Rostock

Rostock (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɔstɔk] (listen)) is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is on the Warnow river; the district of Warnemünde, 12 kilometres (7 miles) north of the city centre, is directly on the Baltic Sea coast. Rostock is the largest city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, as well as its only regiopolis.

Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Rostock, founded in 1419.

The city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 km (12 mi) along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea. The largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river. The eastern part of its territory is dominated by industrial estates and the forested Rostock Heath.

Rostock
Rostock nördl Altstadt mit der Marienkirche
Petrikirche in Rostock IMG 1681
Warnemünde Altstadt (03) 2006-09-21
Der Strand bei Warnemünde 2
From top: Skyline of Rostock with St. Mary's Church,
St. Peter's Church, Rostock, Fishermen houses in the oldtown of Warnemünde., beach of the seaside resort Warnemünde
Flag of Rostock

Flag
Coat of arms of Rostock

Coat of arms
Administrative divisions of Rostock
Rostock Verwaltungsgliederung
Rostock is located in Germany
Rostock
Rostock
Rostock is located in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Rostock
Rostock
Coordinates: 54°5′0″N 12°8′0″E / 54.08333°N 12.13333°ECoordinates: 54°5′0″N 12°8′0″E / 54.08333°N 12.13333°E
CountryGermany
StateMecklenburg-Vorpommern
DistrictUrban district
Subdivisions21 boroughs
Government
 • Lord MayorRoland Methling (Ind.)
Area
 • Total181.44 km2 (70.05 sq mi)
Elevation
13 m (43 ft)
Population
 (2017-12-31)[1]
 • Total208,409
 • Density1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
18001–18147
Dialling codes0381
Vehicle registrationHRO
Websitewww.rostock.de

History

Early history

In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc (*ras-tokŭ, Slavic for "fork of a river"); the name Rostock is derived from that designation.

The Danish king Valdemar I set the town on fire in 1161. Afterwards the place was settled by German traders. Initially there were three separate cities:

  • Altstadt (Old Town) around the Alter Markt (Old Market), which had St. Petri (St. Peter's Church),
  • Mittelstadt (Middle Town) around the Neuer Markt (New Market), with St. Marien (St. Mary's Church) and
Rostocker Stadtbestätigung 1213
Confirmation of Lübeck law city rights, 1218
  • Neustadt (New Town) around the Hopfenmarkt (Hop Market, now University Square), with St. Jakobi (St. James's Church, demolished after World War II).

In 1218, Rostock was granted Lübeck law city rights by Heinrich Borwin, prince of Mecklenburg.

Hanseatic League

Rostock asv2018-05 img29 University
Rostock University, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, founded in 1419.

During the first partition of Mecklenburg following the death of Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg in 1226, Rostock became the seat of the Lordship of Rostock, which survived for almost a century. In 1251, the city became a member of the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the largest city in Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock. The formerly independent fishing village of Warnemünde at the Baltic Sea became a part of Rostock in 1323, to secure the city's access to the sea.

In 1419, the University of Rostock was founded, the oldest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area.

15th to 18th centuries

Rostock 1550-60
Rostock in the 16th century
Rostock um 1650
Rostock in the 17th century

At the end of the 15th century, the dukes of Mecklenburg succeeded in enforcing their rule over the town of Rostock, which had until then been only nominally subject to their rule and essentially independent. They took advantage of a riot known as Domfehde, a failed uprising of the impoverished population. Subsequent quarrels with the dukes and persistent plundering led ultimately to a loss of the city's economic and political power.

Plan von Rostock gez 1780-1790 J.M. von Tarnows
Rostock 1780-90

In 1565 there were further clashes with Schwerin that which had far-reaching consequences. Among other things, the nobility introduced a beer excise that favoured the dukes. John Albert I advanced on the city with 500 horsemen, after Rostock had refused to take the formal oath of allegiance, and had the city wall razed (slighted) in order to have a fortress built. The conflict did not end until the first Rostock Inheritance Agreement of 21 September 1573, in which the state princes were guaranteed hereditary rule over the city for centuries and recognizing them as the supreme judicial authority; this bound Rostock for a long time. The citizens razed (or slighted) the fortress the following spring.

From 1575 to 1577 the city walls were rebuilt, as was the Lagebusch tower and the Stein Gate, in the Dutch Renaissance style. The inscription sit intra te concordia et publica felicitas ("You enter a state of harmony and happiness"), can still be read on the gate, and refers directly to the conflict with the Duke. In 1584 the Second Rostock Inheritance Agreement was enforced, which resulted in a further loss of former city tax privileges. At the same time, these inheritance contracts put paid to Rostock's ambition of achieving imperial immediacy, as Lübeck had done in 1226.

The strategic location of Rostock provoked the envy of its rivals. Danes and Swedes occupied the city twice, first during the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) and again from 1700 to 1721. Later in the early 19th century, the French, under Napoleon, occupied the town for about a decade until 1813. In nearby Lübeck-Ratekau, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who was born in Rostock and who was one of few generals to fight on after defeat at the Battle of Jena, surrendered to the French in 1806. This was only after furious street fighting in the Battle of Lübeck, in which he led some of the cavalry charges himself. By the time of the surrender, the exhausted Prussians had neither food nor ammunition.

19th century

Rostock asv2018-05 img38 NeuerMarkt
Colourful gabled houses of Rostock

In the first half of the 19th century, Rostock regained much of its economic importance, due at first to the wheat trade, then, from the 1850s, to industry, especially its shipyards. The first propeller-driven steamers in Germany were constructed here.

The city grew in area and population, with new quarters developing in the south and west of the ancient borders of the city. Two notable developments were added to house the increasing population at around 1900:

  • Steintor-Vorstadt in the south, stretching from the old city wall to the facilities of the new Lloydbahnhof (Lloyd Railway Station, now Rostock Hauptbahnhof), was designed as a living quarter. It consisted mostly of large single houses, once inhabited by wealthy citizens.
  • Kröpeliner-Tor-Vorstadt in the west, was designed to house the working population as well as to provide smaller and larger industrial facilities, such as the Mahn & Ohlerich's Brewery (now Hanseatische Brauerei Rostock). The main shipyard, Neptun, was nearby at the shore of the river.

20th century

In the 20th century, important aircraft manufacturing facilities were situated in the city, such as the Arado Flugzeugwerke in Warnemünde and the Heinkel Works with facilities at various places, including their secondary Heinkel-Süd facility in Schwechat, Austria, as the original Heinkel firm's Rostock facilities had been renamed Heinkel-Nord. The world's first airworthy jet plane prototype made its test flights at their facilities in what used to be named the Rostock-Marienehe neighborhood (today's Rostock-Schmarl community, along the west bank of the Unterwarnow estuary).

In the early 1930s, the Nazi Party began to gain among Rostock's voters, many of whom had suffered economic hardship during the 1920s. In elections in the summer 1932, when the Nazis achieved 37.3 percent, their greatest national showing in a free election, they polled 40.3 percent in Rostock. A year later, after the Nazi seizure of power and the suppression of other political parties, the Rostock city council (Stadtrat) was composed entirely of Nazis. During Kristallnacht on 10 November 1938, the Jewish synagogue in Rostock's Augustenstrasse was destroyed by arson and dozens of Jews were beaten and imprisoned.

Feverish rearmament by the Nazi regime boosted Rostock's industrial importance in the late 1930s, and employment soared at the Heinkel and Arado factories, and at the Neptunwerft shipyard. The city's population grew from 100,000 in 1935 to 121,192 in 1939.

During World War II, Rostock was subjected to repeated and increasingly heavy bombing attacks, especially by the British Royal Air Force. Targets included the Heinkel and Arado plants and the shipyard, but churches and other historic structures in the city centre also were heavily damaged, among them the 14th-century Nikolaikirche (St Nicholas Church) and Jakobikirche (St Jacob's Church). The ruins of the latter were torn down in 1960.

The city was eventually captured by the Soviet 2nd Belorussian Front on 2 May 1945 during the Stettin-Rostock offensive operation.

After the war, Rostock – now in the German Democratic Republic – became East Germany's largest seaport. The state expanded the national shipyards in the district of Warnemünde. The city's population, boosted in part by resettled ethnic German refugees who had been expelled from territories in the east, increased in the GDR years to a peak of 260,000. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, Rostock lost its privileged position as the No. 1 port of the GDR, and the city's population declined to about 200,000. However, after 2006, the population increased again. Today, Rostock and Warnemünde are significant tourist destinations on the Baltic Sea.

Since the late 20th century, migrants have come to Germany from Turkey and Africa seeking work. In response to high rates of joblessness and increased levels of crime, some Germans took part in the Rostock-Lichtenhagen riots which occurred from 22 to 24 August 1992 in protest.

Lisch-Rostock Beginenberg

Depiction of Rostock in 1845

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1985-0306-032, Rostock, zerstörte Krämerstrasse

Rostock bomb damage, 1942

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H28029, Rostock, Marktplatz mit Rathaus

City Hall, Market Square after war

Rostock Panorama Nikolaikirche nach Norden 2011-03-08

Rostock in 2011

Rostock asv2018-05 img47 Steintor

The 16th century Steintor city gate

Rostock Marienkirche 2011-03-08

St. Mary's Church (Marienkirche), 2011

Politics

Districts

1788 historic map of Rostock, showing earlier district names
1788 historic map of Rostock, showing earlier district names
Modern Districts of Rostock
Modern Districts of Rostock

Symbols

Rostock Wappen
Coat of Arms
Rostock Wahlspruch
Motto: Within your walls may be harmony and happiness ‹See Tfd›(in Latin)

Rostock has had three different coats of arms, known as the Signum, the Secretum and the Sigillum. The Signum, which can be traced back to 1367, was developed last and is to this day the coat of arms of the city.

The Signum depicts a golden griffin on a blue background, with bars of silver and red, the colours of the Hanseatic League, below. It can be seen not only on flags and houses, and at bus stops, but also on bridges, gullies, fences, ships and restaurants.

Administration

Since the 13th century, the governing body of the city has been the city council (Rat), first consisting of ten, later of 24 elected aldermen (Ratsherren). The chairman of the city council was the city mayor. In the 19th century there were three mayors. Since 1925, the head of the city has borne the title of Lord Mayor. Having been elected by the city council for centuries, since 2002 this position is now elected directly by the citizens of Rostock, following a reform.

Roland Methling (Independent), was elected Lord Mayor of Rostock in the first round by 58.2% of the voters on 27 February 2005.

Rostock asv2018-05 img37 NeuerMarkt
Restored Rostock City Hall, a mixture of Baroque and Brick Gothic architecture.

The city parliament (Bürgerschaft) represents the citizens. Representative are elected for five years. The number of representatives is currently 53.

The city parliament is presided by the Präsident der Bürgerschaft. He heads and prepares the sessions and, together with the Lord Mayor, represents the city.

Partner cities

Rostock has signed partnership agreements with the following cities:[3]

Rostock is a member of the international network New Hanse.

Regiopole Rostock Verflechtungen
Geographical position of the Rostock Regiopolis

Regiopolis Rostock

Rostock is the first city region that defines itself not only as a city in its boundaries, but as a regiopolis, with a supra-regional sphere of influence. A regiopolis can be compared to a metropolis, but on a smaller scale. This is a sign for the inter-regional cooperation and economic dynamics that can be found in the Rostock area. A taskforce with different actors such as the hanseatic city of Rostock, the administrative district of Rostock, the Regional Planning Association Middle Mecklenburg/Rostock and the local business organisations are working on the promotion and advancement of the concept.[9]

Geography

Geographic location

Rostock is located nearly centrally on Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's Baltic Sea coast. The city is crossed by the Warnow.

The seaside part of Rostock, Rostock-Warnemünde, is about 16 km (10 mi) to the north of the historic city centre. The west and the southeast are the most densely populated parts of town. The overseas port is to the east of Rostock. Rostock stretches 21.6 km (13.4 mi) from the Baltic Sea to the south and 19.4 km (12.1 mi) from east to west.

Climate

Rostock has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with strong influence of the Baltic Sea, more similar with Denmark. The climate is considerably mild if you consider that it is not in direct contact with a hot stream as in Masset, British Columbia which is even colder, even though it is more surrounded by water and protected from Arctic blasts.[10][11]

Main sights

Rostock

Panorama of Rostock from the bank of the Warnow river during the Hanse Sail
Panorama of Rostock from the bank of the Warnow river during the Hanse Sail
Aerial view Yacht Harbour Residence Rostock Yachthafenresidenz Hohe Düne 1
Aerial view of marina and Yacht Harbour Residence "Hohe Düne" at the Baltic Sea, close to Warnemünde.
Rostock Heiligengeisthof
Heiligengeisthof (Holy Spirit Courtyard).

One of the most picturesque places in Rostock is the Neuer Markt (New Market Square), with the Town Hall - that was originally built in the 13th century in Brick Gothic style, but extensively transformed in the 18th century, with the addition of a Baroque façade and a banqueting hall. The square also preserved six original, carefully restored gable houses from the 15th and 16th centuries. The other historical houses in Hanseatic style that once bordered the square were destroyed in an Allied air-raid in 1942, and rebuilt in a simplified manner.[16]

The 15th-century Kerkhofhaus (at Große Wasserstraße, behind the Town Hall) is considered the best preserved brick Gothic house in Rostock.

St. Mary's Church Marienkirche, on Ziegenmarkt, is an imposing Brick Gothic church. Built in the 13th century, it was enlarged and modified at the end of the 14th century into the present cross-shaped basilica. The huge tower was not completed until the end of the 18th century. Inside there is an astronomical clock built in 1472 by Hans Düringer.

Rostock Kröpeliner Straße
Kröpeliner Straße - main shopping street

The main pedestrian precinct is Kröpeliner Straße, that runs east from the Neuer Markt to the 14th-century Kröpeliner Tor, a former town gate. The main buildings of Rostock University lie at Universitätsplatz, near the middle of the street, in front of the lively fountain of zest for life (Brunnen der Lebensfreude), known colloquially as "Pornobrunn", for its prevalent nude sculptures.

The Kloster St Katharinen (Convent of St. Catherine), is an old Franciscan monastery founded in 1243, and extended several times during the 14th and 15th centuries. Now used as the seat of the Academy of Music and Theatre (HMT-Rostock).

The Brick Gothic Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas Church), which is the oldest church in Rostock, was built in the mid-13th century. Heavily damaged during World War II and subsequently restored, the building is now used as an exhibition centre and concert hall, due to its outstanding acoustics.

Some parts of the medieval city wall, with four city gates, have survived to the present day.

Warnemünde

Warnemünde Altstadt (03) 2006-09-21
Alexandrinenstraße in Warnemünde.
Rostock22
Speicher (office buildings) at night. Headquarters of AIDA Cruises.

Warnemünde is the seaside part of Rostock and a major attraction of the city. Locals and tourists alike enjoy the maritime flair of old houses, a large beach, a lighthouse and the old fisherman's port.

Economy

The economy is mainly characterised by maritime industries (especially shipbuilding), high-tech industries (IT, biotechnology/life sciences, medical engineering), the University of Rostock, tourism and the service sector. Major companies include:

Maritime Industry
  • Caterpillar Inc., manufacturer of diesel engines for ships
  • Deutsche Seereederei Rostock, transport, cruises, property and tourism holding
  • F. Laeisz
  • Neptun Werft, shipyard belonging to Meyer Neptun Group
  • Nordic Yards Warnemünde, shipyard
  • Schiffselektronik Rostock
  • Tamsen Maritim shipyard
Other engineering
Tourism industry
Others
  • Hanseatische Brauerei Rostock, German brewery belonging to the Oetker-Gruppe
  • IKEA
  • Rostock University Hospital (Universitätsmedizin)
  • Yara International, supplier of plant nutrients

Education

Rostock is home to one of the oldest universities in the world. Founded in 1419, the University of Rostock is the third oldest university in Germany in continuous operation, and one of the oldest universities of the world. It also maintains a botanical garden, the Botanischer Garten Universität Rostock.

The Academy of Music and Theatre (Hochschule für Musik und Theater) offers graduate degrees in artistic fields. Founded in 1994, the institution combined Ernst Busch, the former drama school, and the outpost school of the Hanns Eisler Music School Berlin. Today, the combined school is a member of the Association of Baltic Academies of Music (ABAM), a union of 17 music conservatories at the Baltic Sea and Israel. Unique in Europe is the postgraduate degree in piano duo performance. The school possesses a large opera stage (Katharinensaal) and two chamber music halls. There are concerts every day throughout the year.

Rostock also hosts the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and the Leibniz Institute for Catalysis, as well as two branches of Fraunhofer Institutes, one for Computer Graphics and one for Large Structures in Production Technology.

Culture

Events

The city is home to the annual Hanse Sail festival, during which many large sailing ships and museum vessels are brought out to sea, drawing over 1.5 million visitors.

An annual jazz festival, Ostsee-Jazz ("Baltic Sea Jazz"), takes place in June.

Cinemas

The Lichtspieltheater Wundervoll is the art house cinema of Rostock. It opened in 1993 and offers a daily programme in two venues, the Metropol and the Frieda 23 with three cinemas. At Frieda 23 is the Institut für neue Medien (IFNM), Rostock's Institute for New Media, which includes a media workshop. Both Liwu and IFNM are active members of the Landesverband Filmkommunikation Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Special screenings for schools, educational programmes and special programmes are offered as well. It is the central venue for Rostock's Film Festival, the Festival im Stadthafen (FISH), the German Federal Festival for Young German Film.

Museums and zoo

  • Rostock Art Gallery (Kunsthalle Rostock)
  • Museum of Cultural History (Kulturhistorisches Museum)
  • Stasi Museum (Dokumentations- und Gedenkstätte der Bundesbeauftragten für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik)
  • Warnemünde Local History Museum (Heimatmuseum Warnemünde)
  • Shipbuilding and Shipping Museum (Schiffbau- und Schifffahrtsmuseum)
  • Rostock Zoo
  • Walter Kempowski Archive

Food and drink

Rostock manufactures its own local beer, called Rostocker Pilsner, manufactured at the Hanseatische Brauerei Rostock GmbH (Rostock Hanseatic Brewery Ltd.). The beer is well known throughout the city and is also sold in cities nearby. To celebrate Rostock's 800th birthday, a special light beer called Heller Freude was brewed to commemorate the occasion.

Sport

Club Sport Founded League Venue Head Coach Website
Hansa Rostock Football 1965 3. Liga Ostseestadion Pavel Dotchev [1]
Rostock Seawolves Basketball 1994 ProA (2nd division) Stadthalle Rostock Milan Skobalj [2]
Rostocker FC 1895 Football 1895 Verbandsliga Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (6th division) Sportpark am Damerower Weg Jan Kistenmacher [3]
HC Empor Rostock Team handball 1946 3. Bundesliga Rostocker Stadthalle Maik Handschke [4]
SV Warnemünde Volleyball 1990 3rd league (men and women team) Sporthalle Gerüstbauerring [5]
Piranhas Rostock Ice hockey 1953 Oberliga (3rd division) Eishalle Rostock Henry Thom [6]
Rostocker Nasenbären Skater hockey 2005 Inline-Skaterhockey-Bundesliga (1st league) OSPA-Arena Dimitri Kramarenko[17] [7]
HSG Warnemünde Water polo 1971 Oberliga SH-MV (3rd league) Neptun-Schwimmhalle [8]

Transport

Car

Rostock can be reached by motorway (Autobahn) A 1 from Hamburg via Lübeck on A 20 and by A 19 from Berlin and A 20 from Stettin in Poland.

Public transport

Rostock-hbf-nord
Rostock Hauptbahnhof (main station)
Liniennetz Rostock und Umgebung
Transit map of Rostock

Rostock Hauptbahnhof offers fast rail connections to Hamburg and Berlin and from there to almost any other European city.

Within the city the Rostock tramway network is available, along with a wide network of buses and ferries. The first privately financed tunnel in Germany crosses the Warnow river and thus connects the eastern part of Rostock with the western part.

Ferry/ship

Rostock is Germany's largest Baltic port. Rostock is also home to a large ferry port. It is a main base for ferry operators Scandlines and TT-Line, which both connect Rostock with major Scandinavian destinations. Furthermore, Rostock receives the highest number of cruise tourists in Germany every year.

Ferries leave for

Sunset over Rostock harbour

Rostock harbour at sunset

Rostock asv2018-05 img63 Warnemuende port

The cruise ship Regal Princess leaving Rostock at evening

Air

The Rostock–Laage Airport offers connections to major German and international destinations; regular flights to e.g. Munich are offered. The nearest larger international airports are in Hamburg and Berlin. There are also a number of airfields for smaller aircraft, such as Purkshof.

Notable people

Simon Paulli
Simon Paulli
Albrecht Kossel nobel
Albrecht Kossel
Ernst Heinkel
Ernst Heinkel, 1942
Peter Schulz 2010
Peter Schulz, 2010
2016-10-03 Joachim Gauck (Tag der Deutschen Einheit 2016 in Dresden) by Sandro Halank
Joachim Gauck, 2016
Franziska Knuppe
Franziska Knuppe, 2011
Jan Ullrich 2014 01
Jan Ullrich, 2014

This is a list of notable people who were born or lived in the city of Rostock:

early times
18th C
19th C
20th C
Sport

References

  1. ^ "Bevölkerungsstand der Kreise, Ämter und Gemeinden in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 31.12.2017". Statistisches Amt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (in German). October 2018.
  2. ^ Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Statistical Office. "Population of the districts Ämter and Municipalities, 30.06.2006" (PDF) (in German). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-14.
  3. ^ "Partnerstädte" (in German). Hansestadt Rostock. Retrieved 2015-02-16.
  4. ^ Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen - Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen - Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall - Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  5. ^ "Dunkirk International" (in French). Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved December 17, 2007.
  6. ^ "Auszug - Vereinbarung einer Städtepartnerschaft zwischen der Hansestadt Rostock und der Gemeinde Guldborgsund/ Dänemark" (in German). Hansestadt Rostock. 14 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-02-16.
  7. ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2009-07-27.
  8. ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  9. ^ Regiopole Rostock (German)
  10. ^ "Rostock, Germany Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  11. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (2011-10-31). "Station Results - Historical Data - Climate - Environment and Climate Change Canada". climate.weather.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  12. ^ "Climate normals for Germany 1981-2010" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Weather extremes for Rostock" (in French). Météo Climat. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Climate Statistics for Warnemünde, Germany". Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  15. ^ "Rostock-Warnemunde (10170) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved January 28, 2019. Archived January 28, 2019, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Bomben auf Rostock; H.-W. Bohl, B. Keipke, k. Schröder; Konrad Reich Verlag 1995
  17. ^ Rostocker Nasenbären website
  18. ^ Gillmeister, Heiner (2002). "Ein Weltenbummler". In Deutscher Tennis Bund (ed.). Tennis in Deutschland. Von den Anfängen bis 2002 [Tennis in Germany. From the beginnings to 2002.] (in German). Berlin: Duncker & Humblot. pp. 74–77. ISBN 3-428-10846-9.

Bibliography

See also: Bibliography of the history of Rostock

External links

Albrecht Kossel

Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells.

Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. These compounds were later shown to be nucleobases, and are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells.

Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, and his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (Journal of Physiological Chemistry) from 1895 until his death. Kossel also conducted important research into the composition of protein, and his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule.

The Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.

Cammin, Rostock

Cammin is a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Caren Metschuck

Caren Metschuck (later Caren Mahn, born 27 September 1963) is a German former swimmer and a multiple Olympic gold medalist. At the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, she won gold medals in the 100 m butterfly, 4×100 m freestyle relay team and 4×100 m medley relay, becoming the most successful female competitor of the Summer Olympic Games that year.One year later, she won the European Championships in Split in the 100 m freestyle and triumphed again with the 4×100 m freestyle relay and the 4×100 m medley relay team. After winning a world title in the 4×100 m freestyle relay in 1982, she terminated her short career and became a school teacher. During her career she set three world records in relay events. In 1990 she was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame. After German unification she worked as a swimming coach at her home club SC Empor Rostock.

F.C. Hansa Rostock

F.C. Hansa Rostock [ʔɛf ˈt͡seː ˈhanza ˈʁɔstɔk] is a German association football club based in the city of Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. They have emerged as one of the most successful clubs from the former East Germany and have made several appearances in the top-flight Bundesliga.

After being in the Bundesliga for ten years, from 1995 to 2005, Rostock suffered a steady decline. In 2012, the club was relegated to the 3. Liga for the second time and is now playing there for the fifth consecutive season.

Frieden (museum ship)

The Frieden (known in German as the Traditionsschiff Typ Frieden) is the former German motor vessel Dresden operated by the VEB Deutsche Seereederei Rostock. Since 1970 it has been used as a museum ship.

The Dresden was built in 1956/57 at the Warnow Shipyard. It was the fifth Type IV ship in the first batch of 10,000 tonne piece-goods freighters that were built in East Germany's shipyards after the Second World War. Because the first ship of this series was christened Frieden (commissioned in June 1957), the other ships of this series of 15 new vessels were classed as Frieden type merchant ships.

On 27 July 1958 the ship was handed over to the Deutsche Seereederei shipping line and it operated until 1969 on scheduled services to East Asia, Indonesia, Africa, India and Latin America.

After serious defects were found in the engine room that would have resulted in excessive repair costs, the ship was decommissioned in 1969 and opened on 13 June 1970 as the "Rostock Shipbuilding Museum" (Schiffbaumuseum Rostock). Part of the ship also acted as a youth hostel for a time.

Today it is part of the Rostock Shipbuilding and Shipping Museum (Rostocker Schiffbau- und Schifffahrtsmuseum) in the IGA Park and contains comprehensive exhibitions of shipbuilding history. Topics include Shipbuilding in East Germany, Shipyard Operations, the History of Maritime Radio Communications and Navigation. In addition, there is a collection of various types of ship engine. Many areas of the ship have been preserved in their original state (the engine room, bridge, radio station, ship's hospital and crew cabins) and give an impression of life on a merchant ship in the 1950/60s.

The Rostock City Harbour Museum Ship action group (Traditionsschiff Stadthafen Rostock) is advocating moving the shipyard and shipping museum to a central and easily accessible site in the centre of Rostock. Low visitor numbers have been cited as the reason for this initiative.

Greif (brigantine)

Greif is a brigantine, owned by the town Greifswald in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

It was built in 1951 at Warnowwerft, Warnemünde/Rostock with a steel hull. It was launched May 26, 1951 and commissioned August 2, 1951. It was the first steel vessel built after the war at the port, and was christened Wilhelm Pieck for the first president of the German Democratic Republic. In 1990 it would participate in the first German-German sail event. The ship was given to the town of Greifswald and overhauled in Rostock, and given the new-name Greif.The ship is used as a training ship for maritime youth education. It has participated in Hanse Sail, including Hanse Sail Rostock 2011.

Kirsten Emmelmann

Kirsten Emmelmann (née Siemon; 19 April 1961 in Warnemünde, Bezirk Rostock), is a former German track and field athlete who represented East Germany in the 1980s in the 400 meter sprint. Her biggest success came as a member of the 4 × 400 meter relay: in 1987 she was world champion, and at the 1988 Summer Olympics her team was third. Her biggest individual success came at the World athletics championship in 1987 when she was third.

Mecklenburg

Mecklenburg (German pronunciation: [ˈmeːklənbʊʁk], Low German: Mękel(n)borg [ˈmɛːkəl(n)bɔrx]) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The largest cities of the region are Rostock, Schwerin, Neubrandenburg, Wismar and Güstrow.

The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named "Mikilenburg" (Old Saxon: "big castle", hence its translation into New Latin and Greek: Megalopolis), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. In Slavic language it was known as Veligrad, which also means "big castle". It was the ancestral seat of the House of Mecklenburg; for a time the area was divided into Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz among the same dynasty.

Linguistically Mecklenburgers retain and use many features of Low German vocabulary or phonology.

The adjective for the region is Mecklenburgian (German: mecklenburgisch); inhabitants are called Mecklenburgians (German: Mecklenburger).

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (German: [ˈmeːklənbʊʁk ˈfoːɐ̯pɔmɐn], abbreviated MV), also known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's 16 states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, and 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Stralsund, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow.

The state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was established in 1945 after World War II through the merger of the historic regions of Mecklenburg and the Prussian Western Pomerania by the Soviet military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Rostock, Schwerin, and Neubrandenburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, and became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's coastline on the Baltic Sea features many holiday resorts and much unspoilt nature, including the islands such as Rügen and Usedom, as well as the Mecklenburg Lake District, making the state one of Germany's leading tourist destinations. Three of Germany's fourteen national parks, as well as several hundred nature conservation areas, are in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The University of Rostock, established in 1419, and the University of Greifswald, established in 1456, are among the oldest universities in Europe. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit in 2007.

Nienhagen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Nienhagen is a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Ostseestadion

Ostseestadion is the home stadium of F.C. Hansa Rostock, a German football club, located in the city of Rostock.

"Ostseestadion" translates in English to "Baltic Sea Stadium", and is named after the Baltic Sea, whose coast Rostock lies upon. Ostseestadion is the original name of the stadium, but on 2 July 2007, Hansa Rostock sold the naming rights for the following 10 years to Deutsche Kreditbank (DKB), hence the new official name became "DKB Arena". In 2015, the club announced that the stadium was to regain its original name, and that the DKB had allowed an early renaming of the stadium and agreed to end the naming contract in advance.

Rostock (district)

Rostock (German: Landkreis Rostock) is a district in the north of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is bounded by (from the west and clockwise) the district Nordwestmecklenburg, the Baltic Sea, the district-free city Rostock and the districts Vorpommern-Rügen, Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Ludwigslust-Parchim. The district seat is the town Güstrow.

Rostock S-Bahn

The Rostock S-Bahn (German: S-Bahn Rostock) is a S-Bahn (suburban railway) network in Rostock in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. It consists of three lines with a total length of about 90 km. Line S1 runs from Rostock Hauptbahnhof (main station) to Warnemünde within the Rostock urban area. S-Bahn operations started in 1970s. Later, the lines to the north-east to the port (Seehafen) of Rostock and to the south to the town of Güstrow via Schwaan were included in the S-Bahn network. The line to the port was discontinued in 2012, but at same time the line to Güstrow via Laage was included as line S3 of the S-Bahn. Until 2014 they were mainly operated as push–pull trains with double-deck coaches. Since then all lines have been operated with new Bombardier Talent 2 railcars.

Rostock–Laage Airport

Rostock Airport, German: Flughafen Rostock-Laage (IATA: RLG, ICAO: ETNL), is the airport of Rostock, the largest city in the German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and is named after Laage, a town in the Rostock district. It features flights to major cities throughout Germany as well as some leisure routes. In addition to civil activity, Jagdgeschwader 73 of the German Air Force is stationed on the military side of the airport.

Steinhagen, Rostock

Steinhagen is a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Tessin, Germany

Tessin (Tessin bei Rostock) is a town in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. It is situated on the river Recknitz, 22 km east of Rostock.

Ulrich Karnatz

Ulrich Karnatz (born 2 December 1952) is a German rower who competed for East Germany in the 1976 Summer Olympics.

He was born in Rostock. In 1976, he was a crew member of the East German boat, which won the gold medal in the eight event. Four years later, he won his second gold medal with the East German boat in the eight competition.

University of Rostock

The University of Rostock (Rostock University, German: Universität Rostock) is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe. It was the 5th university established in the Holy Roman Empire.

The university has been associated with five Nobel laureates. Famous alumni include Nobel laureates: Albrecht Kossel, Karl von Frisch, and Otto Stern; theoretical physicists: Pascual Jordan and Walter H. Schottky. It is a member of the European University Association. The language of instruction is usually German, but English for postgraduate studies.

Warnemünde

Warnemünde (German pronunciation: [vaʁnəˈmʏndə], literally Mouth of the Warnow) is a seaside resort and a district of the city of Rostock in Mecklenburg, Germany. It is located on the Baltic Sea and, as the name implies, at the estuary of the river Warnow. Warnemünde is one of the world's busiest cruise ports.

Climate data for Rostock (Warnemünde), elevation: 10 m, 1981-2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
17.0
(62.6)
22.3
(72.1)
29.5
(85.1)
32.8
(91.0)
35.0
(95.0)
35.5
(95.9)
36.9
(98.4)
32.4
(90.3)
26.1
(79.0)
19.5
(67.1)
15.5
(59.9)
36.9
(98.4)
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.9
(39.0)
7.1
(44.8)
11.6
(52.9)
16.3
(61.3)
18.1
(64.6)
21.8
(71.2)
21.7
(71.1)
18.0
(64.4)
13.1
(55.6)
7.7
(45.9)
4.2
(39.6)
12.4
(54.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.7
(35.1)
4.3
(39.7)
8.2
(46.8)
12.5
(54.5)
15.6
(60.1)
18.3
(64.9)
18.2
(64.8)
14.8
(58.6)
10.3
(50.5)
5.6
(42.1)
2.3
(36.1)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
1.6
(34.9)
4.7
(40.5)
8.8
(47.8)
12.2
(54.0)
14.6
(58.3)
14.6
(58.3)
11.6
(52.9)
7.5
(45.5)
3.4
(38.1)
0.3
(32.5)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −17.8
(0.0)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−15.1
(4.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.0
(32.0)
2.5
(36.5)
7.3
(45.1)
6.5
(43.7)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
−9.3
(15.3)
−15.6
(3.9)
−18.4
(−1.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47.6
(1.87)
36.5
(1.44)
41.5
(1.63)
34.8
(1.37)
52.9
(2.08)
70.2
(2.76)
62.2
(2.45)
67.1
(2.64)
60.0
(2.36)
45.5
(1.79)
49.1
(1.93)
48.9
(1.93)
616.3
(24.26)
Average precipitation days 10.3 8.8 9.1 7.5 8.6 10.1 8.8 9.8 9.8 9.6 10.5 9.9 112.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.4 66.4 119.6 191.8 257.9 230.0 248.6 219.8 158.9 108.6 53.8 38.0 1,739.8
Source: Météo Climat [12][13]
Climate data for Rostock (Warnemünde), elevation: 10 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
17.0
(62.6)
22.3
(72.1)
29.2
(84.6)
29.5
(85.1)
32.6
(90.7)
33.0
(91.4)
34.5
(94.1)
29.5
(85.1)
24.4
(75.9)
19.5
(67.1)
15.5
(59.9)
34.5
(94.1)
Average high °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
2.9
(37.2)
6.1
(43.0)
10.0
(50.0)
15.6
(60.1)
18.9
(66.0)
20.5
(68.9)
20.7
(69.3)
17.5
(63.5)
12.9
(55.2)
7.5
(45.5)
3.9
(39.0)
11.6
(52.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
0.7
(33.3)
3.1
(37.6)
6.3
(43.3)
11.3
(52.3)
15.0
(59.0)
16.8
(62.2)
16.7
(62.1)
13.9
(57.0)
9.9
(49.8)
5.3
(41.5)
1.9
(35.4)
8.4
(47.1)
Average low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.7
(33.3)
3.6
(38.5)
8.0
(46.4)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
13.5
(56.3)
11.0
(51.8)
7.3
(45.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −17.8
(0.0)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−13.5
(7.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.0
(32.0)
2.5
(36.5)
7.3
(45.1)
6.5
(43.7)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
−15.6
(3.9)
−18.1
(−0.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
31
(1.2)
40
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
47
(1.9)
59
(2.3)
71
(2.8)
59
(2.3)
54
(2.1)
42
(1.7)
52
(2.0)
48
(1.9)
591
(23.3)
Average precipitation days 10 8 10 9 8 9 10 9 9 9 11 11 113
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.2 64.4 108.5 174 244.9 246 232.5 226.3 156 105.4 54 37.2 1,686.4
Source: HKO[14] and NOAA[15]
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