Rosy starling

The rosy starling (Pastor roseus) is a passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae, also known as the rose-coloured starling or rose-coloured pastor.[2] The species was recently placed in its own monotypic genus, Pastor, and split from Sturnus. This split is supported by recent studies, though other related species within its new genus are not yet known for certain.[3]

Rosy starling
Rosy Starling - Almaty - Kazakstan S4E1244 (22382991808)
Male in Almaty, Kazakhstan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Pastor
Temminck, 1815
P. roseus
Binomial name
Pastor roseus
  • Turdus roseus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Sturnus roseus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Taxonomy and systematics

The genus name Pastor, and the old English name come from the Latin pastor, "shepherd",[4] and by extension a pastor.[5] The specific roseus is Latin for "rose-coloured".[4]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the maroon oriole to be a species within the genus Pastor.[6]


Sturnus roseus
Summer plumages:
Adult male (center). female (below), and juvenile (behind)

The adult rosy starling is highly distinctive, with its pink body, pale orange legs and bill, and glossy black head, wings and tail. Males in the breeding season have elongated head feathers which form a wispy crest that is fluffed and more prominent when the bird gets excited. In winter, the crest is shorter, and the edges of black feathers within the plumage become paler as the edges of these feather erode. Winter plumage in males is comparatively dull.

Females in contrast have a short crest and lack the sharp separation between pink and black.

The juvenile birds can be distinguished from common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) by its obviously paler plumage and short yellow bill. Young birds moult into a subdued version of the adult plumage in autumn, yet these lack the crest. They do not acquire their adult plumage until they are nearly one year old in females, and nearly two years in males. The latter grow plumage very similar to adult females in their second year, but are distinguished by longer crests and noticeably pale feather edges than female juvenile birds.

Distribution and habitat

The breeding range of this bird is from easternmost Europe across temperate southern Asia.[1] It is a strong migrant, and winters in India and tropical Asia. In India in winter, it often appears to outnumber the local starlings and mynas. The rosy starling is a bird of steppe and open agricultural land. In years when grasshoppers and other insects are abundant, it will erupt well beyond its core range, with significant numbers reaching France, the United Kingdom and Ireland. The starling is a summer visitor for northwestern Afghanistan, passage migrants in the rest of the Afghanistan and a regular winter visitor in most of Pakistan and India.

Rosy Starling In Pune
Rosy Starling in Pune.

Behaviour and ecology

Rosy starlings are highly gregarious birds, and often form large, noisy flocks, which can on occasion be a pest for growers of cereal crops or orchards; the birds are strongly attracted to flowering trees. However, they are also greatly beneficial to farmers as they prey on pests such as locusts and grasshoppers, thereby limiting their numbers. The birds breed in tight colonies in a very short breeding season timed to take advantage of peak abundance of grasshoppers during May to June.[7]

Pastor roseus MHNT.ZOO.2010.11.215.Kaara-Usiah Perowsk Russie
Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus) I Malaysia 005
Gathering in the evening before roosting in Vadodara, Gujarat, India
Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus) near Hyderabad W IMG 4832
Rosy Starling (Sturnus roseus) near Hyderabad


The rosy starling is a colonial breeder, and like other starlings, is highly gregarious, forming large winter flocks. It also shares other species' omnivorous diet, although it prefers insects. The song is a typical starling mixture of squeaks and rattles, given with much wing trembling. In Xinjiang, China, farmers used to use insecticide to eliminate locust, which is costly and polluting. In the 1980s, experts found that rosy starlings which fly to Xinjiang farms and feed on locusts could be used for control instead. The experts begin to build artificial nests to attract rosy starlings, an effort reported to be so successful that the number of locusts was insufficient to feed the birds, causing many juveniles die for hunger. By the 2000s many Xinjiang farms greatly decreased the usage of insecticide.[7] [8]

Food and feeding

Chiefly fruits, berries, flower-nectar, cereal grains and insects. Specific observations of preferred food types made on the feeding habits of rosy starling are listed as: Fruits and berries: Ficus (many species), Lantana spp., Zizyphus oenoplia, Bridelia hamistoniana, Streblus asper, grapes, mulberries (Morus), dates, Salvadora persica, Capparis aphylla and chillies. Flower-nectar: Salmalia persica, Bombax insigne, Erythrina indica and Erythrina suberosa, Butea monosperma, Careya arborea. Cereal grains: Jowar and bajra. Insects: largely locusts and grasshoppers, beetles of the families Lucanidae, Elateridae, Tenebrionidae, Buprestidae, Scarabaeidae and Curculionidae.[9]

Ayleme (1)
Female Rosy starling


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2004). "Sturnus roseus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2006. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 12 May 2006.
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Pastor" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  3. ^ Jønsson, Knud A. & Fjeldså, Jon (2006): A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35(2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x
  4. ^ a b Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 294, 337. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ "Pastor". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^ "Oriolus traillii - Avibase". Retrieved 2017-03-01.
  7. ^ a b Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Anderton, John C. (2005). Birds of South Asia The Ripley Guide (First ed.). Washington DC: NMNH, Lynx Edicions. pp. 582–583. ISBN 84-87334-66-0.
  8. ^ CCTV誰殺死了粉紅椋鳥
  9. ^ Ali, Salim; Ripley, S Dillon (1987). Handbook of the Birds of India and Pakistan (second ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 163–166. ISBN 978-0-19-565938-2.

External links

Brown shrike

The brown shrike (Lanius cristatus) is a bird in the shrike family that is found mainly in Asia. It is closely related to the red-backed shrike (L. collurio) and isabelline shrike (L. isabellinus). The genus name, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes are also known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. The specific cristatus is Latin for "crested", used in a broader sense than in English. The common English name "shrike" is from Old English scríc, "shriek", referring to the shrill call.Like most other shrikes, it has a distinctive black "bandit-mask" through the eye and is found mainly in open scrub habitats, where it perches on the tops of thorny bushes in search of prey. Several populations of this widespread species form distinctive subspecies which breed in temperate Asia and migrate to their winter quarters in tropical Asia. They are sometimes found as vagrants in Europe and North America.

Fauna of Italy

Italy has the highest level of faunal biodiversity in Europe, with over 57,000 species recorded, representing more than a third of all European fauna. This is due to various factors. The Italian peninsula is in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, forming a corridor between central Europe and North Africa, and has 8,000 km of coastline. Italy also receives species from the Balkans, Eurasia, the Middle East. Italy's varied geological structure, including the Alps and the Apennines, Central Italian woodlands, and Southern Italian Garigue and Maquis shrubland, also contribute to high climate and habitat diversity.

Fauna of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

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Fährinsel is a small Baltic Sea island off the eastern shore of the island of Hiddensee and which belongs to the Insel Hiddensee municipality. It is separated from Hiddensee by the narrow Bäk, only 120 metres wide in places. It forms the western part of the border between the Schaproder Bodden and the Vitter Bodden. The island is 1.23 km long and up to 580 metres wide. It has an area of ca. 37 ha. Ferry services between Rügen and Hiddensee used to run via Fährinsel. It was closed in 1952 when the port at Schaprode was upgraded to handle mailboat services. Fährinsel is a nature reserve and out-of-bounds to visitors. It is a roosting place for thousands of birds and the grazing area for a herd of Gotland sheep.

Joseph Whitaker (ornithologist)

Joseph Isaac Spadafora Whitaker (19 March 1850 in Palermo – 3 November 1936 in Rome) was a Sicilian-English ornithologist, archaeologist and sportsman. He is mainly known for his work on the birds of Tunisia, and for being involved in the foundation of the Sicilian football club US Città di Palermo.

Kongur wetland

Kongur is a freshwater wetland located in Tirupur District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Some of the birds which can be seen here are painted stork, Oriental ibis, common sandpiper, spot-billed duck, common coot, rosy starling, little cormorant, cattle egret, intermediate egret, little egret, southern coucal, rose-ringed parakeet, white-breasted kingfisher, pied kingfisher, darter, little grebe, spotted owlet, Indian roller, ashy prinia, common hoopoe, common moorhen, common myna, pied wagtail, grey wagtail, pied bushchat green bee-eater, black-winged kite, Asian koel, pond heron, black drongo, pied cuckoo, blue-faced malkoha, Indian robin, purple sunbird, purple-rumped sunbird, white-headed babbler, common flameback, open-bill stork, greater egret, grey heron, Eurasian collared dove, glossy ibis, rock pigeon, white-breasted waterhen, Indian paradise flycatcher, paddy-field pipit, Indian silverbill, northern shoveller.

In 2012 two greater flamingos arrived here as winter visitors.

A huge number of babool trees attract birds for roosting. The lake receives the water from Shanmuga Nadhi which is originated from Palani Hills. The lake is 25 km from Palani.

Some of the resident birds such as peafowls, grey francolins can also be seen here.

Destruction of babool and palm trees are threatening the birds' habitat.

Kothaimangalam Wetlands

Kothaimangalam Wetlands are located near to Palani, Tamil Nadu, India. The huge lakes are the habitat for lot of Migratory birds. One of the wetland is adjacent to the Shanmuganadhi river.

Some of the birds which can be seen here are painted stork, Oriental ibis, common sandpiper, spot-billed duck, common coot, rosy starling, little cormorant, cattle egret, intermediate egret, little egret, southern coucal, rose-ringed parakeet, white-breasted kingfisher, pied kingfisher, darter, little grebe, spotted owlet, Indian roller, ashy prinia, common hoopoe, common moorhen, common myna, pied wagtail, grey wagtail, green bee-eater, brahminy kite, black kite, black-winged kite, Asian koel, pond heron, black drongo, pied cuckoo, blue-faced malkoha, Indian robin, purple sunbird, purple-rumped sunbird, white-headed babbler, common flameback, open-bill stork, greater egret, grey heron, Eurasian collared dove, glossy ibis, rock pigeon, white-breasted waterhen, woolly-necked stork, lesser whistling duck.

List of birds of Bulgaria

This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.

The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.

List of birds of Chennai

This is a lists the birds of Chennai, the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Over 130 species of birds have been spotted there. The list includes the local Tamil name.

List of birds of Coimbatore

This article lists the birds found in various places in and around the Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. Over 285 species of birds have been recorded in and around Coimbatore.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of Kyrgyzstan

376 bird species have occurred in the Kyrgyz Republic.

List of birds of Madeira

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Madeira. The avifauna of Madeira include a total of 286 species, of which two are endemic, two have been introduced by humans and 203 are rare or accidental. The two listed species that are extinct and the one that is extirpated are not included in the species count. Eighteen species are globally threatened (twelve near-threatened, two vulnerable, three endangered and one critically endangered).

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Madeira.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Madeira

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Madeira

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Madeira as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Madeira although populations or other subspecies may exist elsewhere

{Extinct} Extinct globally - a species that no longer exists

Green-winged teal, Anas crecca (A)

Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata (A)

Marbled teal, Marmaronetta angustirostris (A) Vulnerable

Common pochard, Aythya ferina (A)

Ring-necked duck, Aythya collaris (A)

Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (A)

Greater scaup, Aythya marila (A)

Surf scoter, Melanitta perspicillata (A)

Common scoter, Melanitta nigra (A)

Long-tailed duck, Clangula hyemalis (A)

Common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (A)

Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator (A)

List of birds of Singanallur Lake

This is a list of the birds found at Singanallur Lake in Coimbatore in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Over 100 species of birds have been spotted in the lake. The list includes the name in Tamil.


MigrantWatch is a citizen science non-governmental organisation project in India for collection of information about bird migration. The organisation was conceived in July 2007 and is coordinated by the Science Programme of the National Centre for Biological Sciences, in association with Indian Birds journal.The goal of the MigrantWatch programme is to collect information on the arrival, presence and departure of migrant birds that spend the winter in India and to assess any changes that occur in the timing of migration. The MigrantWatch program provides a website where registered members can upload observations of migratory bird species,and access all the sighting records and maps with data plotted.

In the first year, the program targeted nine species of migratory birds:

Northern shoveller Anas clypeata

Marsh harrier, Circus aeruginosus

Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola

Common (or barn) swallow Hirundo rustica

Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea

Brown shrike Lanius cristatus

Black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros

Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides

Rosy starling Sturnus roseusSubsequently, the list was increased to 30 migratory species.

Mookaneri Lake

Mookaneri lake (Kanankuruchi Aeri) is a lake spread over 58 acres in Kannankurichi, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. It is located at the foot of the Shevaroy Hills, a major water body of the Salem city, source of Water for the Mookaneri Lake, has been from rainfall received in the Yercaud hill station. The rain water from the hills will reach the Puthu Yeri. The surplus water of Puthu Yeri reached Mookaneri Lake through the Kothukaran Odai.The lake has 47 (man-made) islands. Each island is about 10 feet high from the lake bed and sprawls on an area of a few thousand square feet. The lake islands are home to nearly 12000 trees. The island is created by removing the clay from the bottom of the lake using excavators and building a sort of a bund. Initially it is filled with millet saplings to arrest soil erosion. After a while, saplings of Neem, Banyan, jamun, peepal, and vetiver trees are planted.

Red-necked falcon

The red-necked falcon (Falco chicquera) is a bird of prey in the falcon family with two disjunct populations, one in India and the other in Africa. This medium-sized falcon has bluish grey wings and upper body, a chestnut red cap with short chin straps passing through the eye. The primary feathers of the wing are black and a single black band at the tip of the tail are distinctive. The Indian subspecies Falco chicquera chicquera also known as the red-headed merlin or red-headed falcon is found mainly in the open plains of the India Subcontinent although it is thought to have occurred further west in southeastern Iran. The subspecies Falco chicquera ruficollis found in sub-Saharan Africa is sometimes treated as a full species, the rufous-necked falcon (Falco ruficollis), on the basis of its well-separated geographic range and distinctive pattern. It appears very similar to the Indian form but has dark barring on the upperparts, a rufous breast band, and black moustachial and eye stripes. As in most falcons, the females are larger and falconers in India called the female turumti and the male as chatwa. They hunt in pairs mostly at dawn and dusk, capturing small birds, bats and squirrels.


Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings are native to Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitats with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the common starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific, the common myna is indeed common.

Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for prey such as grubs by "open-bill probing", that is, forcefully opening the bill after inserting it into a crevice, thus expanding the hole and exposing the prey; this behaviour is referred to by the German verb zirkeln (pronounced [ˈtsɪɐ̯kl̩n]).Plumage of many species is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes and lay blue or white eggs.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls and are the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

Wildlife of Ladakh

The flora and fauna of [Ladakh] was first studied by [Ferdinand Stoliczka], an [Austria]n[Czech people|Czech][palaeontologist], who carried out a massive expedition in the region in the 1870s. The fauna of Ladakh have much in common with that of Central Asia generally, and especially those of the Tibetan Plateau. An exception to this are the birds, many of which migrate from the warmer parts of India to spend the summer in Ladakh. For such an arid area, Ladakh has a great diversity of birds — a total of 318 species have been recorded (Including 30 species not seen since 1960). Many of these birds reside or breed at high-altitude wetlands such as Tso Moriri.


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