Rotten Tomatoes

Rotten Tomatoes is an American review-aggregation website for film and television. The company was launched in August 1998 by three undergraduate students at the University of California, Berkeley: Senh Duong, Patrick Y. Lee, and Stephen Wang.[4][5][6][7] The name "Rotten Tomatoes" derives from the practice of audiences throwing rotten tomatoes when disapproving of a poor stage performance.

Since January 2010, Rotten Tomatoes has been owned by Flixster, which was in turn acquired by Warner Bros. in 2011. In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango.[8] Warner Bros. retained a minority stake in the merged entities, including Fandango.[2]

Rotten Tomatoes
Rotten Tomatoes logo
Screenshot
Rotten Tomatoes homepage
Type of site
Film and television review aggregator and user community
Owner[1][2]
Founder(s)Senh Duong
Key peopleSenh Duong
Patrick Y. Lee
Stephen Wang
Websitewww.rottentomatoes.com
Alexa rankNegative increase 405 (October 2018)[3]
CommercialYes
RegistrationOptional
LaunchedAugust 12, 1998
OCLC number48768329

History

Rotten Tomatoes was launched on August 12, 1998, as a spare-time project by Senh Duong.[9] His goal in creating Rotten Tomatoes was "to create a site where people can get access to reviews from a variety of critics in the U.S."[10] As a fan of Jackie Chan, Duong was inspired to create the website after collecting all the reviews of Chan's Hong Kong action movies as they were being released in the United States. The primary catalyst for the creation of the website was Rush Hour (1998), Chan's first major Hollywood crossover, which was originally planned to release in August 1998. Duong coded the website in two weeks and the site went live the same month, but Rush Hour itself ended up being pushed back to September 1998. Besides Jackie Chan films, he began including other films on Rotten Tomatoes, extending it beyond Chan's fandom.[11][12] The first non-Chan Hollywood movie whose reviews were featured on Rotten Tomatoes was Your Friends & Neighbors (1998). The website was an immediate success, receiving mentions by Netscape, Yahoo!, and USA Today within the first week of its launch; it attracted "600–1000 daily unique visitors" as a result.

Duong teamed up with University of California, Berkeley classmates Patrick Y. Lee and Stephen Wang, his former partners at the Berkeley, California-based web design firm Design Reactor, to pursue Rotten Tomatoes on a full-time basis. They officially launched it on April 1, 2000.[13]

In June 2004, IGN Entertainment acquired Rotten Tomatoes for an undisclosed sum.[14] In September 2005, IGN was bought by News Corp's Fox Interactive Media.[15] In January 2010, IGN sold the website to Flixster.[16] The combined reach of both companies is 30 million unique visitors a month across all different platforms, according to the companies.[17] In 2011, Warner Bros. acquired Rotten Tomatoes.[18] In February 2016, Flixster, including Rotten Tomatoes, was acquired by Fandango, a company of which Warner Bros. has a minority share.[19]

In early 2009, Current Television launched the televised version of the web review site, The Rotten Tomatoes Show. It was hosted by Brett Erlich and Ellen Fox and written by Mark Ganek. The show aired every Thursday at 10:30 EST on the Current TV network.[20] The last episode aired on September 16, 2010. It returned as a much shorter segment of InfoMania, a satirical news show that ended in 2011.

By late 2009, the website was designed to enable Rotten Tomatoes users to create and join groups to discuss various aspects of film. One group, "The Golden Oyster Awards", accepted votes of members for various awards, spoofing the better-known Academy Awards or Golden Globes. When Flixster bought the company, they disbanded the groups, announcing: "The Groups area has been discontinued to pave the way for new community features coming soon. In the meantime, please use the Forums to continue your conversations about your favorite movie topics".

As of February 2011, new community features have been added and others removed. For example, users can no longer sort films by Fresh Ratings from Rotten Ratings, and vice versa.

On September 17, 2013, a section devoted to scripted television series, called "TV Zone", was created as a subsection of the website.[21]

In February 2016, Rotten Tomatoes and its parent site Flixster were sold to Comcast's Fandango. Warner Bros retained a minority stake in the merged entities, including Fandango.[2]

In July 2017, the website's editor-in-chief since 2007, Matt Atchity, left to join The Young Turks.[22] On November 1, 2017, the site launched a new web series on Facebook, See It/Skip It, hosted by Jacqueline Coley and Segun Oduolowu.[23]

In March 2018, the site announced its new design, icons and logo for the first time in 19 years at SXSW.[24]

Traffic

Rotten Tomatoes is a top 1000 site, placing around #400 globally and top 150 for the US only, according to website ranker Alexa.[25] Monthly unique visitors to the rottentomatoes.com domain is 26M global (14.4M US) according to audience measurement service Quantcast.[26]

Features

Critic aggregate score

Rotten Tomatoes staff first collect online reviews from writers who are certified members of various writing guilds or film critic-associations. To be accepted as a critic on the website, a critic's original reviews must garner a specific number of "likes" from users. Those classified as "Top Critics" generally write for major newspapers. The critics upload their reviews to the movie page on the website, and need to mark their review "fresh" if it's generally favorable or "rotten" otherwise. It is necessary for the critic to do so as some reviews are qualitative and do not grant a numeric score, making it impossible for the system to be automatic.

The website keeps track of all of the reviews counted for each film and the percentage of positive reviews is calculated. Major, recently released films can attract up to 300 reviews. If the positive reviews make up 60% or more, the film is considered "fresh", in that a supermajority of the reviewers approve of the film. If the positive reviews are less than 60%, the film is considered "rotten". An average score on a 0 to 10 scale is also calculated. With each review, a short excerpt of the review is quoted that also serves a hyperlink to the complete review essay for anyone interested to read the critic's full thoughts on the subject.

"Top Critics", such as Roger Ebert, Desson Thomson, Stephen Hunter, Owen Gleiberman, Lisa Schwarzbaum, Peter Travers and Michael Phillips are identified in a sub-listing that calculates their reviews separately. Their opinions are also included in the general rating. When there are sufficient reviews, the staff creates and posts a consensus statement to express the general reasons for the collective opinion of the film.

This rating is indicated by an equivalent icon at the film listing, to give the reader a one-glance look at the general critical opinion about the work. The "Certified Fresh" seal is reserved for movies that satisfy two criteria: a "Tomatometer" of 75% or better and at least 40 reviews (for limited release movies, otherwise 80) from "Tomatometer" critics (including 5 Top Critics). Films earning this status will keep it unless the positive critical percentage drops below 70%.[27] Films with 100% positive ratings but fewer than required reviews may not receive the "Certified Fresh" seal.

Icon Score Description
Certified Fresh 2018.svg 70–100% Certified Fresh. Wide-release films with a score of 75% or higher that are reviewed by at least 80 critics, of which 5 are "Top Critics", are given this seal. The "Certified Fresh" seal remains until the score drops below 70%.[27] Films with limited releases require only 40 reviews (including 5 from "Top Critics") to qualify for this seal.[27]
Rotten Tomatoes.svg 60–100% Fresh. Films with a score of 60% or higher that do not meet the requirements for the "Certified Fresh" seal.
Rotten Tomatoes rotten.svg 0–59% Rotten. Films with a score of 0–59% receive this seal.

Golden Tomato Awards

In the year 2000, Rotten Tomatoes announced the RT Awards honoring the best-reviewed films of the year according to the website's rating system.[28] This was later renamed the Golden Tomato Awards.[29] The nominees and winners are announced on the website, although there is no actual awards ceremony.

The films are divided into wide release and limited release categories. Limited releases are defined as opening in 599 or fewer theaters at initial release. Platform releases, movies initially released under 600 theaters but later receiving wider distribution, fall under this definition. Any film opening in more than 600 theaters is considered wide release.[29] There are also two categories purely for British and Australian films. The "User"-category represents the highest rated film among users, and the "Mouldy"-award represents the worst-reviewed films of the year. A movie must have 40 (originally 20) or more rated reviews to be considered for domestic categories. It must have 500 or more user ratings to be considered for the "User"-category.

Films are further classified based on film genre. Each movie is eligible in only one genre, aside from non-English language films, which can be included in both their genre and the respective "Foreign" category.

Once a film is considered eligible, its "votes" are counted. Each critic from the website's list gets one vote (as determined by their review), all weighted equally. Because reviews are continually added, manually and otherwise, a cutoff date at which new reviews are not counted toward the Golden Tomato awards is initiated each year, usually the first of the new year. Reviews without ratings are not counted toward the results of the Golden Tomato Awards.[29]

Critics consensus

Each movie features a brief summary of the reviews used in that entry's Tomatometer aggregate score. These are written by Jeff Giles, a longtime author for the site.[30]

Audience score and reviews

Positive and negative audience score icons

Positive audience score
Rotten Tomatoes negative audience

Each movie features a "user average", which calculates the percentage of registered users who have rated the film positively on a 10-star scale, similar to calculation of recognized critics' reviews.

Localized versions

Localized versions of the site available in the United Kingdom, India, and Australia were discontinued following the acquisition of Rotten Tomatoes by Fandango. The Mexican version of the site (Tomatazos) remains active.

API

The Rotten Tomatoes API provides limited access to critic and audience ratings and reviews, allowing developers to incorporate Rotten Tomatoes data on other websites. The free service is intended for use in the US only; permission is required for use elsewhere.[31]

Influence

Major Hollywood studios have come to see Rotten Tomatoes as a threat to their marketing. In 2017 several blockbuster films like Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Men Tell No Tales, Baywatch and The Mummy were projected to open with gross receipts of $90 million, $50 million and $45 million respectively, but ended up debuting with $62.6 million, $23.1 million and $31.6 million. Rotten Tomatoes, which gave the films low scores of 30%, 19% and 16%, was blamed for undermining them. That same summer, films like Wonder Woman and Spider-Man: Homecoming (both 92%) received high scores and opened on par or exceeded expectations with their $100+ million trackings.[32][33][34]

As result of this concern, 20th Century Fox commissioned a 2015 study, titled "Rotten Tomatoes and Box Office", that stated the website combined with social media was going to be an increasingly serious complication for the film business: "The power of Rotten Tomatoes and fast-breaking word of mouth will only get stronger. Many Millennials and even Gen X-ers now vet every purchase through the Internet, whether it's restaurants, video games, make-up, consumer electronics or movies. As they get older and comprise an even larger share of total moviegoers, this behavior is unlikely to change".[35] Other studios have commissioned a number of studies on the subject, with them finding that seven out of 10 people said they would be less interested in seeing a film if the Rotten Tomatoes score was 0-25, and that the site has the most influence on people 25 and younger.[34]

The scores have reached a level of online ubiquity which film companies have found threatening. For instance, the scores are regularly posted in Google search results for films so reviewed. Furthermore, the scores are prominently featured in Fandango's popular ticket purchasing website and its mobile app, Flixster, which led to complaints that "rotten" scores damaged films' performances.[36]

Others have argued that filmmakers and studios have only themselves to blame if Rotten Tomatoes produces a bad score, as this only reflects a poor reception among film critics. As one independent film distributor marketing executive noted, "To me, it's a ridiculous argument that Rotten Tomatoes is the problem ... make a good movie!".[37] ComScore's Paul Dergarabedian had similar comments, saying: "The best way for studios to combat the 'Rotten Tomatoes Effect' is to make better movies, plain and simple".[34]

Some studios have suggested embargoing or cancelling early critic screenings in a response to poor reviews prior to a film's release affecting pre-sales and opening weekend numbers.[33] In July 2017, Sony embargoed critic reviews for The Emoji Movie until mid-day the Thursday before its release. The film ended up with a 9% rating (including 0% after the first 25 reviews), but still opened to $24 million, on par with projections. Josh Greenstein, Sony Pictures President of Worldwide Marketing and Distribution, said: "The Emoji Movie was built for people under 18 ... so we wanted to give the movie its best chance. What other wide release with a score under 8 percent has opened north of $20 million? I don't think there is one". Conversely, Warner Bros. also did not do critic pre-screenings for The House, which ended up with a 16% rating, until the day of its release, but it still opened to just $8.7 million, the lowest of star Will Ferrell's career.[34]

That marketing tactic can backfire, and drew the vocal disgust of influential critics such as Roger Ebert, who was prone to derisively condemn such moves, with gestures such as "The Wagging Finger of Shame", on At the Movies.[38] Furthermore, the very nature of withholding reviews can draw early conclusions from the public that the film is of poor quality because of that marketing tactic.[39]

On February 26, 2019, in response to issues surrounding coordinated bombing of user reviews for several films, most notably Captain Marvel, and Star Wars: Episode IX, prior to their release, the site announced that user reviews would no longer be accepted until a film is publicly released. The site also announced plans to introduce a system for "verified" reviews, and that the "Want to See" statistic would now be expressed as a number so that it is not confused with the audience score.[40][41]

Criticism

Oversimplification

In January 2010, on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the New York Film Critics Circle, its chairman Armond White cited Rotten Tomatoes in particular and film review aggregators in general as examples of how "the Internet takes revenge on individual expression". He said they work by "dumping reviewers onto one website and assigning spurious percentage-enthusiasm points to the discrete reviews". According to White, such websites "offer consensus as a substitute for assessment".[42]

Director and producer Brett Ratner has criticized the website for "reducing hundreds of reviews culled from print and online sources into a popularized aggregate score", and feels it is the "worst thing that we have in today's movie culture".[43] Writer Max Landis, following his film Victor Frankenstein receiving an approval rating of 24% on the site, wrote that the site "breaks down entire reviews into just the word 'yes' or 'no', making criticism binary in a destructive arbitrary way".[44]

Other

American director Martin Scorsese wrote a column in The Hollywood Reporter criticizing both Rotten Tomatoes and CinemaScore for promoting the idea that films like Mother! had to be "instantly liked" to be successful.[45]

While promoting the film Suffragette (which has a "fresh" rating[46]) in 2015, actress Meryl Streep accused Rotten Tomatoes of disproportionately representing the opinions of male film critics, resulting in a skewed ratio that adversely affected the commercial performances of female-driven movies. "I submit to you that men and women are not the same, they like different things", she said. "Sometimes they like the same thing, but sometimes their tastes diverge. If the Tomatometer is slighted so completely to one set of tastes that drives box office in the United States, absolutely."[47]

Rotten Tomatoes deliberately withheld the critic score for Justice League based on early reviews until the premiere of its See It/Skip It episode on the Thursday before its release. Some critics viewed the move as a ploy to promote the web series, but some argued that the move was a deliberate conflict of interest on account of Warner Bros.' ownership of the film and Rotten Tomatoes, and the tepid critical reception to the DC Extended Universe films, barring Wonder Woman.[48]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fandango snaps up Rotten Tomatoes and Flixster". Engadget(AOL). Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Anthony D'Alessandro. "Fandango Acquires Rotten Tomatoes & Flixster - Deadline". Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  3. ^ "Rottentomatoes.com Traffic, Demographics and Competitors - Alexa". www.alexa.com. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  4. ^ "How Rotten Tomatoes became Hollywood's most influential — and feared — website". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  5. ^ "Entrepreneurial Best Practices Series: A Fireside Chat with Rotten Tomatoes Founder Patrick Lee - Berkeley-Haas Entrepreneurship Program". Berkeley-Haas Entrepreneurship Program. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  6. ^ "Notable Cal Alumni". Cal Alumni Association, UC Berkeley. February 21, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  7. ^ "Stephen Wang". angel.co. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  8. ^ Pallotta, Frank. "Fandango acquires review site Rotten Tomatoes, Flixster". CNNMoney. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  9. ^ Lazarus, David (April 26, 2001). "Fresh Look For Rotten Tomatoes / Help from college buddies elevates movie-rating website beyond hobby status". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  10. ^ "Senh Duong interview, 2000". Asianconnections.com. August 19, 1999. Archived from the original on September 27, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  11. ^ "20 Years Later, Rush Hour Is Still a Buddy-Cop Gem". Rotten Tomatoes. September 18, 2018.
  12. ^ Semley, John (2018). Hater: On the Virtues of Utter Disagreeability. Penguin Books. pp. 26–27. ISBN 9780735236172.
  13. ^ Ryan, Tim. "Rotten Tomatoes Oral History". Rotten Tomatoes (Fandango Media). Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  14. ^ "IGN Entertainment to Acquire Rotten Tomatoes". Corp.ign.com. June 29, 2004. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  15. ^ "News Corp. Acquires IGN for $650 Million". Bloomberg. September 10, 2005. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  16. ^ Graser, Marc (January 4, 2010). "Flixster buys Rotten Tomatoes". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
  17. ^ "News Corp. Unloads Rotten Tomatoes Onto Flixster". TechCrunch (AOL). January 4, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  18. ^ Sweney, Mark (May 4, 2011). "Warner Bros buys Rotten Tomatoes owner Flixster". The Guardian. Guardian News. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  19. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes and Flixster Acquired By Fandango". Slashfilm. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  20. ^ "The Rotten Tomatoes Show on Current". The Rotten Tomatoes Show. November 23, 2009. Archived from the original on February 21, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
  21. ^ Atchity, Matt. "Welcome to the Rotten Tomatoes TV Zone". Rotten Tomatoes (Fandango Media). Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
  22. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes Editor-in-Chief Matt Atchity Joins The Young Turks as Head of Programming". Variety. July 16, 2017.
  23. ^ Spangler, Todd (October 26, 2017). "Rotten Tomatoes to Launch Weekly 'See It/Skip It' Show on Facebook (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
  24. ^ Richards, Katie (March 6, 2018). "Rotten Tomatoes Rolls Out a Fresh Logo and Visual Identity After 19 Years". Adweek. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  25. ^ "rottentomatoes.com". Alexa Internet. Retrieved November 26, 2017.
  26. ^ "rottentomatoes". Quantcast. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
  27. ^ a b c "Rotten Tomatoes: Licensing". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  28. ^ "2nd Golden Tomato Awards". Rotten Tomatoes. January 1, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  29. ^ a b c "14th Golden Tomato Awards". Rotten Tomatoes. January 1, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  30. ^ Barnes, Brooks (September 7, 2017). "Attacked By Rotten Tomatoes". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  31. ^ "Welcome to the Rotten Tomatoes API". Flixster, Inc. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2014.
  32. ^ Mendelson, Scott (June 13, 2017). "Rotten Tomatoes, Netflix And A Perfect Storm That Dooms Hollywood". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  33. ^ a b "How 'Pirates' & 'Baywatch' Are Casualties Of Summer Franchise Fatigue At The Domestic B.O." Deadline Hollywood. Penske Media Corporation. May 28, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  34. ^ a b c d "Studios Fight Back Against Withering Rotten Tomatoes Scores". The Hollywood Reporter. August 2, 2017.
  35. ^ Lee, Chris (June 9, 2017). "How Hollywood Came to Fear and Loathe Rotten Tomatoes". Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
  36. ^ Barnes, Brooks (September 8, 2017). "Rotten Tomatoes won't be getting fresh ratings from Hollywood". Toronto Star. Torstar Corporation. New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  37. ^ Lee, Chris (June 9, 2017). "How Hollywood Came to Fear and Loathe Rotten Tomatoes". Vanity Fair. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  38. ^ Knight, Chris (August 31, 2017). "Why Hollywood doesn't want you to see Tulip Fever, which has been buried deep for three long years". National Post. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  39. ^ Dickey, Josh. "There's a secret way to predict a movie's Rotten Tomatoes score". Mashable.com. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  40. ^ Polo, Susana (2019-02-26). "Rotten Tomatoes will no longer allow audiences to review movies before release". Polygon. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  41. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes takes on trolls by removing 'want to see' scores". Engadget. Retrieved 2019-02-26.
  42. ^ White, Armond (April 3, 2010). "Do Movie Critics Matter?". First Things. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  43. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes Is 'the Destruction of Our Business,' Says Director". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. March 23, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
  44. ^ Birrell, Mark (April 16, 2017). "Critical Mass: Rotten Tomatoes and the death of individuality". The Spread. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  45. ^ Martin Scorsese (October 10, 2017). "Martin Scorsese on Rotten Tomatoes, Box Office Obsession and Why 'Mother!' Was Misjudged (Guest Column)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  46. ^ "Suffragette (2015)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  47. ^ Shoard, Catherine (June 15, 2018). "Ocean's 8 stars blame dominance of male critics for film's mixed reviews". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  48. ^ "'Justice League', Rotten Tomatoes, and DC Fans' Persecution Complex". Wired. Retrieved November 25, 2017.

Further reading

External links

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Bad Hat Harry Productions is an American film and television production company founded in 1994 by director Bryan Singer. It has produced such films as The Usual Suspects and the X-Men film series, as well as the television series House. The name is a homage to Steven Spielberg and comes from a line uttered by Roy Scheider in the 1975 feature Jaws. Martin Brody says to an elderly swimmer who teases him about not going in the water, "That's some bad hat, Harry." The original 2004 logo paid homage to this scene. The current logo, introduced in 2011, is taken from the police lineup scene of The Usual Suspects.

Chris Columbus (filmmaker)

Chris Joseph Columbus (; born September 10, 1958) is an American filmmaker. Columbus is known for directing films such as Home Alone (1990); its sequel, Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (1992); Mrs. Doubtfire (1993); Nine Months (1995); Stepmom (1998); Bicentennial Man (1999); Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001); its sequel, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002); Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief (2010); and Pixels (2015). He is also known for writing films such as Gremlins (1984) and The Goonies (1985).

Home Alone won a British Comedy Award for Best Comedy Film. Columbus received an Academy Award nomination for producing The Help (2011).

Ehren Kruger

Ehren Kruger (born October 5, 1972) is an American screenwriter and film producer. He is best known for writing three of the five installments in the Transformers film series: Revenge of the Fallen, Dark of the Moon, and Age of Extinction.

Flixster

Flixster was an American social movie site for discovering new movies, learning about movies, and meeting others with similar tastes in movies. The site allowed users to view movie trailers as well as learn about new and upcoming movies in the box office. The site was based in San Francisco, California and was founded by Joe Greenstein and Saran Chari in 2007. Flixster was the parent of website Rotten Tomatoes since January 2010. On February 17, 2016, Flixster, including Rotten Tomatoes, was acquired by Fandango.

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Heather Graham

Heather Joan Graham (born January 29, 1970) is an American actress. After appearing in television commercials, her first starring role in a feature film came with the teen comedy License to Drive (1988), followed by the critically acclaimed film Drugstore Cowboy (1989), which gained her initial industry notice. She then played supporting roles in films such as Shout (1991), Diggstown (1992), Six Degrees of Separation (1993), Swingers (1996) and on the television series Twin Peaks (1991) and its prequel film Fire Walk with Me (1992), before gaining critical praise in Paul Thomas Anderson's Boogie Nights (1997) as porn starlet Brandy / Rollergirl. In 1999, she co-starred in Bowfinger and Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me.

In the 2000s, Graham starred in films Committed (2000), Say It Isn't So (2001), Mary (2005), Gray Matters (2007), The Hangover (2009) and its sequel, The Hangover Part III (2013). She also had a role on the television series Scrubs in 2004, before playing the title character on the short-lived series Emily's Reasons Why Not in 2006. She also had recurring roles on Showtime's Californication (2014) and Netflix's Flaked (2016).

Noted for portraying characters with sex appeal, she often appears in magazine lists of "Most Beautiful" and "Sexiest" women.

Graham is a public advocate for Children International, and supported the climate change campaign Global Cool in 2007.

List of French films of 2014

The French film industry produced over four hundred feature films in 2014. This article fully lists all non-pornographic films, including short films, that had a release date in that year and which were at least partly made by France. It does not include films first released in previous years that had release dates in 2014. Also included is an overview of the major events in French film, including film festivals and awards ceremonies, as well as lists of those films that have been particularly well received, both critically and financially.

List of Walt Disney Animation Studios films

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List of films based on DC Comics

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Film adaptations based on DC Comics properties have included serials, live action and animated films, direct-to-video releases, television films, fan-made films, and documentary films.

List of films based on Marvel Comics

Marvel Comics is a publisher of American comic books and related media. It counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Spider-Man, Iron Man, Hulk, Thor, Captain America, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Wolverine, Daredevil and Deadpool, and such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, and the Guardians of the Galaxy. Most of Marvel's fictional characters are depicted as occupying a shared fictional universe, most locations mirroring real-life places. Many major characters are based in New York City.Film adaptations based on Marvel Comics properties have included theatrically released film serials, live action and animated feature films, direct-to-video releases, and television films.

List of films considered the worst

The films listed below have been cited by a variety of notable critics in varying media sources as being among the worst films ever made. Examples of such sources include Metacritic, Roger Ebert's list of most-hated films, The Golden Turkey Awards, Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide, Rotten Tomatoes, the Stinkers Bad Movie Awards, Mystery Science Theater 3000, and the Golden Raspberry Awards (the "Razzies"). Films on these lists are generally feature-length films that are commercial in nature (intended to turn a profit), professionally produced (as opposed to amateur productions), and released in theaters, on television, or more recently through on-demand streaming services.

List of films with a 0% rating on Rotten Tomatoes

On the film review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, films that all surveyed critics consider bad have a 0% rating. Some of these are often considered some of the worst films ever made.

List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes

On the film review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, films that have exclusively positive reviews and have been reviewed by at least five critics have a 100% approval rating. Many of these films, particularly those with a high number of positive reviews, have achieved wide critical acclaim and are often considered among the best. A number of these films also appear on the AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies lists, but there are many others and several entries with dozens of positive reviews, which are considered surprising to some experts. To date, Paddington 2 holds the site's record, with an approval rating of 100% and 225 positive reviews.

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Peter Bogdanovich

Peter Bogdanovich (born July 30, 1939) is an American director, writer, actor, producer, critic and film historian. He is part of the wave of "New Hollywood" directors, and his most critically acclaimed and well-known film is the drama The Last Picture Show (1971).

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Peter Dinklage

Peter Hayden Dinklage (; born June 11, 1969) is an American actor and film producer. Dinklage studied acting at Bennington College, starring in a number of amateur stage productions. His film debut was in Living in Oblivion (1995) and his breakthrough came with the comedy-drama The Station Agent (2003). He has since appeared in Elf (2003), Find Me Guilty (2006), Underdog (2007), Penelope (2008), Death at a Funeral (2007), The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian (2008), X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014) and Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri (2017), which earned him his first Screen Actors Guild Award. In 2018, he appeared as Eitri in the Marvel Cinematic Universe film Avengers: Infinity War after appearing as Vikings and Hervé Villechaize in the biopic film My Dinner with Hervé.

Since shooting the pilot episode in 2009, Dinklage has portrayed Tyrion Lannister on the HBO television series Game of Thrones, for which he won three Primetime Emmys from seven consecutive nominations. He also received a Golden Globe for the role in 2011.

Richard Linklater

Richard Stuart Linklater (; born July 30, 1960) is an American filmmaker. Linklater is known for his realistic and natural humanist films, which revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time. His films include the observational comedy film Slacker (1990); the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused (1993); the romantic drama film trilogy Before Sunrise (1995), Before Sunset (2004), and Before Midnight (2013); the music-themed comedy School of Rock (2003); Boyhood (2014); and the rotoscope animated films Waking Life (2001) and A Scanner Darkly (2006).

In 2002, he began filming Boyhood, a passion project that took over twelve years to complete. The film was released in 2014 to widespread critical acclaim. In 2015, Linklater was included on the annual Time 100 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.Many of his films are noted for their loosely structured narrative; several of his projects—the Before... films and Boyhood—feature the same actors filmed over an extended period of years.

Studio Ghibli

Studio Ghibli, Inc. (Japanese: 株式会社スタジオジブリ, Hepburn: Kabushiki gaisha Sutajio Jiburi) is a Japanese animation film studio based in Koganei, Tokyo, Japan. The studio is best known for its anime feature films, and has also produced several short films, television commercials, and one television film. It was founded on 15 June 1985, after the success of Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind (1984), with funding by Tokuma Shoten. Studio Ghibli has also collaborated with video game studios on the visual development of several video games.Six of Studio Ghibli's films are among the 10 highest-grossing anime films made in Japan, with Spirited Away (2001) being the second highest, grossing over US$290 million worldwide. Many of their works have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award, and four have won the Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year. Five of Studio Ghibli's films have received Academy Award nominations. Spirited Away won the Golden Bear in 2002 and the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Film in 2003. Totoro, a character from My Neighbor Totoro, is the studio's mascot.On 3 August 2014, Studio Ghibli temporarily halted production following the retirement of director Hayao Miyazaki, who co-founded the studio with the late Isao Takahata. In February 2017, Toshio Suzuki announced that Miyazaki had come out of retirement again to direct a new feature film, How Do You Live?, with Studio Ghibli.

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