 grams. The Royal Canadian Mint item number is 644309 and the issue price is $102. The coin features a Portuguese ship and a Chinese barque sharing coastal waters. The historic Ma Gao Temple (Pagoda de Barra) appears in the cameo.
In 2009, the Mint produced coins and blanks for 18 countries, including the Decimo de balboa (10-cent coin) for Panama.
In 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint issued the $50 Four Seasons 5 ounce 0.9999 silver coin. This was the first 5oz pure silver coin issued by the mint, and had a limited mintage of only 2,000 coins worldwide. High-grade examples of this coin fetch $1500 to $5000 at auction. Demand for the coin has been unprecedented, and it was the lowest mintage 0.9999 silver coin ever produced by the Royal Canadian Mint until the 2009 release of "Surviving the Flood", a 1 kilo 0.9999 silver coin which has a worldwide mintage of only 1500.
On October 19, 2007, the Royal Canadian Mint issued ten new collector coins, including a 25¢ coin minted to commemorate the 60th wedding anniversary of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; and a $15 sterling silver coin bearing the effigy of Victoria, the first from the series of five coins illustrating the effigies of the previous Canadian monarchs.
From 1954 to 2006, the Mint supplied the Toronto Transit Commission with 24 million tokens. These tokens were taken out of service in 2007 for official use. The lightweight token was replaced due to the ease in duplicating counterfeit versions. Current TTC tokens are manufactured in the United States by Osborne Coinage.
In October 2009, the Mint produced trade dollars for Canadian Tire which temporarily replaced their regular $1 coupons. The initiative called for the production of 2.5 million nickel-plated steel tokens, as well as 9,000 brass-plated steel tokens. As part of the limited-time offer, the trade dollars were distributed in 475 stores nationwide.
In 2000, the mint patented an improved, money-saving production method called multi-ply plating technology. Since that year, the mint has used this technique to produce 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, and 50¢ pieces of Canadian circulation coinage, all of which were minted from nearly pure nickel alloys. Similarly, a copper-plated steel blank was used to produce the 1¢ coin until production ceased in 2012. Also in 2012, multi-ply plating was introduced for the $1 and $2 coins.
This particular plating process uses a steel core that is electro-magnetically plated with a thin layer of nickel, then a layer of copper and finally another layer of nickel. As a smaller quantity of copper and nickel is required, this process has reduced circulation coin production costs. The composition of plated coins is more durable, thereby reducing the number of damaged coins in circulation and increasing their overall efficiency. By varying the thicknesses of the alternating layers of nickel and copper, the Mint can create coins with unique electromagnetic signatures, preventing fraud and producing the most secure circulation coins on the market.
In 2004, the Royal Canadian Mint made numismatic history by issuing the world's first coloured circulation coin. The 25¢ coins were produced at the Mint's facility in Winnipeg and feature a red-coloured poppy embedded in the centre of a maple leaf over a banner that reads: “Remember / Souvenir.” The obverse features the portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II by Susanna Blunt. The process of adhering colour to the coins surfaces involved the utilization of a high-speed, computer-controlled and precision inkjet process. Approximately 30,000,000 coins went into circulation in October 2004 and were available exclusively at Tim Hortons locations across the country. U.S. Army contractors travelling in Canada filed confidential espionage reports describing the coins as "anomalous" and "filled with something man-made that looked like nano-technology,".
In 2006, the Mint produced a second colourized circulation coin in support of a future without breast cancer. The 25¢ coin features the iconic pink ribbon symbolizing breast cancer awareness.
More recently, the Mint produced two other 25¢ poppy circulation coins in 2008 and 2010, both of which feature colourized designs.
In 2008, the Mint also produced 50-toea colourized coins for Papua New Guinea. These coins are particularly unique because they were manufactured using a robotic mechanism that oriented the coins in a way that ensures all the colourized designs faced the same direction.
This new technology was also used to produce the “Top Three Moments” coins. These 25¢ coins were part of the Mint's Vancouver 2010 circulation coin program and featured designs celebrating the top three favourite moments in Canadian Winter Games history. The men's hockey gold medal at Salt Lake City in 2002 was voted by fans as the No. 1 Canadian Olympic Winter Games Moment of all time – out of 10 moments — in an online contest hosted in 2009 by the Mint and Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium. Coming in at No. 2 was the Canadian women's hockey gold medal at Salt Lake City 2002, followed by Cindy Klassen at No. 3 and her five long-track speed skating medals at Turin 2006. The coins marking these top three favourite moments were launched into circulation on September 29, 2009, November 17, 2009 and January 5, 2010 respectively.
The Mint succeeded in extending the life of the die beyond that of past chrome-coated dies, with the adaptation of the physical vapour deposition (PVD) technology to coat its dies.
In 2006, the Mint entered a partnership with the Vancouver Olympic Committee and became an Official Supporter of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Games. As such, the Mint embarked upon an extensive three-year program of circulation and collector coins in honour of both the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games.
Their Vancouver 2010 coin program included the largest circulation coin series in relation to the Olympic and Paralympic Games ever conceived by any mint worldwide. It included the production of 17 circulation coins, 15 of which were of the 25¢ denomination and two of which were $1 ‘Lucky Loonies.’ The Mint was the first Mint in the world to commemorate the Paralympic Games on a circulation coin. These commemorative 25¢ coins were distributed across the country through participating Petro-Canada and Royal Bank of Canada locations.
Regarding the circulation coins, one of the novelties is that D.G. Regina (dei gratia regina, or "by the grace of God queen") will be removed from the Queen's effigy, making the 25¢ coins the first "godless circulating coins" since the 2001 International Year of the Volunteer 10¢ piece. On the 1911 issue of King George V, the inscription was accidentally left off. The first circulating $1 coin will be dated 2008 but the obverse will be the standard effigy of Queen Elizabeth II by Susanna Blunt with the wording "ELIZABETH II" and "D.G. REGINA" with the Circle M privy mark.
In addition to its circulation coin program, the Mint introduced a series of 36 collector coins ranging from multi-coloured sterling silver Lucky Loonies to premium gold coins. Most notably, two $2500 Kilo Gold Coins were produced as part of this program, marking the first time the Mint has issued a pure gold coin with a guaranteed weight of one kilogram.
The program also included the production of two Sterling silver Lucky Loonies in 2008 and 2010, with mintages of 30,000 and 40,000 respectively.
The Mint also produced the athlete medals for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. The Vancouver 2010 gold medals are each made of sterling silver plated with six grams of 24KT gold. The silver medals are sterling silver while the bronze medals are composed mostly of copper. Their composition is governed by International Olympic Committee regulations.
Each medal features a piece of one of two contemporary Aboriginal artworks and weighing 500 to 576 grams each. The design appearing on each of the Vancouver 2010 medals is based on two large master artworks of an orca whale (Olympic) and raven (Paralympic) by Corrine Hunt, a Canadian artist of Komoyue and Tlingit heritage based in Vancouver, BC. Each medal features a unique, hand-cropped section of her artwork. The Vancouver 2010 medals are also undulating rather than flat. They had to be struck nine times each in order to achieve this unusual shape.
The medals were on display throughout the 2010 Winter Games at the Royal Canadian Mint Pavilion in Vancouver. There, visitors waited in line to see and hold the medals, sometimes for over seven hours. During the Olympics, the Mint Pavilion at the Segal Centre entertained 140,639 visitors, while the medal display at the Vancouver Public Library during the Paralympics saw 30,000 visitors. With so much interest generated by their Vancouver 2010 program, the Mint opened an additional retail outlet in Vancouver. This store is at 752 Granville Street, between Georgia and Robson streets.
Revenue by segment 2004
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||183.9|
Revenue by segment 2005
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||224.4|
Revenue by segment 2006
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||280.7|
Revenue by segment 2007
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||286.3|
Revenue by segment 2008
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||1,039.6|
Revenue by segment 2009
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||1,700.0|
Revenue by segment 2010
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||1,965.4|
Revenue by segment 2011
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||2,895.7|
Revenue by segment 2012
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||2,255.4|
Revenue by segment 2013
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||2,996.5|
Revenue by segment 2014
|Business Line||Revenue (in millions)|
|Bullion and Refinery||2.1 (billion)|
Royal Canadian Mint Protective Services employs full-time and casual security officers who are responsible for the security and inspection of RCM facilities. They wear a distinctive black uniform with body armour and carry a 9 mm Glock Model 17 while on duty. These officers are required to re-qualify their CPR and firearm annually. Their duties include:
Recent issues concerning Royal Canadian Mint assets include:
“Most Innovative Coin of the Year” at the World Mint Directors Conference in 2006, for their 2004 themed, coloured 25-cent Poppy coin.
The dollar was the currency of British Columbia between 1865 and 1871. It replaced the British pound at a rate of 1 pound = 4.866 dollars and was equivalent to the Canadian dollar, which replaced it. The dollar was subdivided into 100 cents. No distinct coins were issued, with Canadian coins circulating.
The dollar was adopted as the currency of the then separated Colony of Vancouver Island in 1863. It therefore became the currency of the united colony formed in 1866.Canadian Silver Maple Leaf
The Canadian Silver Maple Leaf is a silver bullion coin that is issued annually by the Government of Canada. It is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint.
The Silver Maple Leaf is legal tender. The face value is 5 Canadian dollars. The market value of the metal varies, depending on the spot price of silver. The 99.99% silver content makes the coin among the finest official bullion coins worldwide. The standard version has a weight of 1 troy ounce (31.10 grammes).The Silver Maple Leaf's obverse and reverse display, respectively, the profile of Elizabeth II and the Canadian Maple Leaf. In 2014, new security features were introduced: radial lines and a micro-engraved laser mark.David Dingwall
David Charles Dingwall, (born June 29, 1952) is a Canadian administrator, former Canadian Cabinet minister and civil servant. He is the president of Cape Breton University.Dime (Canadian coin)
In Canada, a dime is a coin worth ten cents. It has been the physically smallest Canadian coin since 1922, smaller even than the penny despite its higher face value. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the 10-cent piece, but in practice, the term dime predominates in English-speaking Canada. It is nearly identical in size to the American dime, but unlike its counterpart, the Canadian dime is magnetic due to a distinct metal composition: from 1968 to 1999 it was composed entirely of nickel, and since 2000 it has had a high steel content.
Currently the dime has, as with all Canadian coins, a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse. The reverse contains a representation of the Bluenose, a famous Canadian schooner. The artist, Emanuel Hahn, used three ships including the Bluenose as his models, so the ship design is actually a composite. The coin is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg.
The word dime comes from the French word dîme, meaning "tithe" or "tenth part", from the Latin decima [pars].List of Royal Canadian Mint RCMP coins
Originally dispatched in the 19th Century to patrol the Western frontier, the scarlet-clad Mountie on horseback is a well-known image of Canada. Today, the cavalry drills the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) practised over a century ago are performed in front of audiences. The Musical Ride is part of Canada's national identity. The images of the RCMP have been featured on various Canadian coins.
The first coins that featured the image of the RCMP were the twenty-five cent and one dollar coins of 1973. Police Constable Paul Cedarberg designed both coins. The twenty-five cent coin is unique in that there are two varieties of the coin. A new obverse with a smaller, more detailed portrait and fewer rim denticles placed farther from the rim was planned for use with the RCMP commemorative reverse. A small quantity of coins was struck with the 1972 obverse, thus creating two varieties for the year. The quantity of the large bust has never been confirmed but most publications on Canadian coins estimate that there are approximately 10,000 of these coins. The 1999 Millennium series of 25-cent pieces included the bust of a Mountie on each of the January and July issues.Unlike the twenty-five cent coin, the Silver Dollar had the same obverse. The only difference with these coins were the cases. One case was black leatherette, with a coat of arms and an insert that was coloured maroon and black. A second case was created and it was blue leatherette with a gilt RCMP crest, with a maroon and black insert.List of foreign countries with coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint
Since its opening in 1908, the Royal Canadian Mint has produced coinage and planchets for over 73 countries. This list of foreign countries with coinage struck at the Royal Canadian Mint lists countries that have been serviced by the Crown corporation, as listed on the website of the Canadian Numismatic Publishing Institute.Loonie
The loonie (French: huard), formally the Canadian one-dollar coin, is a gold-coloured coin that was introduced in 1987 and is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg. The most prevalent versions of the coin show a common loon, a bird found throughout Canada, on the reverse and Queen Elizabeth II, the nation's head of state, on the obverse. Various commemorative and specimen-set editions of the coin with special designs replacing the loon on the reverse have been minted over the years.
The coin's outline is an 11-sided curve of constant width. Its diameter of 26.5 mm and its 11-sidedness matched that of the already-circulating Susan B. Anthony dollar in the United States, and its thickness of 1.95 mm was a close match to the latter's 2.0 mm. Its gold colour differed from the silver-coloured Anthony dollar; however, the succeeding Sacagawea and Presidential dollars matched the loonie's overall hue. Other coins using a curve of constant width include the 7-sided British twenty pence and fifty pence coins (the latter of which has similar size and value to the loonie, but is silver in colour).
After its introduction, the coin became the symbol of the Canadian dollar: media often discuss the rate at which the loonie is trading against other currencies. The nickname loonie became so widely recognized that in 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint secured the rights to it. When the Canadian two-dollar coin was introduced in 1996, it was in turn nicknamed the "toonie" (a portmanteau of "two" and "loonie").New Brunswick dollar
The dollar was the currency of New Brunswick between 1860 and 1867. It replaced the pound at a rate of 4 dollars = 1 pound (5 shillings = 1 dollar) and was equal to the Canadian dollar. The New Brunswick dollar was replaced by the Canadian dollar at par when New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation.New France livre
The livre was the currency of New France, the French colony in modern-day Canada. It was subdivided into 20 sols, each of 12 deniers. The New France livre was a French colonial currency, distinguished by the use of paper money.Nova Scotian dollar
The dollar was the currency of Nova Scotia between 1860 and 1871. It replaced the Nova Scotian pound at a rate of 5 dollars = 1 pound (1 dollar = 4 shillings) and was consequently worth less than the Canadian dollar (worth 4s 1.3d). The Nova Scotian dollar was replaced by the Canadian dollar at a rate of 73 Canadian cents = 75 Nova Scotian cents, thus maintaining the difference between the two currencies established in 1860.Penny (Canadian coin)
In Canada, a penny is a coin worth one cent, or 1⁄100 of a dollar. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official national term of the coin is the "one-cent piece", but in practice the terms penny and cent predominate. Originally, "penny" referred to a two-cent coin. When the two-cent coin was discontinued, penny took over as the new one-cent coin's name. Penny was likely readily adopted because the previous coinage in Canada (up to 1858) was the British monetary system, where Canada used British pounds, shillings, and pence as coinage alongside U.S. decimal coins and Spanish milled dollars.
In Canadian French, the penny is often known by the loanword cent; in contrast with the heteronymous word meaning "hundred" (French: [sɑ̃] (listen)), this keeps the English pronunciation [sɛnt] (listen). Slang terms include cenne, cenne noire, or sou noir (black penny), although common Quebec French usage is sou.
Production of the penny ceased in May 2012, and the Royal Canadian Mint ceased the distribution of them as of February 4, 2013. However, like all discontinued currency in the Canadian monetary system, the coin remains legal tender. Once distribution of the coin ceased, though, vendors were no longer expected to return pennies as change for cash purchases, and were encouraged to round purchases to the nearest five cents. Non-cash transactions are still denominated to the cent.Quarter (Canadian coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a Canadian coin worth 25 cents or one-fourth of a Canadian dollar. It is a small, circular coin of silver colour. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, the official name for the coin is the 25-cent piece, but in practice it is usually called a "quarter", much like its American counterpart. The coin is produced at the Royal Canadian Mint's facility in Winnipeg, Manitoba.Royal Canadian Mint Olympic coins
Since the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the Royal Canadian Mint has struck Summer and Winter Olympic coins to mark Games held in Canada.Royal Canadian Mint ice hockey coins
The Royal Canadian Mint has made coins with various themes. Most recently, ice hockey has been used for many numismatic releases. The first known ice hockey coin was for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Issued on February 25, 1986, the coin featured a goalie on the coin. Edge lettering was also used for the coin, the first time that it was used on silver coins.
In the 1990s, the theme would be used more frequently. The first issue was in 1991 and was on a coin with a denomination of $200. The coin was titled A National Passion and it was issued as a tribute to the spirit and vitality of Canadian youth and the national game of hockey. The most noticeable example was for two of the Silver Dollar series. The Silver Dollar for 1993 and 1997 would feature hockey as its theme.
Logos from the Canadian National Hockey League franchises would start to appear on Canadian coinage. This would start in 2005 as part of various gift sets. The sets were similar to the O Canada set in terms of packaging, but the one difference is that the twenty-five cent coin had a team logo in colour. The first sets were issued for the 2005-2006 NHL regular season and the sets were issued for the Montreal Canadiens, Ottawa Senators, and the Toronto Maple Leafs. The following season, offerings included all six Canadian franchises. The sets would feature "vintage" logos, including the Vancouver Canucks first logo (which featured a stick and a puck) and the Senators logo from the 1920s.Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2000s)
One of the most highly profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint’s enterprise is in its Numismatic product line. The euphoria surrounding the year 2000 led to the birth of the Millennium 25-cent coin program. The numismatic line included proof quality coins sold individually or as a complete set. This level of excess would come to signify the coming decade. The number of numismatic releases would increase on an annual basis starting in 2003. Numismatic three cents, five cents, and ten cents would be introduced, along with numismatic three dollars and eight dollars. Luxury coins would not be immune to the dramatic increases that ensued. Coins with face values of 250, 300 and 350 dollars would be introduced by 2006.
A new trend for the RCM would emerge with the design of the numismatic three cent coin. The three cent coin was packaged in a coin and stamp set as part of a joint venture with Canada Post. This partnership would lead to another ten coin and stamp sets in the decade. An additional trend that emerged was the RCM's commitment to military and Olympic coins as well.
From Vimy Ridge to D-Day to a new release of the Victory Nickel with a commemorative booklet, the 5-cent piece became very monumental in acknowledging the contributions of Canada's military in the 20th Century. With the advent of the Lucky Loonie, the good luck charm that brought Olympic gold to Canada's hockey teams in 2002, the RCM paid tribute to that accomplishment with its Going for the Gold set in 2002 featuring a double-dated Loon coin packaged with MacLean's magazine and Olympic stamps. This would be followed by the Sterling Silver Lucky Loonie coins in 2004 and 2006.
The decade would also be marked by very dramatic price increases. Items that could be classified as “staples” in the numismatic offering, such as the Silver Dollar (Proof and Brilliant Uncirculated), the Hundred Dollar Gold, and the Two Hundred Gold, had not experienced significant price increases for several years.
The Silver Dollar from 2000 was priced at $29.95 (Proof) and $19.95 (BU) but in 2006, these two items were now priced at $39.95 and $31.95. At the beginning of the 1990s, the silver dollar was priced at $22.95 for the proof version, and $16.75 for the brilliant version.
More dramatic was the pricing of the One Hundred and Two Hundred Dollar gold. The beginning of the millennium saw the One Hundred Dollar Gold at $259.95 but its price increased to $359.95 by 2006. In 1990, the price of such a coin would have been $245.00. Due to the increase in the value of gold, the two hundred dollar gold experienced an even larger spike in the pricing. Starting in 2000 at $414.95, the price would rise to $564.95. In 1990, the price was only $395.00.
During the decade, there were various technological achievements. The first RCM gold coin to be directly laser etched was the $100 Gold Leduc Oil Fields coin from 2002. The technique would be later used for the 2003 $100 Gold Marquis Wheat coin and the 2004 $20 Iceberg coin. In 2001, the RCM achieved innovation with the 2001 Marconi $5 silver coin. It was the first RCM coin to utilize with a direct lasered finish. One of the technological breakthroughs for the RCM involved the 2006 Canadian Achievement Series silver coin featuring Colonel Chris Hadfield. It was the first Canadian coin to be completely sculpted using computer software.The Northern Lights $20 Silver Coin was the first RCM hologram coin to feature a hologram without a raised border and, therefore, no delineation. The hologram merges with the engraved relief of the mountains. In 2006, the $30 Canadarm coin was the first Canadian coin to be completely sculpted using computer software. Technically, it was a complex design to render, due to the depiction of the closed glass visor and the complicated features of the Canadarm.Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2010s)
Please see Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (20th century) for any numismatic coins made before 2000
Please see Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2000s) for any numismatic coins made during the 2000s
Please see Canadian Silver Maple Leaf for any coloured or hologram Maple Leaf coins
Please see Royal Canadian Mint Olympic coins for coin specificationsRoyal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (20th century)
Please see Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2000s) for any numismatic coins made during the 2000s
Please see Royal Canadian Mint numismatic coins (2010s) for any numismatic coins made during the 2010s
Please see Canadian Silver Maple Leaf for any Coloured or Hologram Maple Leaf coins
Please see Royal Canadian Mint Olympic Coins for Olympic themed numismatic coinsOne of the most profitable aspects of the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) is its numismatic product line. The first numismatic coin from the RCM was arguably the 1935 dollar commemorating the Silver Jubilee of His Majesty King George V. Though intended for circulation, it was the first Canadian coin commemorating an event. The decision to issue this coin was made in October 1934 by then-Prime Minister R.B. Bennett. There were economic and patriotic motivations for the release of a silver dollar, including a hope to boost the silver mining industry. In future years, the silver dollar would have a more emotional meaning for many Canadians because it was also the first coin to have the Voyageur motif on its reverse.Royal Canadian Mint tokens and medallions
Starting in 1997, the Royal Canadian Mint started to sell hockey medallions to the public. To commemorate the induction of Mario Lemieux in the Hockey Hall of Fame, a set was issued honouring all three inductees. One set was issued in Sterling Silver while another was issued in Nickel. The success of the release led to future issues.
As a way of commemorating the retirement of Wayne Gretzky, a medallion was issued with a mintage of over 50,000. The medallions were $9.95 each and they were packaged in a blue sleeve with the number 99 in red on the packaging.Toonie
The toonie, formally the Canadian two-dollar coin (French: pièce de 2 dollars canadiens, nicknamed deux piastres or deux piastres rond), was introduced on February 19, 1996 by Public Works minister Diane Marleau. As of 2019, it possesses the highest monetary value of any currently circulating Canadian coin. The toonie is a bi-metallic coin which on the reverse side bears an image of a polar bear by artist Brent Townsend. The obverse, like all other current Canadian circulation coins, has a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. It has the words "ELIZABETH II / D.G. REGINA" in a different typeface from any other Canadian coin; it is also the only coin to consistently bear its issue date on the obverse.
The coin is manufactured using a patented distinctive bimetallic coin-locking mechanism. The coins are estimated to last 20 years. The discontinued two-dollar bill was less expensive to manufacture, but lasted only one year on average.On April 10, 2012, the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) announced design changes to the loonie and toonie, which include new security features.Prior to 2012, the coin consisted of an aluminum bronze inner core with a pure nickel outer ring; but in spring 2012, the composition of the inner core switched to aluminum bronze coated with multiply-plated brass, and the outer ring switched to steel coated with multiply-plated nickel. The weight dropped from 7.30 to 6.92 g, and the thickness changed from 1.8 to 1.75 mm. The Mint states that multiply-plated steel technology, already used in Canada's smaller coinage, produces an electromagnetic signature that is harder to counterfeit than that for regular alloy coins; also, using steel provides cost savings and avoids fluctuations in price or supply of nickel.
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