Ross Perot

Henry Ross Perot (/pəˈroʊ/; born June 27, 1930) is an American business magnate and former politician. As the founder of the successful Electronic Data Systems corporation, he became a billionaire. He ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in U.S. history.

Born in Texarkana, Texas, he became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded Electronic Data Systems, a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot also became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During President George H. W. Bush's tenure, Perot became increasingly active in politics and strongly opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, and the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot briefly withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots. He chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 CPD debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote but did not win any electoral votes. He won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, establishing the Reform Party as a vehicle for his campaign. He won 8.4% of the popular vote against President Clinton and Republican nominee Bob Dole.

Perot did not seek public office again after 1996 and did not enter the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries. He endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012. In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States in 2016.

Ross Perot
Ross Perot in his office Allan Warren (cropped)
Born
Henry Ross Perot

June 27, 1930 (age 88)
EducationTexarkana College
United States Naval Academy (BS)
Net worthIncrease US$4.1 billion (October 2017)
Political partyIndependent (before 1995)
Reform (1995–2000)
Republican (2000–present)
Spouse(s)Margot Birmingham
Children5, including Ross

Early life

Perot was born in Texarkana, Texas, the son of Lula May Perot (née Ray) and Gabriel Ross Perot,[1] a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts. His patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to French Louisiana in the 1740s.[2][3] He attended a private school called Patty Hill. He graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947.[4] One of Perot's childhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, who later became the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent lawyer in Texarkana, Arkansas.[5]

Perot joined the Boy Scouts of America and made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program. He is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.[6][7]

From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College, then entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1949 and helped establish its honor system.[6][8] Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator.[9] Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.

Business

(L-R) Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot at the Rosewood Crescent Club (8392304697)
L-R: Larry Hagman, Ross Perot, Margot Perot and Suzanne Perot (1988)

After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He quickly became a top employee (one year, he fulfilled his annual sales quota in a mere two weeks)[10] and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who largely ignored him.[11] He left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in Dallas, Texas, and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused 77 times before he was given his first contract. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U.S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "fastest, richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story.[12] In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion.

In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser ever on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970.[13]

Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot organized and sponsored their rescue. The rescue team was led by retired U.S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract the two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners. The two prisoners then connected with the rescue team, and the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in a book, On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 mini-series, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna.

In 1984, Perot bought a very early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom. It was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D.C., where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families."[14] The document sold for US$21.3 million on Dec. 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, and is kept on display at the National Archives.[15]

After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple and left to found NeXT, his angel investor was Perot, who invested over $20 million. Perot believed in Jobs and did not want to miss out, as he had with his chance to invest in Bill Gates's fledgling Microsoft.[16]

In 1988, he founded Perot Systems Corporation, Inc. in Plano, Texas. His son, Ross Perot, Jr., eventually succeeded him as CEO. In September 2009, Perot Systems was acquired by Dell for $3.9 billion.[17]

Political activities

Early political activities

Perot became heavily involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. He believed that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia at the end of the U.S. involvement in the war,[18] and that government officials were covering up POW/MIA investigations to avoid revealing a drug-smuggling operation used to finance a secret war in Laos.[19] Perot engaged in unauthorized back-channel discussions with Vietnamese officials in the late 1980s, which led to fractured relations between Perot and the Reagan and George H. W. Bush administrations.[18][19] In 1990, Perot reached agreement with Vietnam's Foreign Ministry to become its business agent in the event that diplomatic relations were normalized.[20] Perot also launched private investigations of, and attacks upon, U.S. Department of Defense official Richard Armitage.[18][19]

Ross Perot Allan Warren
Perot with a portrait of George Washington in his office in 1986

In Florida in 1990, retired financial planner Jack Gargan funded a series of "I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore" (a reference to a famous quotation from the 1976 political and mass media satire movie Network) newspaper advertisements denouncing the U.S. Congress for voting for legislative pay raises at a time when average wages nationwide were not increasing. Gargan later founded "Throw the Hypocritical Rascals Out" (THRO), which Ross Perot supported.[21]

Perot did not support President George H. W. Bush, and vigorously opposed the United States' involvement in the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War. He unsuccessfully urged Senators to vote against the war resolution, and began to consider his own presidential run.[22][23]

1992 presidential campaign

RossPerotColor
Perot in 1986

On February 20, 1992, he appeared on CNN's Larry King Live and announced his intention to run as an independent if his supporters could get his name on the ballot in all 50 states. With such declared policies as balancing the federal budget, opposition to gun control, ending the outsourcing of jobs and enacting electronic direct democracy via "electronic town halls," he became a potential candidate and soon polled roughly even with the two major party candidates.[24]

Perot's candidacy received increasing media attention when the competitive phase of the primary season ended for the two major parties. With the insurgent candidacies of Republican Pat Buchanan and Democrat Jerry Brown winding down, Perot was the natural beneficiary of populist resentment toward establishment politicians. On May 25, 1992, he was featured on the cover of Time with the title "Waiting for Perot", an allusion to Samuel Beckett's play Waiting for Godot.[25]

Several months before the Democratic and Republican conventions, Perot filled the vacuum of election news, as his supporters began petition drives to get him on the ballot in all 50 states. This sense of momentum was reinforced when Perot employed two savvy campaign managers in Democrat Hamilton Jordan and Republican Ed Rollins. In July, while Perot was pondering whether to run for office, his supporters established a campaign organization United We Stand America. Perot was late in making formal policy proposals, but most of what he did call for were intended to reduce the deficit, such as a gasoline tax increase and cutbacks to Social Security.

In June, Perot led a Gallup poll with 39% of the vote.[26] By mid-July, the Washington Post reported that Perot's campaign managers were becoming increasingly disillusioned by his unwillingness to follow their advice to be more specific on issues,[27] and his need to be in full control of operations[27] with such tactics as forcing volunteers to sign loyalty oaths.[28] Perot's poll numbers began to slip to 25%, and his advisers warned that if he continued to ignore them, he would fall into single digits. Co-manager Hamilton Jordan threatened to quit, and on July 15, Ed Rollins resigned after Perot fired advertisement specialist Hal Riney, who worked with Rollins on the Reagan campaign. Rollins would later claim that a member of the campaign accused him of being a Bush plant with ties to the CIA.[29] Amid the chaos, Perot's support fell to 20%.[30] The next day, Perot announced on Larry King Live that he would not seek the presidency. He explained that he did not want the House of Representatives to decide the election if the result caused the electoral college to be split. Perot eventually stated the reason was that he received threats that digitally altered photographs would be released by the Bush campaign to sabotage his daughter's wedding.[31] Whatever his reasons for withdrawing, his reputation was badly damaged. Many of his supporters felt betrayed and public opinion polls subsequently showed a large negative view of Perot that was absent prior to his decision to end the campaign.[32]

In September, he qualified for all 50 state ballots. On October 1, he announced his intention to re-enter the presidential race. He campaigned in 16 states and spent an estimated $12.3 million of his own money.[33] Perot employed the innovative strategy of purchasing half-hour blocks of time on major networks for infomercial-type campaign advertisements; this advertising garnered more viewership than many sitcoms, with one Friday night program in October attracting 10.5 million viewers.[34]

At one point in June, Perot led the polls with 39% (versus 31% for Bush and 25% for Clinton). Just prior to the debates, Perot received 7–9% support in nationwide polls.[35] The debates likely played a significant role in his ultimate receipt of 19% of the popular vote. Although his answers during the debates were often general, many Democrats and Republicans conceded that Perot won at least the first debate. In the debate, he remarked:

Keep in mind our Constitution predates the Industrial Revolution. Our founders did not know about electricity, the train, telephones, radio, television, automobiles, airplanes, rockets, nuclear weapons, satellites, or space exploration. There's a lot they didn't know about. It would be interesting to see what kind of document they'd draft today. Just keeping it frozen in time won't hack it.[36]

Perot denounced Congress for its inaction in his speech at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, on March 18, 1992. Perot said:

This city has become a town filled with sound bites, shell games, handlers, media stuntmen who posture, create images, talk, shoot off Roman candles, but don't ever accomplish anything. We need deeds, not words, in this city.[37]

In the 1992 election, he received 18.9% of the popular vote, about 19,741,065 votes (but no electoral college votes), making him the most successful third-party presidential candidate in terms of the popular vote since Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 election.[38] Unlike Perot, however, some other third party candidates since Roosevelt have won electoral college votes. (Robert La Follette had 13 in 1924, Strom Thurmond had 39 in 1948, George Wallace had 46 in 1968 and John Hospers won one in 1972, albeit from a faithless elector). Compared with Thurmond and Wallace, who polled very strongly in a small number of states, Perot's vote was more evenly spread across the country. Perot managed to finish second in two states: In Maine, Perot received 30.44% of the vote to Bush's 30.39% (Clinton won Maine with 38.77%); in Utah, Perot received 27.34% of the vote to Clinton's 24.65% (Bush won Utah with 43.36%). Although Perot did not win a state, he received the most votes in some counties.

A detailed analysis of voting demographics revealed that Perot's support drew heavily from across the political spectrum, with 20% of his votes coming from self-described liberals, 27% from self-described conservatives, and 53% coming from self-described moderates. Economically, however, the majority of Perot voters (57%) were middle class, earning between $15,000 and $49,000 annually, with the bulk of the remainder drawing from the upper middle class (29% earning more than $50,000 annually).[39] Exit polls also showed that Ross Perot drew 38% of his vote from Bush, and 38% of his vote from Clinton.[40] Despite widespread claims that Perot acted as a "spoiler," there is little reason to think he affected the outcome of the 1992 Presidential election.[41]

Based on his performance in the popular vote in 1992, Perot was entitled to receive federal election funding for 1996. Perot remained in the public eye after the election and championed opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), urging voters to listen for the "giant sucking sound" of American jobs heading south to Mexico should NAFTA be ratified.

Reform Party and 1996 presidential campaign

Perot tried to keep his movement alive through the mid-1990s, continuing to speak about the increasing national debt. He was a prominent campaigner against the NAFTA, and even debated with then Vice President Al Gore on the issue on Larry King Live. Perot's behavior during the debate was a source of mirth thereafter, including his repeated pleas to "let me finish" in his southern drawl. The debate was seen by many as effectively ending Perot's political career.[42] Support for NAFTA went from 34% to 57%.[43]

In 1995, he founded the Reform Party and won their presidential nomination for the 1996 election. His vice presidential running mate was Pat Choate. Because of the ballot access laws, he had to run as an Independent on many state ballots. Perot received 8% of the popular vote in 1996, lower than in the 1992 race, but still an unusually successful third-party showing by U.S. standards. He spent much less of his own money in this race than he had four years before, and also allowed other people to contribute to his campaign, unlike his prior race. One common explanation for the decline was Perot's exclusion from the presidential debates, based on the preferences of the Democratic and Republican party candidates. Jamie B. Raskin of Open Debates filed a lawsuit about Perot's exclusion years later.[44][45]

Later activities

Ross Perot - 2009 Eagle Bank Bowl
Perot attending the 2009 EagleBank Bowl in Washington, D.C.

Later in the 1990s, Perot's detractors accused him of not allowing the Reform Party to develop into a genuine national political party, but rather using it as a vehicle to promote himself. They cited as evidence the control of party offices by operatives from his presidential campaigns. Perot did not give an endorsement during Jesse Ventura's run for governor of Minnesota in the 1998 election, and this became suspicious to detractors when he made fun of Ventura at a conference after Ventura had a falling out with the press. The party leadership grew in tighter opposition to groups supporting Ventura and Jack Gargan. Evidence of this was demonstrated when Gargan was officially removed as Reform Party chairman by the Reform Party National Committee.

In the 2000 presidential election, Perot refused to become openly involved with the internal Reform Party dispute between supporters of Pat Buchanan and John Hagelin. Perot was reportedly unhappy with what he saw as the disintegration of the party, as well as his own portrayal in the press; thus, he chose to remain quiet. He appeared on Larry King Live four days before the election and endorsed George W. Bush for president. Despite his earlier opposition to NAFTA, Perot remained largely silent about expanded use of guest-worker visas in the United States, with Buchanan supporters attributing this silence to his corporate reliance on foreign workers.[46] Some state parties affiliated with the new (Buchananite) America First Party.

Perot
Perot speaking in 2006

Since then, Perot has been largely silent on political issues, refusing to answer most questions from the press. When interviewed, he usually remains on the subject of his business career and refuses to answer specific questions on politics, candidates, or his past activities.

One exception to this came in 2005, when he was asked to testify before the Texas Legislature in support of proposals to extend technology to students, including making laptops available to them. He also supported changing the process of buying textbooks by making e-books available and by allowing schools to buy books at the local level instead of going through the state. In an April 2005 interview, Perot expressed concern about the state of progress on issues that he had raised in his presidential runs.[47]

Two further exceptions came with his endorsements in the 2008 and 2012 elections. In January 2008, Perot publicly came out against Republican candidate John McCain and endorsed Mitt Romney for president. He also announced that he would soon be launching a new website with updated economic graphs and charts.[48] In June 2008, this blog launched, focusing on entitlements (Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security), the U.S. national debt, and related issues.[49] In 2012, Perot endorsed Romney for president again.[50] Perot did not give any endorsements for the 2016 election.

Political views

During Perot's political campaigns, he spoke less on social issues and instead focused on the fiscal issues of the time. Perot did not fit the typical stereotype of a conservative southerner; his views were seen as liberal and usually focused on his economic policy to keep support during his campaigns and gain support from both Democrats and Republican voters from his home state of Texas. Perot is pro-choice, supports gay rights, stricter gun controls such as an assault rifle ban and increased research in AIDS.[51][52][53]

Social issues

Since 1992, Perot was a pro-choice activist, and a strong supporter of Planned Parenthood. He has stated poorer women in particular should have access to abortions via federal funding. Since 2000, he has been pro-choice reluctantly.[54]

Economic policy

Perot believes tax should be increased on the wealthy, while spending should be cut to help pay off the national debt. Perot also believes capital gains tax should be increased, while giving tax breaks to those starting new businesses.

"We cut the capital gains tax rate from a maximum rate of 35% to a maximum rate that got as low as 20% during the 1980s. Who got the benefit? The rich did, of course, because that's who owns most of the capital assets."

— Not For Sale at Any Price

In his book, Perot showed support for giving tax cuts for SME's, as opposed to larger corporations.[55] Additionally, Perot has supported a balanced budget amendment, stating: "spending should not exceed revenue for 27 consecutive years." On trade, Perot has stated that there is a trade deficit between Mexico and the U.S. and a loss of manufacturing jobs which he believes is caused by NAFTA.[56] His position on Free Trade and NAFTA became his defining campaign principles of both the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections. Ross Perot argued: "We have got to stop sending jobs overseas. It's pretty simple: If you're paying $12, $13, $14 an hour for factory workers and you can move your factory South of the border, pay a dollar an hour for labor, ... have no health care—that's the most expensive single element in making a car— have no environmental controls, no pollution controls and no retirement, and you don't care about anything but making money, there will be a giant sucking sound going south."

"... when [Mexico's] jobs come up from a dollar an hour to six dollars an hour, and ours go down to six dollars an hour, and then it's leveled again. But in the meantime, you've wrecked the country with these kinds of deals.

— "THE 1992 CAMPAIGN; Transcript of 2d TV Debate Between Bush, Clinton and Perot". The New York Times. New York Times Company. 16 October 1992. Retrieved 16 May 2016.

Personal life

Perot and his wife Margot (née Birmingham) have five children (Ross Jr., Nancy, Suzanne, Carolyn, and Katherine). As of 2012, the Perots had 16 grandchildren.

With an estimated net worth of about US$4.1 billion in 2017, he is ranked by Forbes as the 167th-richest person in the United States.[57]

Honors and achievements

Electoral history

United States presidential election, 1992

United States presidential election, 1996

  • Bill Clinton/Al Gore (D) (Inc.) – 47,400,125 (49.2%) and 379 electoral votes (31 states and D.C. carried)
  • Bob Dole/Jack Kemp (R) – 39,198,755 (40.7%) and 159 electoral votes (19 states carried)
  • Ross Perot/Pat Choate (Ref.) – 8,085,402 (8.4%) and 0 electoral votes

References

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  2. ^ Posner, Gerald (1996). Citizen Perot. New York City: Random House. p. 8.
  3. ^ Reagan, Danny. "The Perot/Bordelon Branches". Archived from the original on July 18, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2014.
  4. ^ "Texarkana Independent School District Names H. Ross Perot as 2009 Distinguished Alumni" (PDF). Texarkana Independent School District. September 17, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
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  14. ^ Magna Carta Is Going on the Auction Block, The New York Times September 25, 2007
  15. ^ "Magna Carta Copy Sold". The New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
  16. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2011). Steve Jobs. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4516-4853-7.
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  30. ^ Holmes, Steven A. (July 16, 1992). "Rollins Quits Perot's Campaign; Asserts His Advice Was Ignored". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  31. ^ THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Overview; PEROT SAYS HE QUIT IN JULY TO THWART G.O.P. 'DIRTY TRICKS', Richard L. Berke, The New York Times, October 26, 1992
  32. ^ THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Ross Perot; Perot Says He May Rejoin Race To Publicize His Economic Plan, Richard L. Berke, The New York Times, September 19, 1992
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  41. ^ https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-ross-perot-myth/
  42. ^ Reaves, Jessica; Frank Pelligrini (October 3, 2000). "Bush plays off expectations; Gore learns from mistakes". cnn.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008. Gore's decisive victory was the saving of NAFTA and the beginning of the end of Perot as even a semi-serious public figure.
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  44. ^ "Open Debates: Board of Directors". Opendebates.org. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
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Further reading

  • Thomas M. Defrank, et al. Quest for the Presidency, 1992. Texas A&M University Press. 1994.
  • Mason, Todd (1990). Perot. Business One Irwin. ISBN 1-55623-236-5 An unauthorized biography by a longtime Perot watcher.
  • Doron P. Levin, Irreconcilable Differences: Ross Perot Versus General Motors (New York: Plume, 1990)
  • Thomas Moore, The GM System is Like a Blanket of Fog, Fortune, February 15, 1988
  • Posner, Gerald Citizen Perot: His Life and Times Random House. New York 1996
  • Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
  • Forbes 400
  • Rapoport, Ronald and Walter Stone. Three's a Crowd: The Dynamic of Third Parties, Ross Perot, and Republican Resurgence Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

External links

Party political offices
First Reform nominee for President of the United States
1996
Succeeded by
Pat Buchanan
1992 Democratic National Convention

The 1992 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party nominated Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas for President and Senator Al Gore from Tennessee for Vice President; Clinton announced Gore as his running-mate on July 9, 1992. The convention was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York from July 13 to July 16, 1992. The Clinton-Gore ticket then faced and defeated their Republican opponents, President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle as well as the independent ticket of Ross Perot and James Stockdale in the 1992 presidential election.

The convention's keynote speaker was Georgia Governor Zell Miller who said, "Not all of us can be born rich, handsome, and lucky, and that's why we have a Democratic Party" and added,

"Our Commander in Chief talks like Dirty Harry but acts like Barney Fife." Other notable speakers included Democratic National Committee Chair Ron Brown, Elizabeth Glaser, and New York Governor Mario Cuomo.

The convention, organized by chairman Ron Brown, was seen as a great success. Unlike some earlier Democratic conventions, it had been well planned and run with few gaffes or errors, as even Republicans conceded. As Clinton finished his acceptance speech Fleetwood Mac's "Don't Stop", which would become the theme song of Bill Clinton's 1992 campaign, was played several times during the balloon drop and celebration.

Clinton received a significant poll bounce from the convention, due to both the perceived success of the convention, as well as Ross Perot announcing he was withdrawing from the campaign just as the convention was ending (Perot got back into the race in October).

The convention bounce gave the Clinton/Gore ticket a lead that only shrank significantly when Ross Perot re-entered the race. Clinton and Gore went on to defeat President Bush and Vice-President Quayle, as well as independent candidate Ross Perot and his running mate, James Stockdale, in the general election.

1992 Ross Perot vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists running mates considered by Ross Perot during his 1992 independent candidacy for President of the United States. On March 30, 1992, Perot announced that retired Vice Admiral James Stockdale would serve as his "interim" running mate, so that Perot could qualify for the ballot in several states. At the time, Perot planned to pick a permanent running mate during the summer, around the time of the 1992 Democratic National Convention and the 1992 Republican National Convention. Perot suspended his campaign during the summer of 1992, possibly preventing him from choosing a different running mate. After he decided to run again, Perot decided to keep Stockdale as his running mate. John Silber, the president of Boston University, was also rumored as a potential running mate for Perot. Stockdale appeared at the 1992 vice presidential debate. The Perot-Stockdale ticket took 18.9% of the popular vote, but the Clinton-Gore ticket won the election.

1992 United States presidential election

The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.

Bush had alienated many of the conservatives in his party by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes, but he fended off a primary challenge from conservative commentator Pat Buchanan. Bush's popularity after his success in the Gulf War dissuaded high-profile Democratic candidates like Mario Cuomo from entering the 1992 Democratic primaries. Clinton, a leader of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, established himself as the front-runner for the Democratic nomination by sweeping the Super Tuesday primaries. He defeated former & future Governor of California Jerry Brown, former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas, and other candidates to win his party's nomination, and chose Senator Al Gore as his running mate. Billionaire Ross Perot launched an independent campaign, emphasizing his opposition to the North American Free Trade Agreement and his plan to reduce the national debt.

The economy was in recession and Bush's greatest strength, foreign policy, was regarded as much less important following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War and the relatively peaceful climate in the Middle East after the Gulf War. Perot led in several polls taken in June 1992, but severely damaged his candidacy by temporarily dropping out of the race in July. The Bush campaign criticized Clinton's character and emphasized Bush's foreign policy successes, while Clinton focused on the economy.

Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote and a majority of the electoral vote, breaking a streak of three straight Republican victories. Clinton swept the Northeastern United States, marking the start of Democratic dominance in the region in presidential elections, while also performing well in the Midwest and the West. Along with Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, Bush is one of three incumbent presidents since World War II to be defeated in the general election. Perot won 18.9% of the popular vote, the highest share of the vote won by a candidate outside of the two major parties since 1912. Although he failed to win any electoral votes, Perot found support in every state, and Clinton's home state of Arkansas was the lone state to give a majority of its vote to any candidate.

1992 United States presidential election in Colorado

The 1992 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Colorado was won by the Democratic nominees, Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas and his running mate Senator Al Gore of Tennessee. Clinton and Gore defeated the Republican nominees, incumbent President George H.W. Bush of Texas and Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana. Independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and his running mate Navy Vice Admiral James Stockdale, finished in a relatively strong third in the state.

Clinton received 40.13% of the vote to Bush's 35.87%, a Democratic victory margin of 4.26%.Ross Perot performed relatively well for a third party candidate in the state, receiving 23.32% of the vote in Colorado, exceeding his nationwide 18.91% vote share. Perot also won pluralities of the vote in Moffat County and San Juan County, the state providing Perot two county victories out of only fifteen county equivalents which Perot won nationwide.

Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating incumbent President Bush.

Clinton's victory marked the first time since the nationwide Democratic landslide of 1964 that Colorado had voted Democratic, and his win signified Colorado's transition from a traditionally Republican state into a competitive swing state in modern elections. Colorado had not previously voted Democratic in a close national election since 1948.

Clinton would then very narrowly lose the state in the 1996 election to Bob Dole. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Mesa County, Garfield County, and Sedgwick County voted for the Democratic candidate, as well as the last time that Moffat County did not support the Republican candidate. Conversely, this is the last election in which Summit County voted for the Republican candidate.

1992 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1992 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 7, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Louisiana was won by Governor Bill Clinton, a major swing from the statewide results in 1988 when Republican nominee George H.W. Bush carried the state with 54 percent of the vote and with a double-digit margin of victory. Clinton won most of the parishes and congressional districts in the state, dominating the rural areas of the state. The only congressional district Bush won was the first district, which includes two of the most heavily Republican parishes in the state, Jefferson and St. Tammany. Independent Ross Perot gathered 11.81 percent of the vote, a strong showing for a third-party candidate but still his sixth-weakest state. Perot did best in the southwestern Acadian bayou parishes, exceeding 23 percent in Cameron Parish.

1992 United States presidential election in Maine

The 1992 United States presidential election in Maine took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Maine was won by Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 38.77 percent of the popular vote over businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) with 30.44 percent. Incumbent President George H. W. Bush (R-Texas) finished in third, close behind Perot, with 30.39 percent of the popular vote. Despite the Bush family having ties to Maine, with Bush owning a house in Kennebunkport, Maine, Perot beat Bush for second place in the state by a slim margin of 316 votes, making Maine one of two states where Perot finished better than third place, the other being Utah, though Maine was the only state of the two where Perot won any counties. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating both incumbent President Bush and Perot.Perot's 30.44% would prove Maine as his strongest state in the 1992 election. Ross Perot came within five percent of winning one electoral vote from Maine’s second congressional district, the closest he came to winning an electoral vote in 1992.

Clinton was the first Democrat to win any county in Maine since Jimmy Carter in 1980, the first to win Kennebec County and York County since Carter in 1976, the first to carry the counties of Franklin, Oxford, Penobscot, Sagadahoc and Washington since Hubert Humphrey and Maine favorite son Edmund Muskie did so in 1968, and the first to carry Hancock, Knox and Lincoln Counties since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.

1992 United States presidential election in Nebraska

The 1992 United States presidential election in Nebraska took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose five representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nebraska was won by incumbent President George H.W. Bush (R-Texas) with 46.58% of the popular vote over Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 29.40%. Businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) finished in third, with 23.63% of the popular vote. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating both incumbent President Bush and Perot.With 46.58% of the popular vote, Nebraska would prove to be Bush's fourth strongest state in the 1992 election after Mississippi, South Carolina and Alabama.

1992 United States presidential election in Nevada

The 1992 United States presidential election in Nevada took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nevada was won by Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 37.36% of the popular vote over incumbent President George H.W. Bush (R-Texas) with 34.73%. Businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) finished in third, with 26.19% of the popular vote. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating incumbent President Bush and Perot.Clinton's win, although narrow, would mark the beginning of Nevada's transition from a safe Republican state into a swing state; in all three presidential elections held in the 1980s, Republicans had dominated Nevada by double digit margins and swept every county in the state. Although Clinton carried only 2 of the state's 17 counties, his win in Clark County, where Las Vegas is located, and the most populous county in the state, would prove the key to this and future Democratic victories in Nevada.

Clinton's percentage of the vote was the lowest to win a state since Woodrow Wilson carried Idaho with only 31% of the vote in 1912.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time the Democratic candidate carried White Pine County in a presidential election, and the last one where a third-party candidate carried any Nevada county. In this case, Ross Perot carried Storey County.

1992 United States presidential election in North Dakota

The 1992 United States presidential election in North Dakota took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

North Dakota was won by incumbent President George H.W. Bush (R-Texas) with 44.22% of the popular vote over Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 32.18%. Businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) finished in third, with 23.07% of the popular vote. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating incumbent President Bush and Perot.

1992 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

The 1992 United States presidential election in Wisconsin took place on November 3, 1992, as part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wisconsin was won by Governor Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) with 41.13% of the popular vote over incumbent President George H.W. Bush (R-Texas) with 36.78%. Businessman Ross Perot (I-Texas) finished in third, with 21.51% of the popular vote. Clinton ultimately won the national vote, defeating incumbent President Bush. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Florence County voted for the Democratic candidate.

1996 Ross Perot vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists running mates considered by Ross Perot during his 1996 candidacy for President of the United States. Following his 1992 independent candidacy, which attracted nearly twenty percent of the popular vote, Perot announced the formation of the Reform Party. Perot ran for president in 1996, and defeated former Colorado Governor Richard Lamm in the Reform Party primaries. On September 11, 1996, Perot announced his choice of economics professor Pat Choate as his running mate. Perot and Choate had previously co-authored the book Save Your Job, Save Our Country, which argued against the ratification of NAFTA. The Perot-Choate ticket took 8.4% of the popular vote in the 1996 election.

1996 United States presidential election in Alaska

The 1996 United States presidential election in Alaska took place on November 7, 1996, as part of the 1996 United States presidential election. Voters chose representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Alaska was won by Senator Bob Dole (R-KS), with Dole winning 50.80% to 33.27% over President Bill Clinton (D) by a margin of 17.53%. Billionaire businessman Ross Perot (Reform-TX) finished in third, with 10.9% of the popular vote.

With 50.8% of the popular vote, Alaska proved to be Dole's fifth strongest state in the 1996 election after Utah, Kansas, Nebraska and Idaho.

1996 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1996 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 5, 1996, as part of the 1996 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Although traditionally a Republican state, 1996 would mark the second presidential election in a row that New Hampshire was won by Democrat Bill Clinton, by then the incumbent president. Clinton took 49.32% of the popular vote over Republican challenger Bob Dole, who took 39.37%, a victory margin of 9.95%. Reform Party candidate Ross Perot finished in third, with 9.69% of the popular vote.Clinton's nearly 10-point victory in New Hampshire was much more convincing than his previous win in the state in 1992; that year he had only eked out a narrow plurality of 39% over George H.W. Bush's 38%, with Ross Perot taking nearly 23% of the vote. For a state that had voted over 60% Republican as recently as 1988, Clinton's victories represented a dramatic shift toward the Democratic Party in New Hampshire. Since then the state has voted Democratic in every presidential election, except in 2000, when George W. Bush eked out a narrow plurality win over Al Gore.

1996 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

The 1996 United States presidential election in Wisconsin took place on November 5, 1996, as part of the 1996 United States presidential election. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wisconsin was won by President Bill Clinton (D) over Senator Bob Dole (R-KS), with Clinton winning by 48.81 percent to 38.48 percent, or a margin of 10.33 percent. Billionaire businessman Ross Perot (Reform Party of the United States of America-TX) finished in third, with 10.35 percent of the popular vote. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which the following counties have voted for a Democratic presidential candidate: Polk, St. Croix, Sheboygan, and Taylor.

On Wings of Eagles

On Wings of Eagles is a 1983 non-fiction thriller written by British author Ken Follett. Set against the background of the Iranian revolution, it tells the true story of the rescue of Paul Chiapparone and Bill Gaylord from prison in Tehran by a team of Electronic Data Systems executives led by retired Col. Arthur D. Simons.

The story, according to Follett, is not fictionalized or a 'non-fiction novel'.

Perot Systems

Perot Systems was an information technology services provider founded in 1988 by a group of investors led by Ross Perot and based in Plano, Texas, United States. Perot Systems provided information technology services in the industries of health care, government, manufacturing, banking, insurance and others. Perot Systems was especially strong in health care industries with services such as digitizing and automating medical records.A Fortune 1000 corporation with offices in more than 25 countries, Perot Systems employed more than 23,000 people and had an annual revenue of $2.8 billion prior to its acquisition for $3.9 billion in 2009 by Dell, Inc. as Dell Services. Dell Services was then acquired by NTT DATA in November 2016.

Reform Party of the United States of America

The Reform Party of the United States of America (RPUSA), generally known as the Reform Party USA or the Reform Party, is a political party in the United States, founded in 1995 by Ross Perot.

Perot, who received 18.9% of the popular vote as an independent candidate in the 1992 presidential election and wanted to participate also in the 1996 presidential election, thought Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues. Perot claimed to represent a viable alternative to Republicans and Democrats, and, as a result, founded the Reform Party. Perot won 8.4% of the popular vote in 1996. Although he came nowhere close to winning the presidency, no other third-party or independent candidate has since managed to receive as high a share of the vote.

The party has nominated several notable candidates over the years, including Perot himself, Pat Buchanan, and Ralph Nader. Donald Trump ran for president on the Reform Party ticket in 2000 before switching to the Republican Party and becoming president in 2016. Its most significant victory came when Jesse Ventura was elected Governor of Minnesota in 1998, although he left the party shortly into his term. In around the year 2000, party infighting and scandals led to a major decline in the party's strength. Beginning with Buchanan's poor showing in the 2000 election, no Reform Party presidential candidate has ever been able to attain at least 1% of the vote.

Ross Perot 1992 presidential campaign

In 1992, Ross Perot ran unsuccessfully as an independent candidate for President of the United States. Perot, a Texas industrialist, had never served as a public official but had experience as the head of several successful corporations and had been involved in public affairs for the previous three decades. Spawned by the American dissatisfaction with the political system, grassroots organizations sprang up in every state to help Perot achieve ballot access following his announcement on the February 20, 1992 edition of Larry King Live. James Stockdale, a retired United States Navy vice admiral, was Perot's vice presidential running mate.

Perot focused the campaign on his plans to balance the federal budget, further economic nationalism, strengthen the war on drugs and implement "electronic town halls" throughout the nation for direct democracy. His views were described as a combination of "East Texas populism with high-tech wizardry." Supporters saw Perot as a nonpolitical and witty "folk hero", but critics described the candidate as "authoritarian" and "short-tempered".Perot largely financed his own campaign and relied on marketing and wide grassroots support. In certain polls, Perot led the three-way race with Republican nominee George H. W. Bush, the incumbent President, and then-Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas, the Democratic nominee. He dropped out in July 1992 amid controversy, but re-entered in October, participating in all three presidential debates. Despite an aggressive use of campaign infomercials on prime time network television, his polling numbers never fully recovered from his initial exit. On Election Day, Perot appeared on every state ballot as a result of the earlier draft efforts. He won several counties, finished in second place in two states, and finished in third place overall, receiving close to 18.97 percent of the popular vote, the most won by a third-party presidential candidate since Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. A 1999 study in the American Journal of Political Science estimated that Perot's candidacy hurt the Clinton campaign, reducing "Clinton's margin of victory over Bush by seven percentage points."

Ross Perot Jr.

Henry Ross Perot Jr. (born November 7, 1958) is a real estate developer and American businessman who is best known for his development of AllianceTexas, an inland port near Dallas-Fort Worth, and his circumnavigation of the world in a helicopter at the age of 23.

Perot serves as the Chairman for multiple companies including The Perot Group and Hillwood. He is the elder son of billionaire American businessman and former United States presidential candidate Ross Perot.

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