Rosids

The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species,[2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms.[3]

The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families.[4]

Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago.[5][6]

Rosids
Temporal range: Cretaceous - recent
Euphorbia heterophylla (Painted Euphorbia) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 9720
Euphorbia heterophylla
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Superrosids
Clade: Rosids
Orders[1]

Name

The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling.[7] The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN. The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.

Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Saxifragales and Vitales in the rosids.[8] Others excluded both of these orders.[9] The circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales.

Relationships

The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade.[2][9] This is one of three groups that compose the Pentapetalae (core eudicots minus Gunnerales),[10] the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids (Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales, Santalales, and asterids).[9]

Classification

The rosids consist of two groups: the order Vitales and the eurosids (true rosids). The eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: fabids (Fabidae, eurosids I) and malvids (Malvidae, eurosids II).[9]

Orders

The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in fabids and 8 orders in malvids. Some of the orders have only recently been recognized.[9] These are Vitales,[11] Zygophyllales,[12] Crossosomatales,[13] Picramniales,[14] and Huerteales.[15]

Phylogeny

The phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website.[9]

Vitales

eurosids 
fabids 

Zygophyllales

COM clade 

Celastrales

Malpighiales

Oxalidales

nitrogen‑fixing clade 

Fabales

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales

malvids

Geraniales

Myrtales

Crossosomatales

Picramniales

Sapindales

Huerteales

Brassicales

Malvales

The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants (which have root nodules containing nitrogen fixing bacteria, helping the plant grow in poor soils). Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however.[16]

References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385.
  2. ^ a b Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (10 March 2009), "Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–8, Bibcode:2009PNAS..106.3853W, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257, PMID 19223592
  3. ^ Scotland, Robert W.; Wortley, Alexandra H. (2003), "How many species of seed plants are there?", Taxon, 52 (1): 101–4, doi:10.2307/3647306, JSTOR 3647306
  4. ^ Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Peter K. Endress; Mark W. Chase (2005), Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms, Sunderland, MA, USA: Sinauer, ISBN 978-0-87893-817-9
  5. ^ Davies, T.J.; Barraclough, T.G.; Chase, M.W.; Soltis, P.S.; Soltis, D.E.; Savolainen, V. (2004), "Darwin's abominable mystery: Insights from a supertree of the angiosperms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (7): 1904–9, Bibcode:2004PNAS..101.1904D, doi:10.1073/pnas.0308127100, PMC 357025, PMID 14766971
  6. ^ Magallón, Susana; Castillo, Amanda (2009), "Angiosperm diversification through time", American Journal of Botany, 96 (1): 349–365, doi:10.3732/ajb.0800060, PMID 21628193
  7. ^ Reveal, James L. (2008), "A Checklist of Family and Suprafamilial Names for Extant Vascular Plants", Home page of James L. Reveal and C. Rose Broome
  8. ^ Burleigh, J. Gordon; Hilu, Khidir W.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2009), File 7, "Inferring phylogenies with incomplete data sets: a 5-gene, 567-taxon analysis of angiosperms" (PDF), BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9: 61, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-61, PMC 2674047, PMID 19292928
  9. ^ a b c d e f Stevens, Peter F. (2001), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
  10. ^ Cantino, Philip D.; Doyle, James A.; Graham, Sean W.; Judd, Walter S.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865, JSTOR 25065865
  11. ^ Reveal, James L. (1995), "Newly required suprageneric names in vascular plants", Phytologia, 79 (2): 68–76 See p. 72
  12. ^ Chalk, L. (1983), "Wood structure", in Metcalfe, C.R.; Chalk, L. (eds.), Wood Structure and Conclusion of the General Introduction, Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, II (2nd ed.), Clarendon Press, pp. 1-51 [1-2 by C. R. Melcalfe], ISBN 978-0-19-854559-0
  13. ^ Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (2007), "Introduction to Crossosomatales", Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Berberidopsidales, Buxales, Crossosomatales, Fabales p.p., Geraniales, Gunnerales, Myrtales p.p., Proteales, Saxifragales, Vitales, Zygophyllales, Clusiaceae Alliance, Passifloraceae Alliance, Dilleniaceae, Huaceae, Picramniaceae, Sabiaceae, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, IX, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-32219-1
  14. ^ Hutchinson, John (1979) [1973], The Families of Flowering Plants (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 9783874291606
  15. ^ Worberg, Andreas; Alford, Mac H.; Quandt, Dietmar; Borsch, Thomas (2009), "Huerteales sister to Brassicales plus Malvales, and newly circumscribed to include Dipentodon, Gerrardina, Huertea, Perrottetia, and Tapiscia", Taxon, 58 (2): 468–478, doi:10.1002/tax.582012
  16. ^ Wall, L. (2000), "The actinorhizal symbiosis", Journal of Plant Growth and Regulation, 19 (2): 167–182, doi:10.1007/s003440000027, PMID 11038226

External links

  • Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons
APG III system

The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system.Along with the publication outlining the new system, there were two accompanying publications in the same issue of the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. The first, by Chase & Reveal, was a formal phylogenetic classification of all land plants (embryophytes), compatible with the APG III classification. As the APG have chosen to eschew ranks above order, this paper was meant to fit the system into the existing Linnaean hierarchy for those that prefer such a classification. The result was that all land plants were placed in the class Equisetopsida, which was then divided into 16 subclasses and a multitude of superorders. The second, by Haston et al., was a linear sequence of families following the APG III system (LAPG III).

This provided a numbered list to the 413 families of APG III. A linear sequence is of particular use to herbarium curators and those working on floristic works wishing to arrange their taxa according to APG III.

APG IV system

The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). It was published in 2016, seven years after its predecessor the APG III system was published in 2009, and 18 years after the first APG system was published in 1998. In 2009, a linear arrangement of the system was published separately; the APG IV paper includes such an arrangement, cross-referenced to the 2009 one.Compared to the APG III system, the APG IV system recognizes five new orders (Boraginales, Dilleniales, Icacinales, Metteniusales and Vahliales), along with some new families, making a total of 64 angiosperm orders and 416 families. In general, the authors describe their philosophy as "conservative", based on making changes from APG III only where "a well-supported need" has been demonstrated. This has sometimes resulted in placements that are not compatible with published studies, but where further research is needed before the classification can be changed.

Calothamnus

Calothamnus is a genus of shrubs in the family Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. The common names one-sided bottlebrush or claw flower are given to some species due to their having the flowers clustered on one side of the stem or because of the claw-like appearance of their flowers. Calothamnus species are generally medium to tall woody shrubs with crowded leaves. In most species the leaves are crowded and linear in shape, and the flowers are usually arranged in dense clusters. The petals are small and fall off the flower soon after it opens but the stamens are long, numerous and usually bright red.

Cephalotus

Cephalotus ([kɛfaˈlɔtʊs]; Greek: κεφαλή "head", and οὔς/ὠτός "ear", to describe the head of the anthers) is a genus which contains one species, Cephalotus follicularis the Albany pitcher plant, a small carnivorous pitcher plant. The pit-fall traps of the modified leaves have inspired the common names for this plant, which include 'Albany pitcher plant", "Western Australian pitcher plant", "Australian pitcher plant", or "fly-catcher plant."

Corymbia calophylla

Corymbia calophylla is a species of tree, common in the southwest of Australia. Originally described as a species of Eucalyptus, it is commonly named as marri in preference to red gum.

Darwinia (plant)

Darwinia, sometimes commonly known as mountain bells or simply bells, is a genus of about 70 species of evergreen shrubs in the family Myrtaceae, endemic to southeastern and southwestern Australia. The majority are native to southern Western Australia, but a few species occur in South Australia, New South Wales and Victoria. The genus was named in honour of Erasmus Darwin, grandfather of Charles Darwin by Edward Rudge in 1816. Most darwinias grow to a height of between 0.2 and 3 m (0.7 and 10 ft) and many are prostrate shrubs. Most have small, simple leaves and the flowers are often grouped together, each flower with five red, white or greenish petals and ten stamens. In many species, the flowers are surrounded by large, colourful bracts, giving rise to their common names.

Eucalyptus diversicolor

Eucalyptus diversicolor, commonly known as the karri, is a eucalypt native to the wetter regions of southwestern Western Australia.

Eucalyptus marginata

Eucalyptus marginata, commonly known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and historically as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and relatively large, more or less spherical fruit. Its hard, dense timber is insect resistant although the tree is susceptible to dieback. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making, flooring and railway sleepers.

Eucalyptus redunca

Eucalyptus redunca, commonly known as black marlock, black-barked marlock, wandoo or myrtan, is a tree species in the genus Eucalyptus that is native to Western Australia. E. redunca produces a tannin of the condensed type.

Eucalyptus wandoo

Eucalyptus wandoo, commonly known as wandoo or white gum, is a medium-sized tree widely distributed in southwest Western Australia. The Noongar names for the tree are Dooto, Wandoo, Warrnt or Wornt.

Eudicots

The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group.

The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen, or forms derived from it. These pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants (that is the gymnosperms, the monocots and the paleodicots) produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus. The name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group.Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants, trees, and ornamentals. Some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not, cabbage and other members of its family, apple, buttercup, maple, and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes also belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, and Ginkgo biloba, which is not an angiosperm.

The name "eudicots" (plural) is used in the APG system, of 1998, and APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a clade, a monophyletic group, which includes most of the (former) dicots.

"Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons" (which are distinguished from all other flowering plants by their tricolpate pollen structure). The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi (tricolpate), and other groups having one sulcus.Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain. These modifications include thinning, ridges and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi (singular colpus), which, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes.

Ficus virens

Ficus virens is a plant of the genus Ficus found in India, southeast Asia, through Malaysia and into Northern Australia. Its common name is white fig; it is locally known as pilkhan and in the Kunwinjku language it is called manbornde . Like many figs, its fruits are edible. One of the most famous specimens of this tree is the Curtain Fig Tree of the Atherton Tableland, near Cairns, a popular tourist attraction.

Ficus virens var. sublanceolata occurs the subtropical rainforest of northeastern New South Wales, and south eastern Queensland in Australia.

Gyrostemonaceae

Gyrostemonaceae is a family of plants in the order Brassicales. It comprises 4(-6) genera, totalling about 20 known species. All are endemic to temperate parts of Australia. They are shrubs or small trees with small, often narrow leaves, and small flowers. They are wind-pollinated.

Melaleuca

Melaleuca () is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, commonly known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees (although the last name is also applied to species of Leptospermum). They range in size from small shrubs that rarely grow to more than 1 m (3 ft) high, to trees up to 35 m (100 ft). Their flowers generally occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which also have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are very different.

Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects, birds, and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either for their attractive flowers or as dense screens; and a few have economic value for producing fencing and oils such as “tea tree” oil. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few also occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, and one is found only on (Australia's) Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans. Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, and especially draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species.

Sapindales

Sapindales is an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; maples, horse-chestnuts, lychees and rambutans; mangos and cashews; frankincense and myrrh; mahogany and neem.

The APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids (in rosids, in eudicots) with the following nine families:

Anacardiaceae

Biebersteiniaceae

Burseraceae

Kirkiaceae

Meliaceae

Nitrariaceae (including Peganaceae and Tetradiclidaceae)

Rutaceae

Sapindaceae

SimaroubaceaeThe APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae.

In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rutaceae were placed in the order Rutales, in the superorder Rutiflorae (also called Rutanae). The Cronquist system of 1981 used a somewhat different circumscription, including the following families:

Staphyleaceae

Melianthaceae

Bretschneideraceae

Akaniaceae

Sapindaceae

Hippocastanaceae

Aceraceae

Burseraceae

Anacardiaceae

Julianiaceae

Simaroubaceae

Cneoraceae

Meliaceae

Rutaceae

ZygophyllaceaeThe difference from the APG III system is not as large as may appear, as the plants in the families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae stay in this order at APG III (both included in family Sapindaceae). The species now composing the family Nitrariaceae in APG III also belonged to this order in the Cronquist system as part of the family Zygophyllaceae, while those now in the family Kirkiaceae were present as part of the family Simaroubaceae.

Saxifragales

The Saxifragales are an order of flowering plants. Their closest relatives are a large eudicot group known as the rosids by the definition of rosids given in the APG II classification system. Some authors define the rosids more widely, including Saxifragales as their most basal group. Saxifragales is one of the eight groups that compose the core eudicots. The others are Gunnerales, Dilleniaceae, Rosids, Santalales, Berberidopsidales, Caryophyllales, and Asterids.Saxifragales have an extensive fossil record. The extant members are apparently remnants of a formerly diverse and widespread order.The Saxifragales order, as it is now understood, is based upon the results of molecular phylogenetic studies of DNA sequences. It is not part of any of the classification systems based on plant morphology. The group is much in need of comparative anatomical study, especially in light of the recent expansion of the family Peridiscaceae to include Medusandra, a genus that before 2009 had usually not been placed in Saxifragales.The order is divided into suprafamilial groups as shown on the phylogenetic tree below. These groups are informal and are not understood to have any particular taxonomic rank.

Superrosids

The superrosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing more than 88,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms.The clade is divided into 18 orders as defined in APG IV system. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 155 families.The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass.

Verticordia subg. Verticordia

Verticordia subg. Verticordia is a botanical name for a grouping of similar plant species in the genus Verticordia. This subgenus contains eleven sections, classifying thirty six species, of Alex George's infrageneric arrangement. A number of anatomical features differentiate the contained species from the other two subgenera.

Verticordia subg. Verticordia

Section Verticordia

the type species for this section, and the genus, is Verticordia plumosa

Section Corymbiformis

the type species for this section, closely related to Verticordia sect. Verticordia, is Verticordia brownii

Section Micrantha

Section Infuscata

Section Elachoschista

containing a single species, Verticordia verticordina

Section Penicillaris

Section Pilocosta

Section Catocalypta

Section Platandra

Section Recondita

containing a single species, Verticordia humilis

Section Intricata

Vitaceae

The Vitaceae are a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants, with 14 genera and ca 910 known species, including the grapevine and Virginia creeper. The family name is derived from the genus Vitis. The name sometimes appears as Vitidaceae, but Vitaceae is a conserved name and therefore has priority over both Vitidaceae and another name sometimes found in the older literature, Ampelidaceae. In the APG III system (2009) onwards, the family is placed in its own order, Vitales. Molecular phylogenetic studies place the Vitales as the most basal clade in the rosids.In the Cronquist system, the family was placed near the family Rhamnaceae in order Rhamnales.

Most Vitis species have 38 chromosomes (n=19), but 40 (n=20) in subgenus Muscadinia, while Ampelocissus, Parthenocissus, and Ampelopsis also have 40 chromosomes (n=20) and Cissus has 24 chromosomes (n=12).

The family is economically important as the berries of Vitis species, commonly known as grapes, are an important fruit crop and, when fermented, produce wine.

Species of the genus Tetrastigma serve as hosts to parasitic plants in the family Rafflesiaceae.

Leea, sometimes classified in its own family, Leeaceae, is included in Vitaceae by APG IV (2016) and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.

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