It is the site of the former bishopric of Rotdon, now a Latin Catholic titular see.
Coat of arms
Location in Catalonia
|• Mayor||Montse Mindan Cortada (2015)|
|• Total||45.9 km2 (17.7 sq mi)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
|• Density||420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
It seems more probable that it was founded in the 5th century BC by Greeks from Massalia (Marseilles), perhaps with an admixture of colonists from neighbouring Emporion (today's Empúries). Remains of the Greek settlement can still be seen.
Remains from the Roman period go back to the 2nd century BC and continue well into Christian times with a paleochristian church and necropolis. After the collapse of Roman power the town seems to have been abandoned, but a fortified settlement from the Visigothic period has been excavated on the nearby Puig Rom.
The mediaeval town grew around the monastery of Santa Maria de Roses (mentioned since 944). Its jurisdiction was shared by the abbots of Santa Maria de Roses and the counts of Empúries. In 1402 the county of Empúries was incorporated into the Crown of Aragon and Roses acquired the right to organize its own municipal government and economy.
In the first decades of the 16th century, Roses suffered repeated attacks by privateers from North Africa. To counter the threat, Charles V ordered the construction of extensive fortifications in 1543. In spite of the precautions, a naval squadron led by the Turkish admiral Barbarossa attacked and plundered the town some months later. After substantial revisions, the fortifications were completed in 1553, under Charles's son Philip II. The entire medieval town was enclosed by a bastioned pentagonal wall (illustration, below).
The defensive system was supplemented by the Castell de la Trinitat, some 2.5 km to the east. The town received a permanent military garrison, which profoundly changed its character. To minimise friction between the citizenry and the soldiers, barracks were constructed, but did not prevent the gradual movement of part of the population to outside the walls, where the modern town of Roses now is.
In the following centuries, the fortifications were severely tested. In 1645, during the Catalan Revolt, French troops besieged Roses and captured it. The Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) restored the town to Spain.
In 1693, during the War of the Grand Alliance the French captured the town again. This time the French occupation lasted until the Peace of Ryswick in 1697. In 1712, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Austrian troops tried to take the city, but were driven off. In 1719, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance, the French again attacked, but failed to take Roses.
After a long period of relative calm, the Wars of the French Revolution ushered in a new round of hostilities. In 1793, the French revolutionary government declared war on Spain. At first, the Spanish armies won a foothold in France, but in 1794 the revolutionary armies invaded Catalonia. The Siege of Roses lasted from 28 November 1794 until 3 February 1795, when the garrison was safely evacuated by a Spanish naval squadron, except for 300 soldiers. The town was surrendered to France, but the war between France and Spain ended at the Peace of Basle signed in July 1795. The city quickly returned to Spanish control.
In 1808, Emperor Napoleon I of France forced King Charles IV of Spain and his son Ferdinand to abdicate and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. When the Spanish people revolted against this high-handed behavior, French armies again invaded the country in the Peninsular War. The fourth and last Siege of Roses occurred in 1808. During the operation, the Scottish Royal Navy captain, Thomas Cochrane assisted the Spanish by putting his men into Castell de la Trinitat to help defend the town. The Scot stayed until the citadel and the town surrendered, before evacuating himself and his men. In 1814, when the defeated French withdrew from Spain, they blew up the town's fortifications along with the Castell de la Trinitat. At this time, the ancient town, called the Ciutadella, was completely ruined. Meanwhile, to the east the modern town slowly continued to grow.
In 1879, Roses suffered a devastating economic crisis through phylloxera, a pest of the grapevines, that destroyed the town's wine growing industry. Some of the population moved to Barcelona or emigrated to the United States.
In the 20th century, notably in the period after World War II, Roses profited from the growth of tourism.
Over the last decades, important excavations have been carried out inside the walls of the Ciutadella concerning not only the Greek and Roman remains, but part of the medieval city and its walls. In the 1990s, extensive restoration work was carried out on the walls of the Ciutadella, and in 2004 a museum was opened inside it. A controversial restoration of the Castell de Trinitat was formally completed in 2010.
Roses was the home of El Bulli, one of the world's best and most famous restaurants, from 1961 until its closure in July 2011. El Bulli had held three Michelin stars since 1997 and was rated the world's best restaurant for four years running since 2005 by Restaurant Magazine.
The monastery of Santa Maria de Roses is mentioned in a document of the year 944. Around the monastery grew the mediaeval town of Roses, whose jurisdiction was shared by the abbots of Santa Maria de Roses and the counts of Empúries.
The diocese was nominally restored in 1969 as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric.
It has had the following near-consecutive incumbents, of the fitting episcopal (lowest) rank :
According to Idescat, Roses' population in 2016 was 19.438 people on a land area of 45.9 km, the density is 423.4 people per square kilometer, much higher than the average of the Comarca of Alt Empordà (103.2) and the overall of Catalonia (234.3).
|0 – 14 years old||3.339|
|15 – 64 years old||12.905|
|65 – 84 years old||2.955|
|85 years or older||376|
Roses increases its population in summer because of tourism and welcomes 120,000 visitors, the majority of them from Spain, France, Germany and Great Britain.
Ana María de Soto (circa 1777 - d. after 1798), was a sailor in the Spanish military. She was the first woman to serve in the Marine Battalions.Greece–Spain relations
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Francisco Javier Bosma Mínguez (born 6 November 1969 in Roses, Girona) is a former Spanish beach volleyball player, who won the silver medal in the men's beach volleyball tournament at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens together with Pablo Herrera.
Javier Bosma started playing beach volleyball in 1994 and also competed at the 1996 Summer Olympics and the 2000 Summer Olympics, finishing 5th both times. He had surgery on his right leg six times and retired at the end of 2006.LTV A-7P Corsair II
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During its 18 years of service in the PoAF the A-7 fleet suffered 14 accidents and suffered from numerous maintenance and logistic problems in its last years of service due to the lack of spare parts and financial problems. Nevertheless, the program was seen as a success due to the evolution that it allowed the Air Force in aircraft maintenance, with focus in modern computer and electronic systems, and in the qualification of technicians and the modernization of the Portuguese military aviation industry.List of ETA attacks
This page is a list of attacks undertaken (or believed to have been undertaken) by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), an armed Basque terrorist movement, mainly in Spain. The list includes attacks by all the branches and divisions that ETA had through its history, as well as some kale borroka attacks. Important failed attacks are also included.
Since 1961, ETA conducted many attacks against a variety of targets. Because these attacks number in the hundreds over a span of more than 45 years, not all can be included here. This incomplete list may include attacks noted for being the first of their kind made by the organization, first in a particular area, notability of targets, large number of victims, unique method of attack, or other historic significance. The list is of those attacks described above between 1961 and 2011.List of Ultimate teams
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This is a list of bastion forts, also called Star forts.List of lighthouses in Spain
This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.List of registered political parties in Spain (1985–93)
Below are listed political parties registered at the Ministry of Interior of Spain 1985–1993.
The Ministry does not appear to remove registrations if parties are dissolved or become dormant, and a large part of the groups mentioned no longer exists today.
In several cases the groups listed were electoral alliances formed to contest a specific election.
In several cases, the registered parties are regional affiliates or branches of a nationwide party.
Some of the organizations listed are not political parties per se. For example, a handful of youth wings of political parties are listed.
Parties listed in the order by which they were registered.List of water parks in Europe
The following is a list of water parks in Europe sorted by region.Luis Pizano
Luis Pizaño (died 5/10/1550 Laredo-España-Spain) was a Spanish Captain General of Artillery and military engineer. He is best known for his work on the fortifications of Catalonia and the Basque Country. In 1540, he sent a report to the Council informing them that the fortifications of San Sebastián were in a poor state and should be extended. He took part in the reconstruction of the San Sebastian murallas between 1542 and 1544.
Charles V let Pizaño assume responsibility for the construction of the Castell de la Trinitat and other building projects in Roses, Girona in 1543. Construction of the Castell de la Trinitat commenced on 2 January 1544 and was completed in mid-1551 after Pizaño's death by the Italian engineer Pietro di Giacomo Cataneo.Rhode
Rhode may refer to:
In Greek mythology:Rhodos, goddess and personification of the island of Rhodes
Rhode, one of the fifty daughters of DanausRhode (spider), a genus of spiders
Rhode, County Offaly, an Irish town
Rhode, now Roses, Girona, Spain
Rhode, a suburb of Olpe, Germany
Rhode River, Maryland
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Rosas may refer to:
Rosas (surname), a Spanish surname, including a list of people with the name
Rosas (Madrid), a ward in San Blas-Canillejas district, Madrid, Spain
Rosas, Cauca, a town and municipality in Colombia
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"Rosas", a song by La Oreja de Van Gogh from Lo Que te Conté Mientras te Hacías la DormidaSiege of Roses (1808)
The Siege of Roses or Siege of Rosas from 7 November to 5 December 1808 saw an Imperial French corps led by Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr invest a Catalan and Spanish garrison commanded by Peter O'Daly. After a siege lasting a month in which the haven and town of Rosas was captured and the nearby Trinity Castle invested by over 13,000 French and Italian infantry, artillery and cavalry with heavy siege trains on the hills above, the Citadel was surrendered to the Napoleonic forces. Roses (Rosas) is located 43 kilometres (27 mi) northeast of Girona (Gerona), Spain. The action occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars.
In the summer and fall of 1808, an Imperial French corps under Guillaume Philibert Duhesme was isolated in Barcelona by a 24,000-man Spanish army led by Juan Miguel de Vives y Feliu. With 23,000 men, Gouvion Saint-Cyr moved from the French border to relieve Duhesme's troops. The first obstacle to Gouvion Saint-Cyr's mission was the haven of Rosas defended by a large citadel with sea approaches defended by a headland castle. The 3,500 Catalan and Spanish defenders of Roses were mostly local miquelets (militia) stiffened by a small unit of regulars from the Fija de Roses garrison. Although assisted by a bombardment of the French lines by several British warships commanded by Captain Robert Hallowell, and a strong defence of the castle by Catalan regulars and militia with men of the 38-gun frigate HMS Imperieuse commanded by Thomas Cochrane, the garrison was unable to prevent the advance of the Franco-Italian siege lines tightening its grip around the citadel. The defenders eventually capitulated, the soldiers and civilians inside the citadel being taken into captivity in Figueres and the local defenders of the castle being taken by the British to join Vives' Spanish forces in the marshes to the south. Gouvion Saint-Cyr still faced the problem of getting past Girona in order to succor Duhesme's soldiers. The French general made a bold but risky maneuver and the result was the Battle of Cardadeu on 16 December.Structure of the Spanish Air Force
The article provides an overview of the entire chain of command and organization of the Spanish Air Force as of 2018 and includes all currently active units. The Spanish Air Force is commanded by the Air Force Chief of Staff or "Jefe de Estado Mayor" (JEMA) in Madrid.
The source for this article is the organization section on the website of the Spanish Air Force.
Places adjacent to Roses, Girona
Municipalities of Alt Empordà