Rotha Lintorn-Orman

Rotha Beryl Lintorn Lintorn-Orman (1895–10 March 1935) was the founder of the British Fascisti, the first avowedly fascist movement to appear in British politics.

Rotha Lintorn-Orman Portrait
Portrait of Lintorn-Orman taken in August 1916

Early life

Born as Rotha Beryl Lintorn Orman in Kensington, London, she was the daughter of Charles Edward Orman, a major from the Essex Regiment, and his wife, Blanch Lintorn, née Simmons. Her maternal grandfather was Field Marshal Sir Lintorn Simmons.[1] The Orman family would adopt the surname of Lintorn-Orman in 1912.

Rotha Orman, with her friend Nesta Maude, was among the few girls who showed up at the 1909 Crystal Palace Scout Rally wanting to be Scouts[2] which led to the foundation of the Girl Guides. In 1908 they had registered as a Scout troop, using their initials rather than forenames.[3] In 1911 she was awarded one of the first of the Girl Guides' Silver Fish Awards.[4]

In the First World War, Lintorn-Orman served as a member of the Women's Volunteer Reserve and with the Scottish Women's Hospital Corps.[5] She was decorated for her contribution at the Great Thessaloniki Fire of 1917[6] but invalided home with malaria. In 1918 she became head of the British Red Cross Motor School to train drivers in the battlefield.[7] In these early years she developed a strong sense of British nationalism, and became a staunch monarchist and imperialist.

Fascism

Following Lintorn-Orman's war service, she placed an advertisement in the right-wing journal The Patriot seeking anti-communists.[8] This led to the foundation of the British Fascisti (later the British Fascists) in 1923 as a response to the growing strength of the Labour Party, a source of great anxiety for the virulently anti-Communist Lintorn-Orman.[9] She felt Labour was too prone to advocating class conflict and internationalism, two of her pet hates.[10] Nicholas Mosley would claim that she got the idea to save Britain from communism one day while she was weeding her kitchen garden.[11]

Emblem of the British Fascists
Emblem of the British Fascists

Financed by her mother Blanch, Lintorn-Orman's party nonetheless struggled due to her preference for remaining within the law and her continuing ties to the fringes of the Conservative Party.[9] Lintorn-Orman was essentially a Tory by inclination but was driven by a strong anti-communism and attached herself to fascism largely because of her admiration for Benito Mussolini and what she saw as his action-based style of politics.[12] The party was subject to a number of schisms, such as when the moderates led by R. B. D. Blakeney defected to the Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies during the 1926 General Strike or when the more radical members resigned to form the National Fascisti, and ultimately lost members to the Imperial Fascist League and the British Union of Fascists when these groups emerged. For her part Lintorn-Orman would have nothing to do with the BUF as she considered Oswald Mosley to be a near-communist[13] and was particularly appalled by his former membership of the Labour Party,[14] although it was to this group that she lost much of her membership when Neil Francis Hawkins became a member in 1932.[15]

Final years

Dependent on alcohol and other drugs,[16] rumours about her private life began to damage her reputation, until her mother stopped her funding amid lurid tales of alcohol, other drugs and orgies.[17] Taken ill in 1933, she was sidelined from the British Fascists, with effective control passing to Mrs D. G. Harnett, who sought to breathe new life into the group by seeking to ally it with Ulster loyalism.[18]

She died on 10 March 1935 at Santa Brígida, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, with her organisation all but defunct.

Bibliography

  • 'Feminine Fascism': Women in Britain's Fascist Movement, Julie V. Gottlieb (I.B. Tauris, 2000)
  • 'Hurrah for the Blackshirts!': Fascists and Fascism in Britain between the Wars, Martin Pugh (Random House, 2005)

References

  1. ^ Benewick, Robert, Political Violence and Public Order, London: Allan Lane, 1969, p. 27.
  2. ^ Summerskill, Ben (30 July 2000). "The day mere girls subdued Baden-Powell". The Observer. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  3. ^ Proctor, Tammy M. (2009). Scouting for Girls: A Century of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. ABC-CLIO. p. 5.
  4. ^ District History: Pre-1950, Liphook District Guides Archived 2013-07-07 at Archive.today
  5. ^ M. Durham, 'Britain', K. Passmore (ed.), Women, Gender and Fascism in Europe 1919–45, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003, p. 216.
  6. ^ Thurlow, Richard, Fascism in Britain, London: IB Tauris, 1998
  7. ^ Richard Griffiths, Fellow Travellers on the Right, Oxford University Press, 1983, p. 85.
  8. ^ Durham, 'Britain', p. 215
  9. ^ a b Thurlow, Fascism in Britain, p. 34
  10. ^ J.A. Cole, Lord Haw-Haw: The Full Story of William Joyce, Faber & Faber, 1987, p. 29
  11. ^ Nicholas Mosley, Rules of the Game: Sir Oswald and Lady Cynthia Mosley 1896–1933, Fontana, 1983, ISBN 0006366449, p. 229
  12. ^ Griffiths, Fellow Travellers on the Right, p. 86
  13. ^ S. Dorril, Blackshirt – Sir Oswald Mosley and British Fascism, London: Penguin, 2007, p. 204
  14. ^ Cole, Lord Haw-Haw, pp. 39–40
  15. ^ Benewick, Political Violence, p. 36
  16. ^ Dorril, Blackshirt, p. 198
  17. ^ Thurlow, Fascism in Britain, p. 37
  18. ^ Griffiths, Fellow Travellers on the Right, p. 92

External links

1909 Crystal Palace Scout Rally

The Crystal Palace Rally was a historic gathering of Boy Scouts and unofficial "Girl Scouts" at the Crystal Palace in London on Saturday, 4 September 1909. The rally demonstrated the rapid popularization of Scouting with an estimated 11,000 boys attending with the prominent presence of Girl Scouts also being significant for the start of Girl Guides/Scouts. The rally was held a year and a half after the publication of Scouting for Boys and The Scout magazine, and two years after Robert Baden-Powell's demonstration Brownsea Island Scout Camp.

Some controversy occurred with attempts to exclude girls and Boy Scouts from the British Boy Scouts, Church Scout Patrols and other Scouts not registered with what would become the Boy Scouts Association, leading to challenges regarding the 4th Scout Law that "A Scout is ... a brother to every other Scout".The Rally was a precursor to the later Scout Jamborees and World Scout Jamborees.

The concept of the Scouts' Own, a simple, non-denominational religious ceremony, was also introduced by H. Geoffrey Elwes at this rally.Members of the local Scout Troop, 2nd Croydon (1st Crystal Palace Patrol), formed part of the flag party for Princess Christian, the member of the Royal family in attendance. As a result, the Group, which is still in existence, has the right to call themselves Princess Christian's Own. The Group still meet near Crystal Palace Park and regularly use Crystal Palace park for Scouting activities.

Adam Marshall Diston

Adam Marshall Diston (1893–1956; born in Scotland) was a journalist for the Sunday Dispatch and ghostwriter for Winston Churchill. He had 'close affinities' to Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists. He had a military background, serving in a Scottish regiment from 1914-1918.

British Fascists

The British Fascists were the first political organisation in the United Kingdom to claim the label of fascist. While the group had more in common with conservatism for much of its existence, it nonetheless was the first to self-describe as fascist in Britain. William Joyce, Neil Francis Hawkins, Maxwell Knight and Arnold Leese were amongst those to have passed through the movement as members and activists.

Charles Orman

Charles Edward Orman (6 September 1859 – 11 February 1927) was an English cricketer and soldier. He played two matches for Essex in 1896.He was commissioned in 1878 from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and was promoted to major in the Essex Regiment in 1895. In 1893 he married Blanche Lintorn Simmons, daughter of Field Marshal Sir Lintorn Simmons. The family would later adopt the name of Lintorn-Orman. A daughter was Rotha Lintorn-Orman.

Dorothy Grace Waring

Dorothy Grace Waring (8 June 1891 – 25 April 1977) was an English fascist campaigner in Northern Ireland and England and under the pseudonym D. Gainsborough Waring, the author of 12 novels from 1936 onwards.

Football Lads Alliance

The Football Lads Alliance (FLA) is a movement in the United Kingdom founded by John Meighan in 2017. According to The Times, "the movement was set up as a self-proclaimed 'anti-extremist' movement" but has increasingly become associated with far-right politics and far-right activists.The Premier League has warned clubs that "the group is using fans and stadiums to push an anti-Muslim agenda". Concern has also been expressed that the Alliance is "giving cover to the far right" and "uses a secret Facebook page full of violent, racist and misogynistic posts".

Graham Seton Hutchison

Lieutenant-Colonel Graham Seton Hutchison (1890–1946) was a Scottish First World War army officer, military theorist, author of both adventure novels and non-fiction works and fascist activist. Seton Hutchison became a celebrated figure in military circles for his tactical innovations during the First World War but would later become associated with a series of fringe fascist movements which failed to capture much support even by the standards of the far right in Britain in the interbellum period. He made a contribution to First World War fiction with his espionage novel, The W Plan.

List of British fascist parties

Although Fascism in the United Kingdom never reached the heights of many of its European counterparts, British politics after the First World War saw the emergence of a number of fascist movements, none of which ever came to power.

Lord Ernest Hamilton

Lord Ernest William Hamilton (5 September 1858 – 14 December 1939) was a United Kingdom soldier and Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1892.

Hamilton was the seventh son of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn and his wife Lady Louisa Jane Russell. He was educated at Harrow School and Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He became a captain in the 11th Hussars.His elder brothers Lord George Hamilton, Lord James Hamilton, and Lord Frederick Hamilton were also Conservative MPs.

In the 1885 general election Hamilton was elected Member of Parliament for Tyrone North. He held the seat until 1892.Hamilton was the author of several novels, two of which – The Outlaws of the Marches and The Mawkin of the Flow – are set on the Scottish Borders in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Another novel, Mary Hamilton, is based on the ballad of the same name.

In the period after the First World War Hamilton published several historical works, notably The Soul of Ulster, arguing that Ulster Protestants are descended from Scottish Border Reivers transplanted to Ulster by James I and VI, and equating the 1641 massacre of planters by Irish Catholic rebels with later Irish nationalist movements.

In the 1920s Hamilton supported the British Fascists led by Rotha Lintorn-Orman, but he resigned from the movement when Linorn-Orman refused to co-operate with the Conservative government in resisting the 1926 general strike.

Hamilton was brought up as an Evangelical Anglican. His religious views are expressed in Involution, a book which denounces the theological concept of sacrificial atonement and argues that Jesus was a purely ethical teacher. Hamilton argues that Marcionism was the correct interpretation of Jesus' message and that the God of the Old Testament is a personification of the Jewish national character, which he describes in highly anti-semitic terms.

Hamilton married Pamela Campbell (d. 1931) in 1891. She was a granddaughter of Sir Guy Campbell, 1st Baronet by his son Capt. Frederick Augustus Campbell (1839–1916). They had two sons and two daughters:

Guy Ernest Frederick Hamilton (1894–1914), who died unmarried.

Mary Brenda Hamilton (1897–1985), who in 1922 married the Lt.-Col. of the Scots Guards, Alphonse de Chimay, Prince de Chimay, Comte de Caraman (d. 1973). Their only child and daughter is the widow of Hugh Seymour, 8th Marquess of Hertford.

Jean Barbara Hamilton (b. 1898), who in 1921 became the first wife of Sir John Buchanan-Jardine, 3rd Baronet (1900–1969). They were divorced in 1944 and had one child and son.

John George Peter Hamilton (1900–1967), who in 1932 married Alexandra Christine Egerton (d. 1963), daughter of William Egerton from Kimberley, South Africa. They had no issue.

Marguerite de Beaumont

Marguerite de Beaumont was the author of one of the best known biographies of Lord Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, The Wolf That Never Sleeps.

With her younger sister Elizabeth, Nesta Maude, and Rotha Lintorn-Orman, she was one of the girls who showed up at the 1909 Crystal Palace Scout Rally wanting to be Scouts, which led to the foundation of the Girl Guides. The Crystal Palace was an enormous exhibition facility and stadium in London, and housed the first large gathering of Scouts, the forerunner to all later Jamborees, in September 1909. The Rally included displays, contests, a march-by of all the Scouts, and an inspection of the troops by the Chief Scout. At the end of the march-by, the last Scout patrol in a group of 11,000 consisted of nine girls, wearing Stetsons and carrying Scout staves. B.-P. approached the girls and asked who they were. "We're the Girl Scouts," to which he replied "You can't be; there aren't any Girl Scouts." 16 year old Nesta retorted swiftly "Oh, yes there are, 'cos we're them!" This was the Wolf Patrol, led by Marguerite as patrol leader and her younger sister Elizabeth. In 1908 they had registered as a Scout troop, using their initials rather than forenames. Also at the Rally were a group of girls calling themselves Pinkney's Green Scouts, and two representatives from the Girls' Emergency Corps. These three small groups of girls at the Crystal Palace Rally are often cited as the origin of the Girl Guide movement.Marguerite went on to become close personal friends with the Baden-Powell family, a Scoutmaster and Girl Guide Commissioner.

Neil Francis Hawkins

Neil L. M. Francis Hawkins (1903 – 25 December 1950) was a leading British fascist, both before and after the Second World War. He played a leading role in the British Union of Fascists, controlling the organisational structure of the movement.

Nesta Maude Ashworth

Nesta Gervaise Ashworth née Maude (9 October 1893 – 13 July 1982), was an early Scouting notable, instrumental in the setting up of Lone Guides, members of the Guides who are in isolated areas or otherwise do not participate in a regular Scouting unit or organisation. 1st Lone Company was established in 1912 by Agnes Baden-Powell, with Nesta Maude serving as Captain.

Nesta Maude, with Rotha Lintorn-Orman, was one of the girls who showed up at the 1909 Crystal Palace Scout Rally wanting to be Scouts, which led to the foundation of the Girl Guides. The Crystal Palace was an enormous exhibition facility and stadium in London, and housed the first large gathering of Scouts, the forerunner to all later Jamborees, in September 1909. The Rally included displays, contests, a march-by of all the Scouts, and an inspection of the troops by the Chief Scout. At the end of the march-by, the last Scout patrol in a group of 11,000 consisted of nine girls, wearing Stetsons and carrying staves. B.-P. approached the girls and asked who they were. "We're the Girl Scouts," to which he replied "You can't be; there aren't any Girl Scouts." 16 year old Nesta retorted swiftly "Oh, yes there are, 'cos we're them!" This was the Wolf Patrol, under patrol leader Marguerite de Beaumont, and her younger sister Elizabeth. In 1908 they had registered as a Scout troop, using their initials rather than forenames. Also at the Rally were a group of girls calling themselves Pinkney's Green Scouts, and two representatives from the Girls' Emergency Corps. These three small groups of girls at the Crystal Palace Rally are often cited as the origin of the Girl Guide movement.In 1911 she was awarded one of the first of the Girl Guides' Silver Fish Awards, the very first Guide to earn the award. She was awarded the Silver Fish twice, the second time in 1920.She married Norman Bradshaw Ashworth in 1920 at St Jude's Church, Hampstead Garden Suburb. He was awarded the OBE in the 1952 Birthday Honours. In 1951 she emigrated to British Columbia. Her autobiography, edited by her daughters, Mary Ashworth and Margaret Spencer, was published in 2015.

Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies

The Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies was a British right-wing movement, established in 1925 to provide volunteers in the event of a general strike. During the General Strike of 1926, it was taken over by the government to provide vital services, such as transport and communications.

Orman

Orman may refer to:

Surname:

Aldona Orman (born 1968), Polish actress

Alen Orman (born 1978), association football player for Austria

Charles Orman (1859 – 1927), British cricketer and soldier

Fikret Orman (born 1967), Turkish businessman

Greg Orman (born 1968), American businessman and senatorial candidate from Kansas

Harry Orman Robinson, American football coach

Jack Orman, American television writer, producer and director

James Bradley Orman (1849–1919), American politician and railroad builder

John Orman (died 2009), politics professor at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut

Kate Orman (born 1968), Australian author

Miles Orman played Miles Robinson on Sesame Street from 1985 to 1992

Rick Orman, former provincial level politician from Alberta, Canada

Roscoe Orman (born 1944), American actor who plays Gordon Robinson on the TV program Sesame Street

Rotha Lintorn-Orman (1895–1935), pioneer for women in British politics, founded the earliest British Fascist movement

Suze Orman (born 1951), American financial advisor, author, motivational speaker, and television host

Ward Van Orman (1894–1978), American engineer, inventor and balloonist

Willard Van Orman Quine (1908–2000), American analytic philosopher and logicianPlaces:

Orman Garden, botanical garden in Giza, Egypt

Orman House (built in 1838), Florida State Park and historic site located in Apalachicola, in northwestern Florida

Orman, a village in Iclod Commune, Cluj County, Romania

Orman River, tributary of the Someşul Mic River in Romania

Orman, Syria, a village in the al-Suwayda Governorate in Syria

Orman, a village in Gjorče Petrov Municipality, Republic of MacedoniaOther:

Fred & Harry Van Orman, Inc., hotel management company based in Chicago, Illinois

R. B. D. Blakeney

Brigadier-General Robert Byron Drury Blakeney, generally known as R.B.D. Blakeney (April 18, 1872 – February 13, 1952), was a British Army general and fascist politician. After a career with the Royal Engineers, Blakeney went on to serve as President of the British Fascists.

Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Service

The Scottish Women's Hospitals for Foreign Services (SWH) was founded in 1914. They provided nurses, doctors, ambulance drivers, cooks and orderlies. By the end of World War I 14 medical units had been outfitted and sent to serve in Corsica, France, Malta, Romania, Russia, Salonika and Serbia.

Sharon Ebanks

Sharon Elizabeth Ebanks (born 1967 or 1968) is a former member of the British National Party and one of the founder members of the New Nationalist Party. In 2006, she was wrongly declared elected to Birmingham City Council.

Silver Fish Award

The Silver Fish is the highest adult award in Girlguiding. It is awarded for outstanding service to Girlguiding combined with service to world Guiding. The award has changed greatly since it first appeared in 1911, initially being awarded to girls on completion of a number of badges, then via numerous stages to the highest award in the Guiding movement worldwide, and then on to its position as a Girlguiding award.

The Link (UK organization)

The Link was established in July 1937 as an 'independent non-party organisation to promote Anglo-German friendship'. It generally operated as a cultural organisation, although its journal, the Anglo-German Review, reflected the pro-Nazi views of Barry Domvile, and particularly in London it attracted a number of anti-semites and pro-Nazis. At its height the membership numbered around 4,300.

The Link was opposed to war between Britain and Germany, and because of this attracted the support of some British pacifists. When The Link and the Anglo-German Review were included among a number of peace organisations across the political spectrum in the Peace Service Handbook (a publication put out by the Peace Pledge Union), the Daily Telegraph and The News Chronicle published articles accusing the PPU of supporting Nazism. In response, PPU member Stuart Morris wrote to the papers stating there was no connection between the PPU and The Link, and that the former organisation did not support the German demand for colonies or peace at the expense of smaller nations. The PPU also sent a letter to its group leaders dissociating The Link from the PPU, and ceased publishing the Peace Service Handbook.The organisation was investigated by Maxwell Knight, head of counter-subversion in MI5 and future role model for James Bond's boss M. The organisation closed shortly after the start of World War II in 1939.

Barry Domvile was interned in 1940 as someone who might "endanger the safety of the realm".According to Anthony Masters, the Link was allegedly resurrected in 1940 by Ian Fleming, then working in the Department of Naval Intelligence, in order to successfully lure Rudolf Hess (deputy party leader and third in leadership of Germany, after Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring) to Britain in May 1941.

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