Rouen (UK: /ˈruːɒ̃, ˈruːɒn/, US: /ruːˈɒ̃, ruːˈɒn/, French: [ʁwɑ̃] (listen)) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries.
The population of the metropolitan area (French: agglomération) at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais.
Location of Rouen
|Intercommunality||Métropole Rouen Normandie|
|• Mayor (2014–2020)||Yvon Robert (PS)|
|21.38 km2 (8.25 sq mi)|
|• Urban||448 km2 (173 sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|1,800 km2 (700 sq mi)|
|• Rank||35th in France|
|• Density||5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|• Urban density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|• Metro density||360/km2 (940/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Rouen and its metropolitan area of 70 suburban communes form the Métropole Rouen Normandie, with 494,382 inhabitants at the 2010 census. In descending order of population, the largest of these suburbs are Sotteville-lès-Rouen, Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, Le Grand-Quevilly, Le Petit-Quevilly, and Mont-Saint-Aignan, each with a population exceeding 20,000.
Rouen was founded by the Gaulish tribe of the Veliocasses, who controlled a large area in the lower Seine valley. They called it Ratumacos; the Romans called it Rotomagus. It was considered the second city of Gallia Lugdunensis after Lugdunum (Lyon) itself. Under the reorganization of Diocletian, Rouen was the chief city of the divided province Gallia Lugdunensis II and reached the apogee of its Roman development, with an amphitheatre and thermae of which foundations remain. In the 5th century, it became the seat of a bishopric and later a capital of Merovingian Neustria.
From their first incursion into the lower valley of the Seine in 841, the Normans overran Rouen. From 912, Rouen was the capital of the Duchy of Normandy and residence of the local dukes, until William the Conqueror moved his residence to Caen. In 1150, Rouen received its founding charter which permitted self-government. During the 12th century, Rouen was the site of a yeshiva. At that time, about 6,000 Jews lived in the town, comprising about 20% of the population.
On June 24, 1204, King Philip II Augustus of France entered Rouen and definitively annexed Normandy to the French Kingdom. He demolished the Norman castle and replaced it with his own, the Château Bouvreuil, built on the site of the Gallo-Roman amphitheatre. A textile industry developed based on wool imported from England, for which the cities of Flanders and Brabant were constantly competitors, and finding its market in the Champagne fairs. Rouen also depended for its prosperity on the river traffic of the Seine, on which it enjoyed a monopoly that reached as far upstream as Paris.
In the 14th century urban strife threatened the city: in 1291, the mayor was assassinated and noble residences in the city were pillaged. Philip IV reimposed order and suppressed the city's charter and the lucrative monopoly on river traffic, but he was quite willing to allow the Rouennais to repurchase their old liberties in 1294. In 1306, he decided to expel the Jewish community of Rouen, then numbering some five or six thousands. In 1389, another urban revolt of the underclass occurred, the Harelle. It was suppressed with the withdrawal of Rouen's charter and river-traffic privileges once more.
During the Hundred Years' War, on January 19, 1419, Rouen surrendered to Henry V of England, who annexed Normandy once again to the Plantagenet domains. But Rouen did not go quietly: Alain Blanchard hung English prisoners from the walls, for which he was summarily executed; Canon and Vicar General of Rouen Robert de Livet became a hero for excommunicating the English king, resulting in de Livet's imprisonment for five years in England. Joan of Arc was burned at the stake in Rouen on May 30, 1431 in this city, where most inhabitants supported the duke of Burgundy, Joan of Arc's king enemy. The king of France Charles VII recaptured the town in 1449.
During the German occupation, the Kriegsmarine had its headquarters located in a chateau on what is now the Rouen Business School. The city was heavily damaged during World War II on D-day and its famed cathedral was almost destroyed by Allied bombs.
Rouen is known for its Rouen Cathedral, with its Tour de Beurre (butter tower) financed by the sale of indulgences for the consumption of butter during Lent. The cathedral's gothic façade (completed in the 16th century) was the subject of a series of paintings by Claude Monet, some of which are exhibited in the Musée d'Orsay in Paris.
Other famous structures include Rouen Castle, whose keep is known as the tour Jeanne d'Arc, where Joan of Arc was brought in 1431 to be threatened with torture (contrary to popular belief, she was not imprisoned there but in the since destroyed tour de lady Pucelle); the Church of Saint Ouen (12th–15th century); the Palais de Justice, which was once the seat of the Parlement (French court of law) of Normandy; the Gothic Church of St Maclou (15th century); and the Museum of Fine Arts and Ceramics which contains a splendid collection of faïence and porcelain for which Rouen was renowned during the 16th to 18th centuries. Rouen is also noted for its surviving half-timbered buildings.
There are many museums in Rouen: the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen, an art museum with pictures of well-known painters such as Claude Monet and Géricault; the Musée maritime fluvial et portuaire, a museum on the history of the port of Rouen and navigation; Musée des antiquités, an art and history museum with local works from the Bronze Age through the Renaissance, the Musée de la céramique and the Musée Le Secq des Tournelles.
The Jardin des Plantes de Rouen is a notable botanical garden once owned by Scottish banker John Law dated from 1840 in its present form. It was the site of Élisa Garnerin's parachute jump from a balloon in 1817.
In the centre of the Place du Vieux Marché (the site of Joan of Arc's pyre) is the modern church of St Joan of Arc. This is a large, modern structure which dominates the square. The form of the building represents an upturned viking boat and a fish shape.
Rouen was also home to the French Grand Prix, hosting the race at the nearby Rouen-Les-Essarts track sporadically between 1952 and 1968. In 1999 Rouen authorities demolished the grandstands and other remnants of Rouen's racing past. Today, little remains beyond the public roads that formed the circuit.
Rouen has its own palace of Rouen Opera House, whose formal name is Rouen Normandy Opera House – Theatre of Arts (in French: Opéra de Rouen Normandie – Théâtre des arts).
Rouen has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Koeppen climate classification).
Mainline trains operate from Gare de Rouen-Rive-Droite to Le Havre and Paris, and regional trains to Caen, Dieppe and other local destinations in Normandy. Daily direct trains operate to Amiens and Lille, and direct TGVs (high-speed trains) connect daily with Lyon and Marseille.
City transportation in Rouen consists of a tram and a bus system. The tramway branches into two lines out of a tunnel under the city centre. Rouen is also served by TEOR (Transport Est-Ouest Rouennais) and by buses run in conjunction with the tramway by TCAR (Transports en commun de l'agglomération rouennaise), a subsidiary of Veolia Transport.
Rouen has its own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe.
The Seine is a major axis for maritime cargo links in the Port of Rouen. The Cross-Channel ferry ports of Caen, Le Havre, Dieppe (50 minutes) and Calais, and the Channel Tunnel are within easy driving distance (two and a half hours or less).
The main schools of higher education are the University of Rouen and the École Supérieure de Commerce de Rouen (NEOMA Business School), ésitpa (agronomy and agriculture), both located at nearby Mont-Saint-Aignan, and the INSA Rouen, ESIGELEC and the CESI, both at nearby Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray.
The main opera company in Rouen is the Opéra de Rouen – Normandie. The company performs in the Théâtre des Arts, 7 rue du Docteur Rambert. The company presents opera, classical and other types of music, both vocal and instrumental, as well as dance performances. Every five years, the city hosts the large maritime exposition, L'Armada.
Rouen was the birthplace of:
Rouen is twinned with:
Rouen Cathedral is the subject of a series of paintings by the Impressionist painter Claude Monet, who painted the same scene at different times of the day. Two paintings are in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.; two are in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow; one is in the National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade. The estimated value of one painting is over $40 million.
During the second half of the 20th century, several sculptures by Jean-Yves Lechevallier were erected in the city.
Inaugurated in 2010, the Rouen Impressionnée hosted the contemporary urban (re)development installation sculpture 'Camille' by Belgian artist Arne Quinze. Quinze's use of interlocking systems in sculpture employ wood, concrete, paint and metal. The Quasi-Quinze method of sculpture utilizes structural integrity and randomness as key elements for 'Camille'. Located on the Boieldieu Bridge in the center of Rouen, this intentional location was chosen by the artist to magnify the historical separation of its city's citizens.
The Rouen area is an integral part of the work of French writer Annie Ernaux.
The 2000 film The Taste of Others was filmed and set in Rouen. In the 2001 movie A Knight's Tale, the protagonist William Thatcher (played by Heath Ledger) poses as a noble and competes in his first jousting tournament at Rouen. The 1952 film "The Snows of Kilimanjaro" references the memoirs of Harry Street titled "The Road to Rouen" in the scene with Harry and Uncle Bill.
|The arms of Rouen are blazoned :|
Gules, a pascal lamb, haloed and contorny, holding a banner argent charged with a cross Or, and on a chief azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or
This may be rendered, "On a red background a haloed white pascal lamb looking back over its shoulder (contorny) holds a white banner bearing a gold cross; above, a broad blue band across the top bears 3 gold fleurs de lis".
The Arrondissement of Rouen is an arrondissement of France in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region. Since the January 2017 reorganization of the arrondissements of Seine-Maritime, it has 216 communes.Dragons de Rouen
Rouen Hockey Élite 76 is a French ice hockey team based in Rouen playing in the Ligue Magnus. The team is also known as Dragons de Rouen (Rouen Dragons).
The team was founded in 1982 and plays home games at the Île Lacroix.Duchy of Normandy
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings. The duchy was named for its inhabitants, the Normans.
From 1066 until 1204 it was held by the kings of England, except for the brief rule of Robert Curthose (1087–1106), eldest son of William the Conqueror but unsuccessful claimant to the English throne; and Geoffrey Plantagenet (1144–1150), husband of Empress Matilda and father of Henry II.
In 1202, Philip II of France declared Normandy forfeit to him and seized it by force of arms in 1204. It remained disputed territory until the Treaty of Paris of 1259, when the English sovereign ceded his claim except for the Channel Islands; i.e., the Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, and their dependencies (including Sark).
In the Kingdom of France, the duchy was occasionally set apart as an appanage to be ruled by a member of the royal family. After 1469, however, it was permanently united to the royal domain, although the title was occasionally conferred as an honorific upon junior members of the royal family. The last French duke of Normandy in this sense was Louis-Charles, duke from 1785 to 1789.Duke of Normandy
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. In 924 and again in 933, Normandy was expanded by royal grant. Rollo's male-line descendants continued to rule it down to 1135. In 1202 the French king Philip II declared Normandy a forfeited fief and by 1204 his army had conquered it. It remained a French royal province thereafter, still called the Duchy of Normandy, but only occasionally granted to a duke of the royal house as an apanage.Déville-lès-Rouen
Déville-lès-Rouen is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department of the Normandy region in north-western France.FC Rouen
Football Club de Rouen 1899 (French pronunciation: [ʁwɑ̃]; commonly referred to as simply Rouen) is a French association football club based in Rouen. The club was formed in 1899 and currently plays in Championnat National 2, the fourth level of French football. Rouen played its home matches at the Stade Robert Diochon; named after Robert Diochon, a historic player who was influential during the club's infancy. The team is managed by former football player Éric Garcin and captained by defender Pierre Vignaud. Rouen is known as Les Diables Rouges (The Red Devils) and have been since 1903.
Rouen's football division was founded in 1899, but the club itself was founded in 1896 as a rugby club. The club achieved professional status in 1933 and have spent 19 seasons in the first division of French football and 36 in the second division. Rouen's highest honour to date was winning the second division in 1936. In 1940 and 1945, the club won the league championship of France, however, due to the league being run during World War II and not under French Football Federation authority, the titles are unofficial. Rouen have also reached European level, competing in the 1969–70 edition of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, where the team was defeated by the eventual champions Arsenal 1–0 on aggregate in the third round.
In addition to Robert Diochon, Rouen have produced a host of players who contributed to the France national team during the team's early years. One of the more notable players were Edmond Delfour and Jean Nicolas. Delfour made 41 appearances with the national team from 1929–1938 and participated in three FIFA World Cups 1930, 1934 and 1938. He is one of five players to have appeared in all three of the pre-war World Cups. Delfour later went on to manage Rouen from 1940–1945 during the unofficial wartime championships. Nicolas spent his entire career with Rouen and appeared in 25 matches scoring 21 goals with the national team from 1933–1938. In the present day, Nicolas' goal output with the team ranks for tenth all-time and his average places him in a tie for third.IIHF Continental Cup
The Continental Cup is an ice hockey tournament for European clubs, begun in 1997 after the discontinuing of the European Cup. It was intended for teams from countries without representatives in the European Hockey League, with participating teams chosen by the countries' respective ice hockey associations. Hans Dobida served as chairman of the Continental Cup until 2018.Institut national des sciences appliquées de Rouen
The Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Rouen Normandie or INSA Rouen Normandie is a French Grande école, that is to say a five-year curriculum which aims to train highly skilled engineers who possess humane qualities and are well versed in the primary areas of science and engineering. Located in Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray, on the Madrillet technology center campus, in the suburbs of Rouen, this school accommodates more than 2000 students who specialize in 10 fields.Normandy
Normandy (; French: Normandie, pronounced [nɔʁmɑ̃di] (listen), Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is the northwesternmost of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Normandy is divided into five administrative departments: Calvados, Eure, Manche, Orne, and Seine-Maritime. It covers 30,627 square kilometres (11,825 sq mi), comprising roughly 5% of the territory of metropolitan France. Its population of 3.37 million accounts for around 5% of the population of France. The inhabitants of Normandy are known as Normans, and the region is the historic homeland of the Norman language. The neighboring regions are Hauts-de-France and Ile-de-France to the east, Centre-Val de Loire to the southeast, Pays de la Loire to the south, and Brittany to the southwest.
The historical region of Normandy comprised the present-day region of Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the departments of Mayenne and Sarthe. The Channel Islands (French: Îles Anglo-Normandes) are also historically part of Normandy; they cover 194 km² and comprise two bailiwicks: Guernsey and Jersey, which are British Crown dependencies over which Queen Elizabeth II reigns as Duke of Normandy.Normandy's name comes from the settlement of the territory by mainly Danish and Norwegian Vikings ("Northmen") from the 9th century, and confirmed by treaty in the 10th century between King Charles III of France and the Viking jarl Rollo. For a century and a half following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Normandy and England were linked by Norman and Frankish rulers.René L. De Rouen
René Louis De Rouen (January 7, 1874 – March 27, 1942) was a U.S. Representative from Louisiana.
Born on a farm near Ville Platte, then in St. Landry Parish (since the seat of government of Evangeline Parish), De Rouen attended private and public schools, and St. Charles College in Grand Coteau, Louisiana. He graduated in 1892 from Holy Cross College in New Orleans. De Rouen engaged in mercantile pursuits, banking, and farming. He served as delegate to the Louisiana constitutional convention in 1921.
De Rouen was elected as a Democrat to the Seventieth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Ladislas Lazaro. He was reelected to the Seventy-first and to the five succeeding Congresses and served from August 23, 1927, to January 3, 1941. He did not seek renomination in 1940. Fellow Democrat Vance Plauché, a campaign manager for Governor Sam Houston Jones of Lake Charles ran without opposition for the seat. Plauché did not seek reelection in 1942.
De Rouen served as chairman of the Committee on Public Lands (Seventy-third through Seventy-sixth Congresses). He served in the state banking department in Baton Rouge, after his retirement from Congress until his death.
He died in Baton Rouge and is interred at Catholic Cemetery in Ville Platte.Rollo
Rollo or Gaange Rolf (Norman: Rou; Old Norse: Hrólfr; French: Rollon; c. 860 – c. 930 AD) was a Viking who became the first ruler of Normandy, a region in northern France. He is sometimes called the first Duke of Normandy. His son and grandson, William Longsword and Richard I, used the titles "count" (Latin comes or consul) and "prince" (princeps). His great-grandson Richard II was the first to officially use the title of Duke of Normandy. His Scandinavian name Rolf was extended to Gaange Rolf because he became too heavy as an adult for a horse to carry; therefore he had to walk ("ganga" in older Dano-Norwegian). Rollo emerged as the outstanding personality among the Norsemen who had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine. Charles the Simple, the king of West Francia, ceded them lands between the mouth of the Seine and what is now Rouen in exchange for Rollo agreeing to end his brigandage, and provide the Franks with protection against future Viking raids.Rollo is first recorded as the leader of these Viking settlers in a charter of 918, and he continued to reign over the region of Normandy until at least 928. He was succeeded by his son William Longsword in the Duchy of Normandy that he had founded. The offspring of Rollo and his followers became known as the Normans. After the Norman conquest of England and their conquest of southern Italy and Sicily over the following two centuries, their descendants came to rule Norman England (the House of Normandy), the Kingdom of Sicily (the Kings of Sicily) as well as the Principality of Antioch from the 10th to 12th century, leaving behind an enduring legacy in the histories of Europe and the Near East.Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Rouen (Latin: Archidioecesis Rothomagensis; French: Archidiocèse de Rouen) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. As one of the fifteen Archbishops of France, the Archbishop of Rouen's ecclesiastical province comprises the majority of Normandy. The Archbishop of Rouen is Dominique Lebrun.Rouen-Les-Essarts
Rouen-Les-Essarts was a 6.542 km (4.065 mi) motor racing circuit in Orival, near Rouen, France.
From its opening in 1950, Rouen-Les-Essarts was recognized as one of Europe's finest circuits, with modern pits, a wide track, and spectator grandstands. The street circuit (which ran on public roads) had a few medium straights, a cobbled hairpin turn (Nouveau Monde) at the southernmost tip, and a few blind corners through a wooded hillside The appeal was greatly enhanced by the climb from Nouveau Monde at 56 metres to Gresil at 149 metres, with gradients over 9%.
Rouen hosted five Formula One French Grand Prix races, the last one in 1968 resulting in the tragic burning death of Jo Schlesser, at the fast downhill Six Frères curve. The circuit continued to host major Formula 2 events until 1978, after which it was used for various French Championships.
The circuit had a number of different configurations. From its construction in 1950 until 1954 it was 5.1 km (3.2 mi) in length. In 1955 major works increased the circuit's length to 6.542 km (4.065 mi), its most famous configuration. Construction of a new Autoroute across the circuit saw a new section of track built and the length of the circuit reduced to 5.543 km (3.444 mi). Finally, in 1974 a permanent chicane was built at Six Frères and this part of the circuit was renamed Des Roches.
The circuit was closed down in 1994 due to economic and safety reasons, since it is very hard to organise a race on public roads if modern safety standards are to be met. In 1999, following the circuit's closure all evidence of area's racing past was demolished, including grandstands, pits, Armco and track signs. The cobbled Nouveau Monde hairpin was also asphalted but it is still possible to drive around on the original circuit configuration.
The name "Les Essarts" comes from a village, which was included into the commune of Grand-Couronne in 1874.Rouen Cathedral
Rouen Cathedral (French: Cathédrale primatiale Notre-Dame de l'Assomption de Rouen) is a Roman Catholic church in Rouen, Normandy, France. It is the see of the Archbishop of Rouen, Primate of Normandy. The cathedral is in the Gothic architectural tradition.Sotteville-lès-Rouen
Sotteville-lès-Rouen is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.US Quevilly-Rouen
US Quevilly-Rouen Métropole (French: Union Sportive Quevillaise), known simply as US Quevilly or USQRM is a French football club based in Le Petit-Quevilly (Seine-Maritime). They play at the Amable-et-Micheline-Lozai Stadium, which has a capacity of 2,500.University of Rouen
The University of Rouen (Université de Rouen) is a French university, in the Academy of Rouen.Vieux-Rouen-sur-Bresle
Vieux-Rouen-sur-Bresle is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.William Longsword
William Longsword (French: Guillaume Longue-Épée, Latin: Willermus Longa Spata, Old Norse: Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy, from 927 until his assassination in 942.He is sometimes anachronistically dubbed "Duke of Normandy", even though the title duke (dux) did not come into common usage until the 11th century. Longsword was known at the time by the title Count (Latin comes) of Rouen.Flodoard—always detailed about titles—consistently referred to both Rollo and his son William as principes (chieftains) of the Norse.
|Climate data for Rouen (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.7
|Average high °C (°F)||6.4
|Average low °C (°F)||1.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||76.3
|Average precipitation days||13.0||10.3||11.9||10.7||11.8||9.5||9.4||9.0||9.7||12.4||13.0||13.0||133.6|
|Average snowy days||4.7||4.2||3.3||1.8||0.2||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||1.7||3.4||19.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||90||86||83||78||79||80||79||80||84||89||90||91||84.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.6||74.5||117.4||158.0||182.8||202.2||199.2||191.8||156.1||107.8||60.0||49.2||1,557.5|
|Source #1: Météo France|
|Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)|
Cities in France by population