Rossall Hockey

Rossall Hockey or RossHockey is a unique form of hockey played only at Rossall School, in Fleetwood, on the Fylde coast, Lancashire, England. The game is unique to Rossall School and is played on the beach next to the school during the Lent term only,[1] with the pitch being marked by dragging the hockey sticks in the sand before each match. It is a brutal beach game born of rugby but played with hockey-like sticks by girls as well as boys at the school. It dates back to the 19th century when pitches were too wet for rugby.[1] It is one of the few school coded sports to have remained in use despite the dominance of other national codes in modern sport. The only other examples of school coded sport in the United Kingdom that remain are those of the various Fives codes; of which Rossall has its own, as well as Harrow football, Winchester College football, the Eton wall game and the Eton field game.


An old game of RossHockey

Rossall Hockey was referenced in the first issue of the Rossallian in 1867, though its exact date of creation is not known.[2] Rossall Hockey started as a derivation of Rossall Football, an adaptation of the Eton field game introduced to the school in 1857 by a school master who had been a student at Eton College.[2]

Initially the rules of RossHockey were slightly different from those of today, with scoring occurring by a system of goals and rougeables.[2] It is also known that there were no restrictions on the number of players in a game and there was no fixed time of play - indeed one game lasted for two days.[2]

The official rules were drawn up in 1873 and two years later the first House RossHockey competition took place.[2] The rules were amended again in 1900 to abolish rougeables. Emphasis has always been placed on the game being one of skill and dribbling - as well as one of brute force.[3]

In 1997 the game was nearly abandoned after over 130 years of history when the supplier of the sticks went bankrupt. A replacement supplier was found in Eccles where they had made lacrosse sticks for many years.[3] The new sticks are slightly less ornate than the traditional ones and also made of hickory rather than ash but the gameplay has not been affected.[3]


The layout of a RossHockey pitch
Dead Ball Situations
Name Description
Free hits If a free hit is awarded then all players must stand at least five metres from the ball. The ball may be struck with as much vigour as the player chooses. Players may halt the ball in mid air using a hand, however they must not push the ball forward using their hand otherwise a free hit to the other team may be awarded. If the ball is hit out of the side of the pitch a roll-in is given to the opposing team. If the ball is hit off the pitch at the end, outside of the "D" or inside the "D" without stick contact before it crosses the line then a "20-Bully" is observed. In free hits, only one defender is allowed to stand in the "D" whilst the rest of the players on the pitch must stand outside.
20-Bully A "20-Bully" is like any other bully but occurs on the twenty pace line. A "20-Bully" may be awarded if the ball is forced off the pitch at either end.
Line-Bully A "Line-Bully" is like any other bully but occurs at the top end of the "D". A "Line-Bully" may be given if a foul is committed by the defending team in their own "D". If three "Line-Bullies" are awarded in a row a penalty stroke will be given to the attacking team.
Penalty stroke A penalty stroke is like a free hit but always taken from twenty pace line. It gives the attacking team an opportunity to score from outside the "D". Both teams must stand behind the half way line except the taker of the stroke and one of the defending team who may stand behind the goal line to attempt to stop the ball from crossing the line.
Roll-in A Roll-in will be awarded if the ball leaves the side of the pitch. The ball is given to a player on the team who had not hit the ball out. Meanwhile, the rest of the two teams each line up horizontally across the pitch, with the teams two metres apart. The player with the ball then has to roll the ball in. The ball must go at least six paces, as marked by a line on the pitch, but must also touch the ground before the six pace line.


  • The pitch should be drawn up as indicated in the diagram, with the numbers indicating measurements in paces. The pitch should also be 80 paces in length.
  • The game begins with a bully at the centre circle. A bully consists of seven players from each team lined up in opposing lines. Three players from each team stand out of the bully as flies. Four sticks from each team must be placed into the centre to trap the ball.[3]
  • When the whistle is blown the match begins with each team driving forward in their lines to wrench the ball from the control of the other team.
  • When the ball is freed from a bully the teams must each chase after it and force it in across the goal line between the opposing team's posts.
  • If a player loses the ball by running ahead of it, another player from their team must take it on. The ball must always be approached from the rear by a player who wishes to take it on - if they fail to do so then they are considered offside.
  • Scoring occurs only when the ball is pushed over the line by a player within the "D".


Any of the following are fouls and will result in a free hit except if they are committed in the "D" by the defending team, in which case a Line-Bully is observed:

Name Description
Out of control ball This is considered to be a situation where the ball is pushed more than three metres in front of the person who hit the ball.
Dangerous play This can consist of any number of offences including the throwing of one's stick at another person, the hacking of the ball with malicious intent or holding one's stick above head-height.
Using the incorrect side of the stick A stick may not be inverted in order to touch the ball.
Turning with the ball When a player takes the ball they must not take it with their back against the direction which they are playing. Similarly they may not pirouette whilst dribbling.
Tackling from the wrong side A player must attempt to tackle the player with the ball by approaching them from the opposite direction to which they are running. Tackling from the side is not permitted.
Offside In order to take control of the ball a player must have his body behind it. If this is not observed then they are deemed to have taken the ball on from an offside position. If a player loses control of the ball by allowing it to fall behind their stick then they may not touch the ball with the stick until another player on the pitch has done so from an appropriate position.
Passing the Ball The ball must never be passed forward, even as an accident, except in the instance of a free hit.


  1. ^ a b Morley, Jacqui (2007-10-19). "All a girl needs to know about rugby". Blackpool Gazette. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
  2. ^ a b c d e William Furness, 'The Centenary History of Rossall School' (Gale and Polden, 1944) p.297
  3. ^ a b c d Hadfield, Dave (1997-03-23). "A game with stickability". The Independent.

Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, and ice hockey.

In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey usually refers to ice hockey.


Kī-o-rahi is a ball sport played in New Zealand with a small round ball called a 'kī'. It is a fast-paced game incorporating skills similar to rugby union, netball and touch. Two teams of seven players play on a circular field divided into zones, and score points by touching the 'pou' (boundary markers) and hitting a central 'tupu' or target. The game is played with varying rules (e.g. number of people, size of field, tag ripping rules etc.) depending on the geographic area it is played in. A process called Tatu, before the game, determines which rules the two teams will use.

In 2005 kī-o-rahi was chosen to represent New Zealand by global fast-food chain McDonald's as part of its 'Passport to Play' programme to teach physical play activities in 31,000 American schools.

The programme will give instruction in 15 ethnic games to seven million primary school children.The New Zealand kī-o-rahi representative organisation, Kī-o-Rahi Akotanga Iho, formed with men's and women's national teams, completed a 14 match tour of Europe in September and October 2010. The men's team included 22-test All Black veteran Wayne Shelford who led the team to a 57–10 test win against Kī-o-Rahi Dieppe Organisation, the French Kī-o-Rahi federation.

Shelford's kī-o-rahi test jersey made him the first kī-o-rahi/rugby double international for NZ. The women's team coached by Andrea Cameron (Head of PE at Tikipunga High School) also won by 33–0. These were the first historic test matches between NZ and France.

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

Power hockey

Power Hockey is a competitive, fast-paced hockey game based on the use of a power wheelchair. The foundation of the sport derives from ice hockey and floor hockey, but with adapted rules to enable people with disabilities, who use a power wheelchair, to play and be active in a competitive team setting. The sport is also referred to as Electric Wheelchair Hockey or Electric Wheelchair Floorball in various parts of the world.

Quidditch (sport)

Quidditch is a sport of two teams of seven players each mounted on broomsticks played on a hockey rink-sized pitch. It is based on a fictional game of the same name invented by author J. K. Rowling, which is featured in the Harry Potter series of novels and related media.[3] The game is also sometimes referred to as muggle quidditch to distinguish it from the fictional game, which involves magical elements such as flying broomsticks and enchanted balls. In the Harry Potter universe, a "muggle" is a person without the power to use magic.

The pitch is rectangular with rounded corners 55 meters (60 yards) by 33 meters (36 yards) with three hoops of varying heights at either end.[4] The sport was created in 2005 and is therefore still quite young. However, quidditch is played around the world and actively growing.[5] The ultimate goal is to have more points than the other team by the time the snitch, a tennis ball inside a long sock hanging from the shorts of an impartial official dressed in yellow, is caught. Rules of the sport are governed by the International Quidditch Association, or the IQA, and events are sanctioned by either the IQA or that nation's governing body.

To score points, chasers or keepers must get the quaffle, a slightly deflated volleyball, into one of three of the opposing hoops which scores the team 10 points.[6] To impede the quaffle from advancing down the pitch, chasers and keepers are able to tackle opposing chasers and keepers at the same time as beaters using their bludgers—dodgeballs—to take out opposing players. Once a player is hit by an opposing bludger, that player must dismount their broom, drop any ball being held, and return to and touch their hoops before being allowed back into play.[7] The game is ended once the snitch is caught by one of the seekers, awarding that team 30 points.[8]A team consists of minimum seven (maximum 21) players, of which six are always on the pitch, those being the three chasers, one keeper, and two beaters. Besides the seeker who is off-pitch, the six players are required to abide by the gender rule, which states that a team may have a maximum of four players who identify as the same gender, making quidditch one of the few sports that not only offers a co-ed environment but an open community to those who do not identify with the gender binary.[10] Matches or games often run about 30 to 40 minutes but tend to be subject to varying lengths of time due to the unpredictable nature of the snitch catch. If the score at the end of the match including the 30 point snitch catch is tied (such that the team that caught the snitch was 30 points behind the other), the game moves to overtime where the snitch is constrained to the pitch's dimensions and the game ends after five minutes or when the snitch is legally caught.

Rossall School

Rossall School is a British, fee paying co-educational, independent school, between Cleveleys and Fleetwood, Lancashire. Rossall was founded in 1844 by St Vincent Beechey as a sister school to Marlborough College which had been founded the previous year. Its establishment was "to provide, at a moderate cost, for the sons of Clergymen and others, a classical, mathematical and general education of the highest class, and to do all things necessary, incidental, or conducive to the attainment of the above objects."

Along with Cheltenham, Lancing and Marlborough, Rossall was part of a flurry of expansion in education during the early Victorian period. These schools were later complemented by others such as Clifton, Wellington, Malvern and Radley.

Set in a 161-acre (0.65 km2) estate next to Rossall Beach, Rossall is also a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference and was granted a royal charter on 21 October 1890. It accepts students between the ages of 2 and 18 and also has an associated preparatory school. Rossall's campus has a large array of facilities for extracurricular activities and the school is home to the Lawrence House Space Science and Astronomy Centre, the only facility of its type in the UK. Over the years, Rossall has adapted itself to changing attitudes in education, and was the first school in the UK to have a Combined Cadet Force and one of the first to introduce the International Baccalaureate and host a dedicated international study centre on campus.

Single (football)

In Canadian football, a single (also called a single point, or rouge) is a one-point score that is awarded for certain plays that involve the ball being kicked into the end zone.

Basket sports
Football codes
Bat-and-ball games
Stick and ball sports
Net sports
Other sports

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