Royal Australian Naval Bridging Train

The Royal Australian Naval Bridging Train was a unique unit of the Royal Australian Navy. It was active only during the First World War, where it served in the Gallipoli and the Sinai and Palestine Campaigns. The Train was formed in February 1915 and stood down in May 1917. Throughout its existence, it was composed of Royal Australian Naval Reservists under the command of Lieutenant Commander Leighton Bracegirdle. Normally under the command of the British IX Corps, the Train also supported the I ANZAC Corps and Imperial Camel Corps in the defence of the Suez Canal.

They were the only Australian naval unit serving in a European theatre of war. They were therefore bent on proving, both to the Royal Navy and to the British Army, that they could overcome any difficulties.[2]

— Lt Commander Bracegirdle, Officer Commanding, RAN Bridging Train

The Train was Australia's most decorated naval unit of the First World War, with more than 20 decorations awarded to its sailors.

The Royal Australian Naval Bridging Train
RAN-Bridging-Train-Patch
Badge of the Royal Australian Navy Bridging Train
Active24 February 1915 – May 1917
CountryAustralia Australia
BranchAustralia Royal Australian Navy
TypeBridging Train
RoleLogistical Support
Combat Engineers
Harbourmasters
Size9 Officers, 348 Other Ranks
on embarkation at Melbourne (June 1915)[1]
Part ofRoyal Australian Naval Brigade
Attached to British Army IX Corps
EngagementsFirst World War
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Leighton Bracegirdle

Formation and recruitment

By 1915, with the prompt seizure of Germany's pacific possessions, it was becoming apparent that there would be very little for the Royal Australian Naval Brigade to do beyond securing Australia's ports. It was also becoming obvious that Trench Warfare was going to be the main feature of the Western Front, and that engineering units were in strong demand. Reports reached Australia that the even a Naval contingent would be acceptable, as the 63rd (Royal Naval) Division, consisting of Royal Marines and Naval Reservists, was preparing to join the Western Front.

Naval Board was quick to move of these reports, making this recommendation to the Minister for Defence:

The Naval Board, having consulted the Chief of the General Staff as to most suitable method by which services of RANR officers and men can be made use of in the present war, propose that an offer be made to the Home Government to supply two Bridging Trains, completed to war establishment, the same to be manned by naval ratings drawn mainly from ranks of RANR It is proposed that, while retaining naval ranks and ratings in all other respects, the men comprising these trains should be paid, organised, equipped, and trained under military supervision.[3]

— Navy Board recommendation, Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX

On 12 February, the Government made the offer to the Imperial Government to provide one Bridging Train, in accordance with "Imperial War Establishments." Within a week, the offer was accepted.[4]

RAN-Bridge-Train-staff
The RANBT Staff circa 1915.

Command of the Train was given to Lieutenant Commander Bracegirdle, with Lieutenant (later, Commander) Thomas Bond DSO VD RANR as his First Lieutenant. Both officers had been involved in the surrender of German New Guinea, Bond had led the attack on the wireless station, and Bracegirdle had been left in command of the garrison when Commander Beresford was evacuated for medical treatment.[5] The two officers were appointed on 24 February 1915.

The Train grew to 115 men by 12 March and was encamped on Kings Domain, Melbourne. Bracegirdle and Bond had also discovered that no one left in Australian in either the Army or the Navy had any useful knowledge on the subject of bridging trains, they would have to wait for their pontoons and vehicles to be built – meaning a wait of at least six weeks before they would be able to begin training, and that almost all of their unit would need to be taught to ride, on very few horses.

The Train embarked upon HMAT A39 Port MacQuarie on 3 June with, according to the Train's Medical Officer, Dr E.W. Morris,[6] 5 officers, 3 warrant officers, 267 Petty Officers and other ranks, 26 reinforcements, 412 horses, 5 6-horse pontoons and tressle waggons, and 8 other vehicles. They were headed to Chatham, England to be trained in the construction of pontoons. Of course, this was the First World War. The Train reached Port Said, Egypt on 17 July 1915, and was issued orders to continue on to England. The next day, the 18th, they received orders to the Dardanelles. Arriving at the Greek isle of Imbros, yet more new orders were received, transferring control of the Train from the British Admiralty, which had been given operational control of the Royal Australian Navy by the Federal Government on 10 August 1914,[7] to the British Army and attaching it to IX Army Corps under Lt. General Stopford which was to land at Suvla Bay on 7 August.

While at Imbros, the Train received a grand total of five days of instruction on the use of their pontoons, a task which needed six days worth of unloading and reloading the equipment. After this minimal training, they were considered ready to land under enemy fire.

Suvla Bay

If you want to see their good works you have only to go to Kangaroo Beach, Suvla Bay and look around you. They have made a harbour.
AWM P01326.008 - RAN Bridging Train creating breakwater at Suvla Bay, September 1915
The RAN Bridging Train towing into place a hulk to form a breakwater for the boat dock at West Beach, Suvla Bay, Gallipoli, September 1915.

At 5am on 6 August 1915, the Train, embarked upon HMAT A53 Itria, reached its designated anchorage, and the landing was well underway. A party was sent ashore to find the best place to continue the landing, and where to later build the infrastructure to reinforce the Corps. Mid-morning, when Bracegirdle attempted to confer with the IX Corps Chief Engineer, Brigadier-General E.H. Bland CB CMG RE, as ordered, but was unable to be found. This forced the Train to sit idle until late afternoon when they were tasked with putting together a temporary pier at A Landing, which had been left without a party to construct it. It was the second day at Suvla when the Train began to come into its own, constructing two piers and rowing the second into place at A Beach, a trip of approximately 2 miles (3.2 km), for use by the lifeboats evacuating injured soldiers. The Train assembled the 110-metre-long structure in 20 minutes.[8] The next few days were occupied with constructing further piers as well as landing troops and supplies to assist the landing and shifting their base from their landing point to Kangaroo Beach.

Soon, the Train was put in charge of the landing's water supply, something that had been neglected during the early stage of the campaign. As there was no supply available, water had to be brought by sea, often in petrol tins. This responsibility was given to the Train on 12 August, they were able to source three fire engines and some hoses, which, with the Train's pontoons were used to pump supplies brought from transport ships to tanks on the beach. The fire hoses were kept under guard, and eventually replaced with metal pipe as soldiers would constantly make holes in it to get at the water inside.[8] This was just some of the work that saw the Train removed from the 11th Division and directly attached to the IX Corps Engineers, becoming responsible for all work afloat or on the beach up to the high-water mark that the Navy might require.

The principal duties allotted to the unit by the Royal Navy were as follows: Water supply, care of landing-piers, discharging of stores from store-ships and transports, lighterage of same to the shore, salving of lighters and steamboats wrecked during gales, assisting in salving of T.B.D. Louis, disembarking of troops with their baggage on all beaches, and of munitions and stores. ...
The duties allotted to the unit by the GOC the IX Army Corps were briefly as follows : Control and issue of all engineer and trench stores and materials, care and issue of trench bombs and demolition stores (for some weeks after landing, and until proper ordnance dumps were established), erection of high-explosive magazines, dug-outs, cookhouses, and galleys, assembly of hospital huttings, construction of iron frames for front-line wire entanglements; and the manning and control of the steam-tug Daphne.[9]

— Lt Commander Bracegirdle, Officer Commanding, RAN Bridging Train

Other jobs that fell to the Train to were to act as wireless operators and draughtsmen for the Army Corps and Lt Commander Bracegirdle was the "Beachmaster" of Kangaroo Beach.

AWM P01326.006 - Turkish shell lands beside a pier, Suvla Bay, October 1915
A heavy Turkish shell lands beside a pier constructed by the RAN Bridging Train, Suvla Bay, Gallipoli, October 1915.

According to the Train's log, 30 September was a special day. It was the second day in a row that the base had not been shelled by Turkish artillery. Of course, they would make up for the oversight on 1 October, but for the sailors it was a welcome reprieve.[9] While the Train wasn't itself involved in actual fighting, it was constantly shelled and bombed by Turkish forces. It was a common sight at Suvla to see 40 British soldiers under the direction of a RAN Petty Officer, working to bring supplies ashore during rough weather. The soldiers would openly look forward to returning to their trenches where they at least had the ability to shoot back at anyone who attacked them.

The AIF Official War Correspondent, Charles Bean came to Suvla Bay specifically to report on the Train, where he found that:

There they are to-day, in charge of the landing of a great part of the stores of a British army. They are quite cut off from their own force; they scarcely come into the category of the Australian Force, and scarcely into that of the British; they are scarcely army and scarcely navy. Who it is that looks after their special interests, and which is the authority that has the power of recognising any good work that they have done, I do not know. If you want to see the work, you have only to go to Kangaroo Beach, Suvla Bay, and look about you. They have made a harbour.[10]

— Charles Bean, The Hobart Mercury, December 28, 1915

The supplies landed and distributed by the Train were many and varied. This is a summary of munitions and stores discharged from the storeship Perdsto during the month of September.[11]

Description Quantity Description Quantity
Bombs (various) 372 cases Corrugated Iron 670 sheets
Grenades (various) 25 cases Sleepers 160
Gelignite 150 pounds (68 kg) 6" x 6" timber 75 lengths of 16 feet (4.9 m)
Ammonal 500 pounds (230 kg) 12" x 6" timber 50 lengths of 30 feet (9.1 m)
Picks and Helves 2,100 9" x 6" timber 49 lengths of 12 feet (3.7 m)
Shovels 3,050 6" x 4" timber 209 lengths of 16 feet (4.9 m)
Billhooks 160 4" x 4" timber 410 lengths of 12 feet (3.7 m)
Hand Axes 210 3" x 3" timber 625 lengths of 12 feet (3.7 m)
Felling Axes 349 9" x 1.5" timber 89 lengths of 16 feet (4.9 m)
Barbed Wire 320 coils Nuts & Bolts (various) 6 cases
French Wire 110 coils Nails (various) 14 cases
Staples for wire 20 boxes Spikes (various) 2 cases
Spikes for wire 25 boxes Loophole plates 50 cases

Evacuation

In November 1915, the British military hero Field Marshal Lord Kitchener toured the Dardanelles as part of his review of the Middle Eastern theatre of operations. After two hours at Anzac Cove, he instructed Lt General Birdwood, the Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force to begin planning to evacuate the Peninsula. Winter was coming and already too many soldiers were being taken sick and even dying of hypothermia and frostbite, while the Turks had been stubbornly holding their ground. Retreat made sense, aside from just one problem: once the Turks figured out the troops were pulling back, the retreat would very quickly become a bloodbath.

Once the official decision was made by the War Cabinet, preparations were made, carefully disguised to make it seem as though units that could be would be withdrawn to Mudros safely would be, leaving enough troops to defend the ground taken for the winter, while the bulk of the troops would return in spring for a new offensive. Troops and equipment started slipping away from the front and aboard navy vessels from 8 December 1915.[12]

During the time, the Train's log shows work parties completion construction of roads and buildings on the same day as other parties were disassembling other buildings and stocking supplies for transport, with shifts working around the clock. The sick list came down from 70 men before preparations began to a low of 7 on 12 December. The Chief Engineer of IX Corps, General Bland praised the Train for its work in preparing to depart Suvla, saying that

From the time the 1st R.A.N.B.T. joined the IX Corps all ranks have worked hard, cheerfully, and well. They have rendered most valuable services in connection with the construction and maintenance of landing-piers, beach water-supply, and the landing, charge of, and distribution of engineer material at Suvla, and have most willingly given their help in many other directions. Their work has been continuously heavy, and they have done it well.[13] A fine example of endurance, good organisation, and discipline. Their commanders were indefatigable in anticipating requirements, and assisting whenever and where ever required. I bring them to your notice as two specially valuable and well-commanded units, which can be relied upon to do their best under difficult circumstances.[14]

— Brigadier-General E.H. Bland CB CMG RE, Chief Engineer IX Corps, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX

The Train was the last Australian unit to leave the Gallipoli Peninsula, a party of 50 men under Sub-Lieutenant Charles Hicks was left behind to oversee the evacuation of the British forces. They left at 4.30am, on 28 December – eight days after the evacuation of Anzac Cove. The Train sailed to the Greek isle of Mudros, along with the rest of IX Corps.

Suez Canal

On reaching Mudros, Lt Commander Bracegirdle was hospitalised for Malaria and Jaundice, while command of the Train was returned to the 11th Division from IX Corps. The Train was then temporarily transferred, on 26 December 1915, to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. Disciplinary matters, though were handled by Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss, the Royal Navy officer commanding the Port of Moudros. By 5 February 1916, the transfer to I ANZAC Corps was official.[14]

After recuperating at Mudros, the Train set sail under command of Lt. Bond for Lake Timsah on the Suez Canal on 17 January, arriving there on the 21st. Here, at Suez Canal No. 2 Section, the Train was responsible for manning and controlling existing bridges, building new bridges, control of tugboats and lighters and the distribution of stores. On 11 February, the Train split into three sections, with Lt. Bond commanding 57 men at a Serapeum halfway between Lake Tismah and Bitter Lakes, Sub-Lieutenant Charles Hicks with 65 men at the northern approach to Lake Tismah, a place known as Ferry Point. Lt Commander Bracegirdle had joined up with the Train again on 30 January, and was in command at the main camp on Lake Tismah.

Duties at the main camp were light, mainly consisting of experimenting with new iron pontoons, and assisting at the Ismaïlia Canal Works. The two detachments on the other hand were used to operate the small vessels crossing the Canal at all hours of the day and night, and also forming and breaking the pontoon bridges several times each day.

Come March, the Train was in high demand. Admiral Wemyss, now in command of East Indies & Egyptian Squadron,[15] who wanted to use the Train to operate river transports and work as gun crews supporting the Mesopotamian campaign. General Sir Julian Byng, who had taken command of IX Corps at Suvla Bay when the elderly General Frederick Stopford was relieved for incompetence, wanted to bring the Train south to No. 4 Section, Suez Canal, which included all of the Canal south of Small Bitter Lake. Also in March, Lieutenant Bond was transferred to the Naval Intelligence detachment in Alexandria, with Lt Clarence Read[16] taking his place as First Lieutenant.

No. 4 Section, Suez Canal
Small Bitter Lake (No. 3 Section)
Geneffe
Shallufa
Major Base
Gurkha Post
Kubri
Train HQ
Baluchi Post
El Shatt
Gulf of Suez
Red Sea


Legend:
Navigable canal
Anchorage
Dock, industrial or logistical area
Village or Major Base, minor base

Byng got his way, and the Train arrived in Suez on 4 May. No.4 Section was the largest of the Canal's divisions, and the Train's responsibilities increased when they arrived. As well as manning bridges and small vessels, building brides, they were now building wharves and piers, controlling tugboats and all military traffic crossing the Canal and constructing pumping machinery IX Corps knew what the Train was capable of and made sure that they got the most out of the Train they could. On the other hand, though, the weather conditions were harsher than they had been up at No. 2 Section, and the Ottoman troops were more active in their attempts at sabotage and air raids were common.

The Train's HQ was set up at Kubri West, with a major detachment at Shallufa, and parties also working at Geneffe, Gurka Post, Baluchi Post, El Shatt, the town of Suez, Port Tewfik and the Canal Quarantine Station, on the Gulf of Suez.[17]

At this time, Allied forces were working to push the Ottoman Troops back from the Canal and deep into the desert. To get their supplies in, it was decided that a railway would be built by the engineers. There was however a slight problem. There was no way to get the locomotives needed onto these rails. The Bridging Train was therefore tasked with building new wharves to unload the locomotives that would be needed for the desert trains, which they did by converting two small vessels into floating pile drivers.

Despite the best efforts of the railway engineers, by the time of the Battle of Magdhaba, the tracks were still 25 miles (40 km) from the town of El Arish, so the Train was called in to manage the landing of supplies on the beach. Unfortunately, the whole bight was mined and the Royal Navy would be unable to sweep it without raising suspicions. The Train's mission was therefore to land on the beach and then construct two piers through the minefield.

Little action was actually seen as the Turks slipped out of El Arish, apparently getting wind of the attack a day before the Train landed. But it was one of the few times that the Train supported other Australian forces in combat, the Imperial Camel Corps and Australian Light Horse under General Sir Harry Chauvel were both involved in the Battle. However, this was the last real action that the Train saw before being disbanded.

Disbandment

By the end of 1916, when Lieutenant Cameron was appointed First Lieutenant,[18] new members who had not served under fire started to complain that they were being used for simple work that could be done by the Egyptian labourers. Word of this eventually reached the Defence Department who soon wrote to the Commonwealth Naval Board, which said that the men of the train "would be unsuitable for use aboard HMA Ships; if no longer required as a Bridging Train, the unit should be disbanded, and its members seither sent as reinforcements to the Australian Engineers or Artillery, or brought back to Australia."[19] Next, the Defence Department took the matter to the War Office, where General Archibald Murray, the General Officer Commanding Egypt made his opinion that the Train was engaged in "work of an important military nature" [19]

Lt Commander Bracegirdle was informed at the start of January 1917 that the Train would be relieved of it duties on the Canal and get back into the War, heading deeper into Palestine. The Train then spent January preparing for their new mission, only to be informed that only part of the unit would be required for the duties in Palestine on 8 February 1917. He was also instructed to find out how his men could be redistributed. 76 indicated they would be willing to transfer to the AIF, 43 to the Royal Navy, while the remainder wished to stay with the Train.

After this, on 18 February, the War Office sent the Defence Department another telegram on the matter, which does not reflect the outcome of Bracegirdle's survey at all:

Recommend that personnel of Australian Naval Bridging Train be transferred to Australian army, with exception of 4 officers and 80 other ratings who will be retained in unit reorganised in two sections – one consisting of skilled engineers and kindred trades, and one of expert pier-builders and shore-workers. Personnel transferred to Australian army would be posted to whichever arm they are best suited. Anyone not accepting transfer to be discharged and returned to Australia

— War Office Telegram, Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX

Nonetheless, the Australian Government accepted the War Office's recommendation. On the same day, Lt Commander Bracegirdle was relieved of command and appointed Officer Commanding Troops aboard the transport SS Willochra, 5 March 1917.

On 20 March, the Train was informed that they were being disbanded and were asked to make a choice as to their next assignment. The results were very clear, the vast majority of members choosing to remain with the Royal Australian Navy.

Option Number Accepting
Return to Australia for service with RAN 153
Transfer directly to the Australian Artillery 43
Transfer directly to the Australian Light Horse 4
Transfer directly to a replacement AIF unit that never eventuated 4

194 Officers and Ratings embarked on the troopship HMAT A45 Bulla on 26 May 1917 and arrived at Melbourne on 10 July.[20] They were then returned to their State of origin and discharged by 22 May.[21]

Bean's Official History states that this came about through a series of miscommunications between the War Office, Department of Defence, Commonwealth Naval Board and the Train itself, and that several months later, in July 1917, it was decided to reform the Train, but its members had dispersed too far to be recalled.

During its existence, the Train had made two amphibious landings (Gallipoli and El Arish), and lost 25 sailors killed. Lieutenant Commander Bracegirdle was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and Mentioned in Despatches three times for his command of the Train, while 16 of his men were also Mentioned in Despatches.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ RANBT Nominal Roll at Embarkation AIF Project - Australian Defence Force Academy, Accessed 9 April 2018
  2. ^ Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 396.
  3. ^ Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 382.
  4. ^ "Australia's Aid – Bridging Train Offered – War Office Accepts". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 20 February 1915. p. 18. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  5. ^ "A Bridging Train". The Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 26 March 1915. p. 12. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Royal Naval Bridging Train – Chat With Medical Officer". The Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 3 February 1917. p. 10. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
  7. ^ Munro Ferguson, Ronald. "Proclamation Transferring the Australian Navy to Admiralty Control". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  8. ^ a b Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 394.
  9. ^ a b Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 395.
  10. ^ "The Makers of a Harbour". The Mercury. Hobart, Tas.: National Library of Australia. 28 December 1915. p. 5. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  11. ^ Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 575.
  12. ^ Bean, Charles (1924). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume II. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 863.
  13. ^ Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 397.
  14. ^ a b Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 398.
  15. ^ Heathcote, p. 251
  16. ^ "Supplement to the Navy List, 1 October 1916" (PDF). Australian Government Printer. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  17. ^ Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 400.
  18. ^ "Naval Bridging Officer's Return". The Register. Adelaide: National Library of Australia. 18 July 1917. p. 8. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  19. ^ a b Jose, Arthur (1928). Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume IX. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 610.
  20. ^ Swinden, Greg. "The Royal Australian Navy Bridging Train". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  21. ^ "Disbanded Bridging Train". The Argus. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. 12 July 1917. p. 9. Retrieved 16 May 2013.

References

1916 Birthday Honours

The 1916 Birthday Honours were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The King, and were published in The London Gazette and in The Times on 3 June 1916.Owing to the ongoing War, the 50-page supplement to The Gazette included 3,880 names of recipients of honours, military promotion of rank and medals, including the Military Cross (708 people, among them the Prince of Wales), Distinguished Service Order (373) and 1,217 Military Medals.In addition, more than 500 nurses from across the British Empire received the Royal Red Cross, a huge number noted by The British Journal of Nursing in its issue on 10 June: "The inclusion of so many members of the nursing profession (516) in the Birthday Honours' list is a unique event, and we most cordially congratulate those Matrons, Sisters and Nurses who have earned this distinction, while we bear in mind many others whose splendid work merits recognition."The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda

"And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda" is a song written by Scottish-born Australian singer-songwriter Eric Bogle in 1971. The song describes war as futile and gruesome, while criticising those who seek to glorify it. This is exemplified in the song by the account of a young Australian serviceman who is maimed during the Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War. The protagonist, who had travelled across rural Australia before the war, is emotionally devastated by the loss of his legs in battle. As the years pass he notes the death of other veterans, while the younger generation becomes apathetic to the veterans and their cause. At its conclusion, the song incorporates the melody and a few lines of lyrics of the 1895 song "Waltzing Matilda" by Australian poet Banjo Paterson.

Many cover versions of the song have been performed and recorded, as well as many versions in foreign languages.

Landing at Suvla Bay

The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire as part of the August Offensive, the final British attempt to break the deadlock of the Battle of Gallipoli. The landing, which commenced on the night of 6 August 1915, was intended to support a breakout from the ANZAC sector, five miles (8 km) to the south.

Although initially successful, against only light opposition, the landing at Suvla was mismanaged from the outset and quickly reached the same stalemate conditions that prevailed on the Anzac and Helles fronts. On 15 August, after a week of indecision and inactivity, the British commander at Suvla, Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Stopford was dismissed. His performance in command is often considered one of the most incompetent feats of generalship of the First World War.

Leighton Bracegirdle

Rear Admiral Sir Leighton Seymour Bracegirdle, (31 May 1881 – 23 March 1970) was an Australian naval officer and an Official Secretary to four Australian governors-general: Sir Isaac Isaacs, Lord Gowrie, the Duke of Gloucester, and William McKell.

Military history of Australia during World War I

In Australia, the outbreak of World War I was greeted with considerable enthusiasm. Even before Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914, the nation pledged its support alongside other states of the British Empire and almost immediately began preparations to send forces overseas to participate in the conflict. The first campaign that Australians were involved in was in German New Guinea after a hastily raised force known as the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force was dispatched from Australia to seize German possessions in the Pacific in September 1914. At the same time another expeditionary force, initially consisting of 20,000 men and known as the First Australian Imperial Force (AIF), was raised for service overseas.

The AIF departed Australia in November 1914 and, after several delays due to the presence of German naval vessels in the Indian Ocean, arrived in Egypt, where they were initially used to defend the Suez Canal. In early 1915, however, it was decided to carry out an amphibious landing on the Gallipoli peninsula with the goal of opening up a second front and securing the passage of the Dardanelles. The Australians and New Zealanders, grouped together as the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC), went ashore on 25 April 1915 and for the next eight months the Anzacs, alongside their British, French and other allies, fought a costly and ultimately unsuccessful campaign against the Turks.

The force was evacuated from the peninsula in December 1915 and returned to Egypt, where the AIF was expanded. In early 1916 it was decided that the infantry divisions would be sent to France, where they took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front. Most of the light horse units remained in the Middle East until the end of the war, carrying out further operations against the Turks in Egypt and Palestine. Small numbers of Australians served in other theatres of war. While the main focus of the Australian military's effort was the ground war, air and naval forces were also committed. Squadrons of the Australian Flying Corps served in the Middle East and on the Western Front, while elements of the Royal Australian Navy carried out operations in the Atlantic, North Sea, Adriatic and Black Sea, as well as the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

By the end of the war, Australians were far more circumspect. The nation's involvement cost more than 60,000 Australian lives and many more were left unable to work as a result of their injuries. The impact of the war was felt in many other areas as well. Financially it was very costly, while the effect on the social and political landscape was considerable and threatened to cause serious divides in the nation's social fabric. Conscription was possibly the most contentious issue and ultimately, despite having conscription for home service, Australia was one of only three combatants not to use conscripts in the fighting. Nevertheless, for many Australians the nation's involvement in World War I and the Gallipoli campaign was seen as a symbol of its emergence as an international actor, while many of the notions of the Australian character and nationhood that exist today have their origins in the war and Anzac Day is commemorated as a national holiday.

No. 2 Section, Suez Canal
El Ferdan (No. 1 Section)
Ferry Post
Sub-Lt. Hicks' Post
Lake Timsah
Main Camp
Serapeum
Lt. Bond's Post
Great Bitter Lake (No. 3 Section)

Legend:

Navigable canal
pontoon bridge
swing bridge
Village or town, feature
Suez, Suez Port
Petroleum Dock, Port Tewfik

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