The Real Audiencia of Guadalajara (or Real Audiencia de Nueva Galicia), was the highest tribunal of the Spanish crown in what is today northern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was created by royal decree on February 13, 1548, and was originally located in Compostela and permanently seated in Guadalajara in 1560. Its president was the chief political and executive officer of the district, subordinated only to the Viceroy.
Law VII (Audiencia y Chancillería Real de Guadalaxara de la Galicia en Nueva España) of Title XV (De las Audiencias y Chancillerias Reales de las Indias) of Book II of the Recopilación de Leyes de las Indias of 1680—which compiles the decrees of February 13, 1548; May 26, 1574; and May 3, 1575—describes the limits and functions of the Audiencia.
In the city of Guadalajara of New Galicia shall reside another Royal Audiencia and Chancellery of ours, with a president, and four judges of civil cases [oidores], who will also be judges of criminal cases [alcaldes del crimen]; a crown attorney [fiscal]; a bailiff [alguacil mayor]; a lieutenant of the Gran Chancellor; and the other necessary ministers and officials; and which shall have for district the Province of New Galicia, those of Culiacán, Copala, Colima, Zacatula, and the towns of Avalos, sharing borders: in the east with the Audiencia of New Spain; in the south with the South Sea; and in the west and north with provinces not yet discovered nor pacified; and the president of said Audiencia of Guadalajara, and not the oidores, shall have the government (gobernación) of its district, and in his absence said Audience of Guadalajara, regardless of whatever decrees in which participation in the government along with the presidents had been conceded to the oidores, which we revoke and annul. And we order that this law of ours be kept, as it is in it contained, and in regards to the government of war and the treasury, the orders, which we have given, be kept.
Law XXXXVII, of the same book and title, reproduced the Decree of Philip III of January 30, 1600, which mandated that when the office of viceroy was vacant, the Audiencia of Mexico became the acting viceroy, directly governing the provinces under its judicial jurisdiction, and oversaw the district of the Guadalajara Audiencia in administrative matters.
The Hispanos of New Mexico or Neomexicanos are an ethnic group primarily residing in the northern half of the U.S. state of New Mexico and the southern portion of the U.S. state Colorado, descended from the original Spanish-speaking settlers of the historical region of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, which makes up the present day U.S. states of New Mexico (Nuevo México), southern Colorado, and parts of Arizona. Neomexicanos make up a bilingual community, speaking New Mexican English and Neomexicano Spanish, and identify with the culture of New Mexico such as New Mexican cuisine and New Mexico music. They may be variously of Criollo Spaniard or Mestizo origin. Alongside Californios and Tejanos, Neomexicanos are part of the larger Hispano communities of the United States, which have lived in the American Southwest since the 16th century. The descendants of the settlers make up an ethnic community of more than 340,000 in New Mexico, with others in southern Colorado.
Neomexicanos identify strongly with their Spanish heritage and most are also mestizos of mixed Apache, Comanche, Pueblo, Navajo, Native Mexican, and Genizaro ancestry. Exact numbers for the population size of New Mexican Hispanos is difficult, as many also identify with Chicano and Mexican-American movements. For most of its modern history, New Mexico existed on the periphery of the Spanish empire from 1598 until 1821 and later Mexico (1821–1848), but was dominated by Comancheria politically and economically from the 1750s to 1850s. Due to the Comanche, contact with the rest of Spanish America was limited, and New Mexican Spanish developed closer trading links with the Comanche than the rest of New Spain. In the meantime, some Spanish colonists coexisted with and intermarried with Puebloan peoples and Navajos, enemies of the Comanche. New Mexicans of all ethnicities were commonly enslaved by the Comanche and Apache of Apacheria, while Native New Mexicans were commonly enslaved and adopted Spanish language and culture. These Genizaros served as house servants, sheep herders, and in other capacities in New Mexico including what is known today as Southern Colorado well into the 1800s. By the late 18th century, Genízaros and their descendants, often referred to as Coyotes, comprised nearly one-third of the entire population of New Mexico. After the Mexican–American War, New Mexico and all its inhabitants came under the governance of the English-speaking United States, and for the next hundred years, English-speakers increased in number. By the 1980s, more and more Hispanos were using English instead of New Mexican Spanish at home.
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