Rose

A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.[1]

Rose-Victoria1995
Rose-Victoria1995
Rose
Rosa rubiginosa 1
Rosa rubiginosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Tribe: Roseae
Genus: Rosa
L.
Species

See List of Rosa species

Synonyms
  • Hulthemia Dumort.
  • ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)

Etymology

The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[2][3]

Botany

Rose Prickles
Rose thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis.
Roseleaves3800px
Rose leaflets
Roses Boutons FR 2012
Exterior view of rose buds
Rose hip 02 ies
Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip

The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from Southeast Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.

The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes.[4] Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose (Rosa canina) and rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.

The sharp growths along a rose stem, though commonly called "thorns", are technically prickles, outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem), unlike true thorns, which are modified stems. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.

Species

Redoute - Rosa gallica purpuro-violacea magna
Rosa gallica Evêque, painted by Redouté

The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:

  • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
  • Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
  • Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose).
  • Rosa (the type subgenus, sometimes incorrectly called Eurosa) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
    • Banksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
    • Bracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India.
    • Caninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
    • Carolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
    • Chinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
    • Gallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
    • Gymnocarpae – one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
    • Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China.
    • Pimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
    • Rosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
    • Synstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.
Rose flower in bundle
Red roses

Uses

Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization.

Ornamental plants

The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).

Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.[5] Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals.

In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.

Cut flowers

Bouquet de roses roses
Bouquet of pink roses

Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.

In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.[6]

Some kind of roses are artificially coloured using dyed water, like rainbow roses.

Perfume

Geraniol structure
Geraniol (C
10
H
18
O
)

Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia and then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into eastern Europe. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa × damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. 'Rose Absolute' is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and L-citronellol and rose camphor, an odorless solid composed of alkanes, which separates from rose oil.[7] β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.

Food and drink

Rose Jam
Rose jams are partially common in Iran

Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, marmalade, and soup or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.[8]

Gulaab Jamun (homemade!) bright
Gulab jamun made with rose water

Rose water has a very distinctive flavour and is used heavily in Middle Eastern, Persian, and South Asian cuisine—especially in sweets such as barfi, baklava, halva, gulab jamun, gumdrops, kanafeh, nougat, and Turkish delight.

Rose petals or flower buds are sometimes used to flavour ordinary tea, or combined with other herbs to make herbal teas.

In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the Indian subcontinent, Rooh Afza, a concentrated squash made with roses, is popular, as are rose-flavoured frozen desserts such as ice cream and kulfi.[9][10]

Rose flowers are used as food, also usually as flavouring or to add their scent to food.[11] Other minor uses include candied rose petals.[12]

Rose creams (rose-flavoured fondant covered in chocolate, often topped with a crystallised rose petal) are a traditional English confectionery widely available from numerous producers in the UK.

Under the American Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act,[13] there are only certain Rosa species, varieties, and parts are on the Generally Recognized as Safe lists.

  • Rose absolute: Rosa alba L., Rosa centifolia L., Rosa damascena Mill., Rosa gallica L., and vars. of these spp.
  • Rose (otto of roses, attar of roses): Ditto
  • Rose buds: Ditto
  • Rose flowers: Ditto
  • Rose fruit (hips): Ditto
  • Rose leaves: Rosa spp.[14]

Medicine

The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement. Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.[15] In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, "compound of roses", from ῥόδων, "of roses"[16]) is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient.

Art and symbolism

Codex Manesse Rudolf von Neuenburg
Codex Manesse illuminated with roses, illustrated between 1305 and 1340 in Zürich. It contains love songs in Middle High German

The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol. In ancient Greece, the rose was closely associated with the goddess Aphrodite.[17][18] In the Iliad, Aphrodite protects the body of Hector using the "immortal oil of the rose"[19][17] and the archaic Greek lyric poet Ibycus praises a beautiful youth saying that Aphrodite nursed him "among rose blossoms".[20][17] The second-century AD Greek travel writer Pausanias associates the rose with the story of Adonis and states that the rose is red because Aphrodite wounded herself on one of its thorns and stained the flower red with her blood.[21][17] Book Eleven of the ancient Roman novel The Golden Ass by Apuleius contains a scene in which the goddess Isis, who is identified with Venus, instructs the main character, Lucius, who has been transformed into a donkey, to eat rose petals from a crown of roses worn by a priest as part of a religious procession in order to regain his humanity.[18]

Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire, the rose became identified with the Virgin Mary. The color of the rose and the number of roses received has symbolic representation.[22] [23][18] The rose symbol eventually led to the creation of the rosary and other devotional prayers in Christianity.[24][18]

Plucking the Red and White Roses, by Henry Payne
Framed print after 1908 painting by Henry Payne of the scene in the Temple Garden, where supporters of the rival factions in the Wars of the Roses pick either red or white roses

Ever since the 1400s, the Franciscans have had a Crown Rosary of the Seven Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary.[18] In the 1400s and 1500s, the Carthusians promoted the idea of sacred mysteries associated with the rose symbol and rose gardens.[18] Albrecht Dürer's painting The Feast of the Rosary (1506) depicts the Virgin Mary distributing garlands of roses to her worshippers.[18]

Roses symbolised the Houses of York and Lancaster in a conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.

Roses are a favored subject in art and appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg-born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist.

Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works.

Pests and diseases

Wild roses are host plants for a number of pests and diseases. Many of these affect other plants, including other genera of the Rosaceae.

Cultivated roses are often subject to severe damage from insect, arachnid and fungal pests and diseases. In many cases they cannot be usefully grown without regular treatment to control these problems.

Floral emblem of the United States

In 1986 President Ronald Reagan signed legislation to make the rose[25] the floral emblem of the United States.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ "rose (plant) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. 19 November 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2009.
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, s.v. "rose."
  3. ^ "GOL – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  4. ^ Mabberley, D. J. (1997). The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Goody, Jack (1993). The Culture of Flowers. Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ "ADC Commercialisation bulletin #4: Fresh cut roses" (PDF). FOODNET Uganda 2009. May 14, 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  7. ^ Stewart, D. (2005). The Chemistry Of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest In Molecules. Care. ISBN 978-0-934426-99-2.
  8. ^ "Rose Hip Benefits". Herbwisdom.com. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Rose Flavored Ice Cream with Rose Petals". eCurry.
  10. ^ Samanth Subramanian (27 April 2012). "Rooh Afza, the syrup that sweetens the subcontinent's summers". The National.
  11. ^ "St. Petersburg Times – Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  12. ^ "rosepetal candy – Google Search". google.co.uk.
  13. ^ "Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)".
  14. ^ "§182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates)".
  15. ^ "Rosa chinensis China Rose PFAF Plant Database". Pfaf.org. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  16. ^ "dia-". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  17. ^ a b c d Cyrino, Monica S. (2010). Aphrodite. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. New York City, New York and London, England: Routledge. pp. 63, 96. ISBN 978-0-415-77523-6.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Clark, Nora (2015). Aphrodite and Venus in Myth and Mimesis. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 209–210. ISBN 978-1-4438-7127-3.
  19. ^ Iliad 23.185–187
  20. ^ Ibycus, fragment 288.4
  21. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 6.24.7
  22. ^ "Rose Flower Meaning and Symbolism". 20 July 2016.
  23. ^ Lisa Cucciniello, "Rose to Rosary: The Flower of Venus in Catholicism" in Rose Lore: Essays in Semiotics and Cultural History (ed. Frankie Hutton: Lexington Books, 2008), pp. 64-65.
  24. ^ Cucciniello, Rose Lore, at pp. 65-67.
  25. ^ "The Rose - National (U.S.) Flower".
  26. ^ National Flower of United States - Fresh from the Grower

External links

Amber Rose

Amber Levonchuck (born 21 October 1983), known professionally as Amber Rose, is an American model and actress.

Axl Rose

W. Axl Rose (born William Bruce Rose Jr.; raised as William Bruce Bailey; born February 6, 1962) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer and musician. He is the lead vocalist of the hard rock band Guns N' Roses, and has also been the band's sole constant member since its inception in 1985. In addition to Guns N' Roses, he also toured with Australian rock band AC/DC in 2016 during the final 2 legs of their Rock or Bust World Tour when Brian Johnson took a break due to hearing problems.

Rose has been named one of the greatest singers of all time by various media outlets, including Rolling Stone and NME.Born and raised in Lafayette, Indiana, Rose moved in the early 1980s to Los Angeles, where he became active in the local hard rock scene and joined several bands, including Hollywood Rose and L.A. Guns. In 1985, he co-founded Guns N' Roses, with whom he had great success and recognition in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Their first album, Appetite for Destruction (1987), has sold in excess of 30 million copies worldwide, and is the best-selling debut album of all time in the U.S. with 18 million units sold. Its full-length follow-ups, the twin albums Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II (1991), were also widely successful; they respectively debuted at No. 2 and No. 1 on the Billboard 200 and have sold a combined 35 million copies worldwide.After 1994, following the conclusion of their two-and-a-half-year Use Your Illusion Tour, Rose disappeared from public life for several years, while the band disintegrated due to personal and musical differences. As its sole remaining original member, he was able to continue working under the Guns N' Roses banner because he had legally obtained the band name. In 2001, he resurfaced with a new line-up of Guns N' Roses at Rock in Rio 3, and subsequently played periodic concert tours to promote the long-delayed Chinese Democracy (2008), which undersold the music industry's commercial expectations despite positive reviews upon its release. In 2012, Rose was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Guns N' Roses, though he declined to attend the event and requested exclusion from the Hall. In 2016, Rose partially reunited the "classic" lineup of Guns N' Roses and has since toured the world as part of the Not in This Lifetime... Tour. That same year, Rose also toured with AC/DC, filling in for Brian Johnson as the lead singer of the group and embarked on a world tour with them.

Derrick Rose

Derrick Martell Rose (born October 4, 1988) is an American professional basketball player for the Minnesota Timberwolves of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played one year of college basketball for the Memphis Tigers before being drafted first overall by his hometown Chicago Bulls in the 2008 NBA draft. After being named the NBA Rookie of the Year, Rose, at age 22, became the youngest player to win the NBA Most Valuable Player Award in 2011.

Rose was born and raised in Chicago, and attended Simeon Career Academy. He was highly recruited by colleges, eventually choosing to join the University of Memphis under coach John Calipari. Rose led the Tigers to the most wins in NCAA history (a 38–2 record), their first number 1 ranking in 25 years, and an appearance in the NCAA championship game. In 2009, an NCAA investigation revealed that Rose's SAT scores had been invalidated, and as a result, the NCAA vacated Memphis' entire 2007–08 season.Rose has struggled with significant knee injuries since his 2010–11 MVP campaign. In the first round of the 2012 NBA Playoffs against the Philadelphia 76ers, Rose tore his ACL in his left knee. Rose required surgery and was subsequently sidelined for the entire 2012–13 season. Rose returned to play in 2013–14. However, on November 22, 2013, during a regular season game against the Portland Trail Blazers, Rose injured his right meniscus which caused him to miss the remainder of the season. Rose returned once again the following season, but knee injuries continued to riddle him, causing him to miss 30 games. In June 2016, he was traded to the New York Knicks. After one season with the Knicks, Rose joined the Cleveland Cavaliers in July 2017, but was traded and subsequently released by the Utah Jazz the following February. In March 2018, he signed with the Timberwolves.

George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, and his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, and George was created Prince of Wales. He became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910.

George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War (1914–1918), the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations. He had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his later reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII.

Get Out

Get Out is a 2017 American horror film written and directed by Jordan Peele in his directorial debut. It stars Daniel Kaluuya, Allison Williams, Lil Rel Howery, Bradley Whitford, Caleb Landry Jones, Stephen Root, and Catherine Keener. Get Out follows Chris Washington (Kaluuya), a young African-American man who uncovers a disturbing secret when he meets the family of his Caucasian girlfriend, Rose Armitage (Williams).

Get Out premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 23, 2017, and was theatrically released in the United States on February 24, 2017, by Universal Pictures. It grossed $255 million worldwide on a $4.5 million budget, with a net profit of $124 million, making it the tenth most profitable film of 2017.

Critics praised the screenplay, direction, acting, and satirical themes. The film was chosen by the National Board of Review, the American Film Institute and Time as one of the top 10 films of the year. At the 90th Academy Awards, it was nominated for four awards, including Best Picture, and won for Best Original Screenplay. It also earned five nominations at the 23rd Critics' Choice Awards, two at the 75th Golden Globe Awards, and two at the 71st British Academy Film Awards.

Guns N' Roses

Guns N' Roses, often abbreviated as GNR, is an American hard rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1985. When they signed to Geffen Records in 1986, the band comprised vocalist Axl Rose, lead guitarist Slash, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin, bassist Duff McKagan, and drummer Steven Adler. The current lineup consists of Rose, Slash, McKagan, keyboardist Dizzy Reed, guitarist Richard Fortus, drummer Frank Ferrer and keyboardist Melissa Reese.

Guns N' Roses' debut album, Appetite for Destruction (1987), reached number one on the Billboard 200 a year after its release, on the strength of the Top 10 singles "Welcome to the Jungle", "Paradise City", and "Sweet Child o' Mine", the band's only single to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100. The album has sold approximately 30 million copies worldwide, including 18 million units in the United States, making it the country's bestselling debut album and eleventh-bestselling album. Their next studio album, G N' R Lies (1988), reached number two on the Billboard 200, sold ten million copies worldwide (including five million in the U.S.), and included the Top 5 hit "Patience". Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II, recorded simultaneously and released in 1991, debuted at number two and number one on the Billboard 200 respectively and have sold a combined 35 million copies worldwide, including 14 million units in the United States. The Illusion albums included the lead single "You Could Be Mine" (also featured in the film soundtrack for Terminator 2), covers of "Live and Let Die" and "Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door", and a trilogy of ballads ("Don't Cry", "November Rain", and "Estranged"), which featured notably high-budget music videos. The Illusion records were also supported by the extensive Use Your Illusion Tour, a world tour that lasted from 1991-1993. "The Spaghetti Incident?" (1993), an album of covers, was the band's last studio album to feature Slash and McKagan before their initial departure.

Work on a follow up album stalled due to creative differences between band members; by 1998 only Rose and Reed remained from the Illusion-era lineup. After a more than a decade of work and several lineup changes, Guns N' Roses's long-awaited sixth studio album Chinese Democracy (2008), was released. At an estimated $14 million in production costs, it is the most expensive rock album in history. It debuted at number three on the Billboard 200, but undersold industry expectations despite mostly positive critical reception. Slash and McKagan rejoined the band in 2016 for the Not in This Lifetime... Tour, which became the second-highest-grossing concert tour on record, grossing over $562 million by December 2018.

In their early years, the band's hedonism and rebelliousness drew comparisons to the early Rolling Stones and earned them the nickname "the most dangerous band in the world." The band's classic lineup, along with later members Reed and drummer Matt Sorum, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012, its first year of eligibility. Guns N' Roses have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, including 45 million in the United States, making them the 41st-bestselling artist in history.

Heath Ledger

Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 1979 – 22 January 2008) was an Australian actor and music video director. After performing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s, Ledger left for the United States in 1998 to further develop his film career. His work comprised nineteen films, including 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), The Patriot (2000), A Knight's Tale (2001), Monster's Ball (2001), Lords of Dogtown (2005), Brokeback Mountain (2005), Casanova (2005), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009), the latter two being posthumous releases. He also produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director.For his portrayal of Ennis Del Mar in Brokeback Mountain, Ledger won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and the Best International Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute; he was the first actor to win the latter award posthumously. He was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Academy Award for Best Actor. Posthumously, he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the ensemble cast, the director, and the casting director for the film I'm Not There, which was inspired by the life and songs of American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. In the film, Ledger portrayed a fictional actor named Robbie Clark, one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylan's life and persona.Ledger died on 22 January 2008 due to accidental intoxication from prescription drugs. A few months before his death, Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight. His death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. His untimely death cast a shadow over the subsequent promotion of The Dark Knight. Ledger received numerous posthumous accolades for his critically acclaimed performance in The Dark Knight, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, a Best Actor International Award at the 2008 Australian Film Institute Awards, the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor, the 2009 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, and the 2009 BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor.

Jalen Rose

Jalen Anthony Rose (born January 30, 1973) is a former American professional basketball player, current sports analyst for ESPN, and cofounder of the Jalen Rose Leadership Academy. In college, he was a member of the University of Michigan Wolverines' "Fab Five" (along with Chris Webber, Juwan Howard, Jimmy King, and Ray Jackson) that reached the 1992 and 1993 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship games as both freshmen and sophomores. Rose played in the National Basketball Association (NBA) for six teams, most notably alongside Reggie Miller on the Indiana Pacers teams that made three consecutive Eastern Conference finals, including the 2000 NBA Finals. Rose was primarily a small forward; however, he sometimes played the role of a shooting guard. Currently, he co-hosts Get Up!, a morning sports talk show on ESPN. He was also the one who guarded Kobe Bryant on his 81 point night.

Jeff Daniels

Jeffrey Warren Daniels (born February 19, 1955) is an American actor, musician, and playwright whose career includes roles in films, stage productions, and on television, for which he has won two Emmy Awards and received several Golden Globe, Screen Actors Guild and Tony Award nominations.

Making his film debut in Ragtime (1981), Daniels's film credits include Terms of Endearment (1983), Arachnophobia (1990), Gettysburg (1993), Speed (1994), 101 Dalmatians (1996), Fly Away Home (1996), Pleasantville (1998), The Hours (2002), Gods and Generals (2003), Good Night, and Good Luck (2005), Infamous (2006), The Lookout (2007), Looper (2012), Steve Jobs (2015), and The Martian (2015).

Daniels is also known for playing Harry Dunne in the buddy comedy Dumb and Dumber (1994) and its sequel Dumb and Dumber To (2014). He received Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Actor, for his performances in The Purple Rose of Cairo (1985), Something Wild (1986), and The Squid and the Whale (2005).

Daniels has received a number of award nominations for his work on stage, including Tony Award nominations for Best Actor for his roles in the plays God of Carnage, Blackbird and To Kill a Mockingbird. He is the founder and current executive director of the Chelsea, Michigan–based Purple Rose Theatre Company.

From 2012 to 2014 Daniels starred as Will McAvoy in the HBO political drama series The Newsroom, for which he won the 2013 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series and received Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild Award nominations. He won a second Primetime Emmy Award in 2018 for his supporting performance in the Netflix miniseries Godless (2017), receiving an additional nomination that year for his leading performance as John P. O'Neill in the Hulu miniseries The Looming Tower (2018).

Lily Allen

Lily Rose Beatrice Cooper (née Allen; born 2 May 1985), known professionally as Lily Allen, is an English singer and songwriter. She is the daughter of actor Keith Allen and film producer Alison Owen. Allen left school when she was 15 and concentrated on improving her performing and compositional skills. In 2005, she made some of her recordings public on Myspace and the publicity resulted in airplay on BBC Radio 1 and a contract with Regal Recordings.

Her first mainstream single, "Smile", reached number one on the UK Singles Chart in July 2006. Her debut record, Alright, Still, was well received, selling over 2.6 million copies worldwide and brought Allen a nomination at the Grammy Awards, the Brit Awards, and the MTV Video Music Awards. She began hosting her own talk show, Lily Allen and Friends, on BBC Three.

Her second studio album, It's Not Me, It's You, saw a genre shift, having more of an electropop feel, rather than the ska and reggae influences of the first one. The album debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart and the Australian ARIA Charts and was well received by critics, noting the singer's musical evolution and maturity. It spawned the hit singles "The Fear" and "Fuck You". This success saw her receive the Brit Award for British Female Solo Artist at the 2010 Brit Awards. Allen and Amy Winehouse were credited with starting a process that led to the "year of the women" media label in 2009 that saw five female artists making music of "experimentalism and fearlessness" nominated for the Mercury Prize.After announcing a hiatus from her music career in 2009, Allen launched her own record label, In the Name Of, in 2011. She has released two further albums: Sheezus (2014), which debuted at number one on the UK Albums Chart, and No Shame (2018). In September 2018, Allen released her debut book, My Thoughts Exactly.

List of Sonic the Hedgehog characters

The Sonic the Hedgehog video game franchise began in 1991 with the game Sonic the Hedgehog for the Sega Genesis, which pitted a blue anthropomorphic hedgehog named Sonic against a rotund male human villain named Doctor Eggman (or Doctor Ivo Robotnik). The sequel, Sonic 2, gave Sonic a fox friend named Tails. Shortly afterward, Sonic CD introduced Amy Rose, a female hedgehog with a persistent crush on Sonic, and Sonic 3 introduced Knuckles the Echidna, Sonic's rival and, later, friend. All five of these have remained major characters and appeared in dozens of games.

The series has introduced dozens of additional recurring characters over the years. These have ranged from anthropomorphic animal characters like Shadow the Hedgehog and Cream the Rabbit to robots created by Eggman like Metal Sonic and E-123 Omega, as well as human characters like Eggman's grandfather Gerald Robotnik. The series also features two fictional species: Chao, which have usually functioned as digital pets and minor gameplay and plot elements, and more recently, Wisps, which have been used as power-ups.

The Sonic games keep a separate continuity from the Sonic the Hedgehog comics published by Archie Comics and other Sonic media and, as a result, feature a distinct yet overlapping array of characters.

Pasadena, California

Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.

The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles (April 4, 1850). It is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley.The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game and Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is also home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, and the USC Pacific Asia Museum.

Pete Rose

Peter Edward Rose (born April 14, 1941), also known by his nickname "Charlie Hustle", is an American former professional baseball player and manager. Rose played in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1963 to 1986, and managed from 1984 to 1989.

Rose was a switch hitter and is the all-time MLB leader in hits (4,256), games played (3,562), at-bats (14,053), singles (3,215), and outs (10,328). He won three World Series rings, three batting titles, one Most Valuable Player Award, two Gold Gloves, and the Rookie of the Year Award, and also made 17 All-Star appearances at an unequaled five positions (second baseman, left fielder, right fielder, third baseman, and first baseman). Rose won both of his Gold Gloves when he was an outfielder, in 1969 and 1970.

In August 1989 (his last year as a manager and three years after retiring as a player), Rose was penalized with permanent ineligibility from baseball amidst accusations that he gambled on baseball games while he played for and managed the Reds; the charges of wrongdoing included claims that he bet on his own team. In 1991, the Baseball Hall of Fame formally voted to ban those on the "permanently ineligible" list from induction, after previously excluding such players by informal agreement among voters. After years of public denial, Rose admitted in 2004 that he bet on baseball and on the Reds. The issue of Rose's possible reinstatement and election to the Hall of Fame remains contentious throughout baseball.

On June 22, 2015, ESPN concluded its own investigation of Rose and determined that he had bet on baseball while still a player–manager from 1984 to 1986. The results of the investigation were made public and revealed the records of bets that Rose had made on baseball. U.S. federal authorities had seized the records from one of Rose's associates. Rose is the only person to be placed on the ineligible list by mutual agreement.

Quartz

Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2. Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in Earth's continental crust, behind feldspar.Quartz exists in two forms, the normal α-quartz and the high-temperature β-quartz, both of which are chiral. The transformation from α-quartz to β-quartz takes place abruptly at 573 °C (846 K). Since the transformation is accompanied by a significant change in volume, it can easily induce fracturing of ceramics or rocks passing through this temperature threshold.

There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings, especially in Eurasia.

Rose Bowl (stadium)

The Rose Bowl, also known as Spieker Field at the Rose Bowl, is an American outdoor athletic stadium, located in Pasadena, California, a northeast suburb of Los Angeles. Opened in October 1922, the stadium is recognized as a National Historic Landmark and a California Historic Civil Engineering landmark. At a modern capacity of an all-seated configuration at 92,542 (making it one of the rare stadiums in college football to have such a seating arrangement; many such stadiums have bench-style seating) the Rose Bowl is the 15th-largest stadium in the world, the 11th-largest stadium in the United States, and the 10th largest NCAA stadium.

One of the most famous venues in sporting history, the Rose Bowl is best known as a college football venue, specifically as the host of the annual Rose Bowl Game for which it is named. Since 1982, it has also served as the home stadium of the UCLA Bruins football team. The stadium has also hosted five Super Bowl games, second most of any venue. The Rose Bowl is also a noted soccer venue, having hosted the 1994 FIFA World Cup Final, 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup Final, and the 1984 Olympic Gold Medal Match, as well as numerous CONCACAF and United States Soccer Federation matches.The stadium and adjacent Brookside Golf and Country Club are owned by the city of Pasadena and managed by the Rose Bowl Operating Company, a non-profit organization whose board is selected by council members of the city of Pasadena. UCLA and the Pasadena Tournament of Roses also have one member on the company board.

Rose Byrne

Mary Rose Byrne (born 24 July 1979) is an Australian actress. She made her screen debut in the film Dallas Doll (1994), and continued to act in Australian film and television throughout the 1990s. She obtained her first leading film role in The Goddess of 1967 (2000), which brought her the Volpi Cup for Best Actress, and made the transition to Hollywood in the small role of Dormé in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002), followed by larger parts in Troy (2004), Knowing (2009), and 28 Weeks Later (2007).

Byrne appeared as Ellen Parsons in all fifty-nine episodes of the criminal thriller series Damages (2007–2010), which earned her two Golden Globe Award and two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. Get Him to the Greek (2010) and Bridesmaids (2011) established her as a comedic actress, and she has since appeared in several successful films, such as X-Men: First Class (2011), Neighbors (2014), Spy (2015), and X-Men: Apocalypse (2016). Other films include the first two Insidious films (2010–2013), I Give It a Year, The Internship (both 2013), Annie (2014), Instant Family and Peter Rabbit (both 2018).

Rose McGowan

Rose Arianna McGowan (born September 5, 1973) is an American actress, activist, writer, and model. After her film debut in a brief role in the comedy Encino Man (1992), McGowan achieved wider recognition for her performance in Gregg Araki's dark comedy The Doom Generation (1995), receiving an Independent Spirit Award nomination for Best Debut Performance. She had her breakthrough in the horror film Scream (1996) and subsequently headlined the films Going All the Way (1997), Devil in the Flesh (1998) and Jawbreaker (1999).

During the 2000s, McGowan became known to television audiences for her role as Paige Matthews in The WB supernatural drama series Charmed (2001–2006), and starred in Robert Rodriguez's and Quentin Tarantino's double-feature film Grindhouse (2007). She made her directorial debut with the short film Dawn (2014).

A feminist activist, McGowan has released a memoir, Brave, and starred in the four-part documentary series Citizen Rose, both in 2018. She has been on the cover of numerous magazines, including Seventeen, Interview, Maxim, GQ, Entertainment Weekly, and Rolling Stone. In 2017, Time recognized McGowan as one of the Silence Breakers, the magazine's Person of the Year, for speaking out about sexual assault and harassment.

Ruby Rose

Ruby Rose Langenheim (born 20 March 1986) is an Australian model, actress, and television presenter. Rose came to attention as a presenter on MTV Australia (2007–11), followed by several high-profile modelling gigs, notably as the face of Maybelline New York in Australia. In addition, she has co-hosted various television shows, most notably Australia's Next Top Model (2009) and The Project on Network Ten (2009–2011).

Rose pursued a career in acting from 2008 onwards. She had a small role in the drama Around the Block (2013), and came to global attention for her role in season three of the Netflix series Orange Is the New Black (2015–16). She has also had large roles in the action films Resident Evil: The Final Chapter (2016), XXX: Return of Xander Cage (2017) and John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017) and has co-starred in the musical comedy Pitch Perfect 3 (2017) and the monster film The Meg (2018).

Titanic (1997 film)

Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance and disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron. A fictionalized account of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, it stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage.

Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks; he felt a love story interspersed with the human loss would be essential to convey the emotional impact of the disaster. Production began in 1995, when Cameron shot footage of the actual Titanic wreck. The modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, and a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios were used to re-create the sinking. The film was partially funded by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox; the former handled distribution in North America while Fox released the film internationally. It was the most expensive film ever made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million.

Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved critical and commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve (1950) for the most Oscar nominations, and won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben-Hur (1959) for the most Oscars won by a single film. With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012, to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.18 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide (after Avatar). In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

Roses
Rose cultivars
Rose classification
Uses and products
Threats
Culture
Rose gardens
Rose competitions
Organizations
Related articles
Symbols
Songs
Mottos
Landmarks
Academic
disciplines
Groups
Related

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.