Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (July 19, 1921 – May 30, 2011) was an American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew Schally) for development of the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. She was the second woman (the first being Gerty Cori), and the first American-born woman, to be awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Rosalyn Yalow (1977)
July 19, 1921
New York City, U.S.
|Died||May 30, 2011 (aged 89)|
The Bronx, New York, U.S.
|Alma mater||Hunter College|
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
|Known for||Radioimmunoassay (RIA)|
|Spouse(s)||A. Aaron Yalow (m. 1943; 2 children)|
|Awards||1972 Dickson Prize|
1975 AMA Scientific Achievement Award
1976 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research
1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1988 National Medal of Science
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow was born in the Bronx, New York, the daughter of Clara (née Zipper) and Simon Sussman, and was raised in a Jewish household. She went to Walton High School (Bronx), New York City. After high school, she attended the all-female, tuition-free Hunter College, where her mother hoped she would learn to become a teacher. Instead, Yalow decided to study physics.
Yalow knew how to type, and was able to get a part-time position as a secretary to Dr. Rudolf Schoenheimer, a leading biochemist at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons. She did not believe that any respectable graduate school would admit and financially support a woman, so she took another job as a secretary to Michael Heidelberger, another biochemist at Columbia, who hired her on the condition that she studied stenography. She graduated from Hunter College in January 1941.
A few years later, she received an offer to be a teaching assistant in physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She received this offer partially because World War II had just begun and many men went off to fight, and the University opted to offer women scholarship to avoid being shut down. At the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, she was the only woman among the department's 400 members, and the first since 1917.:109 Yalow earned her Ph.D. in 1945. The next summer, she took two tuition-free physics courses under government auspices at New York University.
She married fellow student Aaron Yalow, the son of a rabbi, in June 1943. They had two children, Benjamin and Elanna Yalow, and kept a kosher home. Yalow did not believe in "balancing her career with her home life" and instead incorporated her home life wherever she could in her work life.:109 Yalow did, however, viewed the traditional roles of a homemaker as a priority, and devoted herself to traditional duties associated with motherhood and being a wife.
Throughout her career, she tended to shun feminist organizations, but still, she advocated for including more women in science. While she believed the reason she had certain opportunities in Physics was because of the war, she thought that the reason that the number of women in this field decreased after the war due to a lack of interest. Yalow saw the feminist movement as a challenge to her traditional beliefs and thought that it encouraged women not to fulfill their duties to become mothers and wives.:109
The month after graduating from Hunter College in January 1941, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow was offered a teaching assistantship in the physics department of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Gaining acceptance to the physics graduate program in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois was one of the many hurdles she had to overcome as a woman in her field. Powerful male figures controlled opportunities for training, recognition, promotion, and many aspects of development in the field of science, and especially physics.
When Yalow entered the university in September 1941, she was the only woman in the faculty, which comprised 400 professors and teaching assistants. She was the first woman in more than two decades to attend or teach at this engineering college. Yalow credited her position at the prestigious graduate school to the shortage of male candidates during World War II. Being surrounded by gifted men made her aware of a wider world in science. They recognized her talent, they encouraged her, and they supported her. They were in a position to help her succeed.
Yalow felt that other women in her field did not like her because of her ambition. Other women saw her curiosity as abandoning the only acceptable path for a woman in science at the time, becoming a high school science teacher, but Yalow wanted to be a physicist. During her time at the University of Illinois, she took extra undergraduate courses to increase her knowledge because she wanted to do original experimental research in addition to her regular teaching duties.
For years Yalow faced criticism from women at work but she never quit nor turned her back on other young women, if she believed they had the potential to become real scientists. She never became an advocate for women's organizations in the field of science. She was even quoted as saying, "It bothers me that there are now organizations for women in science, which means they think they have to be treated differently from the men. I don't approve.":81 Although girls and young women found a role model in her after she won her Nobel, Yalow was not a champion for improving women's treatment or representation in science.:76
Yalow's first job after teaching and taking classes at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana graduate school was as an assistant electrical engineer at Federal Telecommunications Laboratory. She, again, found herself to be the only woman employee. In 1946, she returned to Hunter College to teach physics and consequently influenced many women, most notably a young Mildred Dresselhaus: Yalow was responsible for steering the future "Queen of Carbon Science" away from primary school teaching and into a research career. She remained a physics lecturer from 1946 to 1950, although by 1947, she began her long association with the Veterans Administration (VA) by becoming a consultant to the Bronx VA Hospital.
The VA wanted to establish research programs to explore medical uses of radioactive substances. By 1950, Yalow had equipped a radioisotope laboratory at the Bronx VA Hospital and decided to leave teaching to finally devote her attention to full-time research. There she collaborated with Solomon Berson to develop radioimmunoassay (RIA), a radioisotope tracing technique that allows the measurement of tiny quantities of various biological substances in human blood as well as a multitude of other aqueous fluids. Originally used to study insulin levels in diabetes mellitus, the technique has since been applied to hundreds of other substances – including hormones, vitamins and enzymes – all too small to detect previously.
Despite its huge commercial potential, Yalow and Berson refused to patent the method. In 1968, Yalow was appointed Research Professor in the Department of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, where she later became the Solomon Berson Distinguished Professor at Large.
Yalow was awarded a Fulbright fellowship to Portugal, which is an American scholarship program of competitive, merit-based grants that sponsor participants for exchanges in all areas of endeavor, including the sciences, business, academe, public service, government and the arts.
In 1961, Yalow won the Eli Lilly Award of the American Diabetes Association, which provides scholarships for up to 100 scholars to attend Scientific Sessions, the world's largest scientific and medical conference focused on diabetes and its complications. Additionally, it provides the education and training for these scholars to serve as faculty for professional education programs and to clinically manage the disease.
A year later, she was awarded the Gairdner Foundation International Award, which recognizes the world's most creative and accomplished biomedical scientists who are advancing humanity.
The same year, Yalow was awarded the American College of Physicians Award, which recognizes excellence and distinguished contributions by individuals to internal medicine.
In 1972, Yalow was awarded the William S. Middleton Award for Excellence in Research, which is the highest honor awarded annually by the Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development Service to senior bio biomedical research scientists in recognition of their outstanding scientific contributions and achievements, pertaining to the healthcare of Veterans.
Also in 1972, she was given the Koch Award of the Endocrine Society, which awards individuals for their dedication to excellence in research, education and clinical practice in the field of endocrinology.
In 1975, Yalow and Berson (who had died in 1972) were awarded the American Medical Association Scientific Achievement Award, which is a gold medallion award presented to individuals on special occasions in recognition of their outstanding work in scientific achievement.
The following year she became the first female recipient and first nuclear physicist of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research. Established by Albert and Mary Lasker in 1945, the award is intended to celebrate scientists who have made fundamental biological discoveries and clinical advances that improve human health.
In 1977, Yalow was the sixth individual woman (seventh overall, considering Marie Curie's two wins), and first American-born woman, to win the Nobel Prize in a scientific field. She was also the second woman in the world to win in the physiology or medicine category (the first being Gerty Cori). She was so honored, together with Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally, for her role in devising the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. By measuring substances in the human body, the screening of the blood of donors for such diseases as hepatitis was made possible. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) can be used to measure a multitude of substances found in tiny quantities in fluids within and outside of organisms (such as viruses, drugs and hormones). The list of current possible uses is endless, but specifically, RIA allows blood-donations to be screened for various types of hepatitis. The technique can also be used to identify hormone-related health problems. Further, RIA can be used to detect in the blood many foreign substances including some cancers. Finally, the technique can be used to measure the effectiveness of dose levels of antibiotics and drugs.
In 1978, Yalow was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, which provides an opportunity for an early-career professional with training in science or engineering to learn about a career in public policy and administration.
In 1986, Yalow was awarded the A. Cressy Morrison Award in Natural Sciences of the N.Y. Academy of Sciences, which is offered by Mr. Abraham Cressy Morrison to individuals with superlative papers on a scientific subject within the field of The New York Academy of Sciences and its Affiliated Societies.
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was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1921st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 921st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1920s decade. As of the start of 1921, the Gregorian calendar was
13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.Andrew Schally
Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologist of Polish ancestry, who was a corecipient with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Beyond Curie
Beyond Curie is a portrait series of women who have made significant contributions in (STEM fields). As of November 2018, the series features 42 women, including all 18 female Nobel Prize winners in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine.The series was created by Amanda Phingbodhipakkiya, a former neuroscience researcher and designer who named the project after two-time Nobel prize winner Marie Curie, with the goal of highlighting other important female scientists who are less well known. Beyond Curie has raised $44,172 from 856 backers across two Kickstarter campaigns.Committee of Concerned Scientists
The Committee of Concerned Scientists (CCS) is an independent international organization devoted to the protection and advancement of human rights and scientific freedom of scientists, physicians, and scholars.Immunoassay
An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration or a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes). The molecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein, although it may be other kinds of molecules, of different size and types, as long as the proper antibodies that have the adequate properties for the assay are developed. Analytes in biological liquids such as serum or urine are frequently measured using immunoassays for medical and research purposes.Immunoassays come in many different formats and variations. Immunoassays may be run in multiple steps with reagents being added and washed away or separated at different points in the assay. Multi-step assays are often called separation immunoassays or heterogeneous immunoassays. Some immunoassays can be carried out simply by mixing the reagents and sample and making a physical measurement. Such assays are called homogenous immunoassays or less frequently non-separation immunoassays.
The use of a calibrator is often employed in immunoassays. Calibrators are solutions that are known to contain the analyte in question, and the concentration of that analyte is generally known. Comparison of an assay's response to a real sample against the assay's response produced by the calibrators makes it possible to interpret the signal strength in terms of the presence or concentration of analyte in the sample.Index of biophysics articles
This is a list of articles on biophysics.Index of physics articles (R)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.James J. Peters VA Medical Center
The James J. Peters VA Medical Center, (also known as the Bronx Veterans Hospital), is a US Department of Veterans Affairs hospital complex located at 130 West Kingsbridge Road, The Bronx. It opened as United States Veterans' Hospital no. 81 on April 15, 1922.Prior to the creation of the Bronx Veterans Hospital, the site was used by the Sisters of Charity of New York as the Bronx Roman Catholic Orphan Asylum.By the 1970s, the original hospital had deteriorated to the point that a Life magazine article was written about it. One of the hospital's patients during this time period was Ron Kovic, who described the hospital as having "deplorable conditions". The hospital was eventually rebuilt in the late 1970s to address these issues.The Bronx Veterans hospital was renamed after James J. Peters in 2002. Peters, a US Army veteran, was patient of the Bronx Veterans Hospital who founded several organizations to address the needs of patients with spinal cord injuries, including the United Spinal Association, originally known as the Eastern Paralyzed Veterans Association.The hospital is the headquarters of the Veterans Integrated Service Networks New York/New Jersey VA Health Care Network. This network is also the parent network to VA New York Harbor Healthcare System.
The Fisher House Foundation is building two Fisher houses on the James J. Peters VA Medical Center grounds in 2018.The campus falls under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police.List of Hunter College people
The list of Hunter College people includes notable graduates, professors and other people affiliated with Hunter College of the City University of New York.List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the City University of New York
The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics. Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years. In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.As of 2014, there have been 13 Nobel laureates affiliated with the City University of New York (CUNY). CUNY considers any laureate who attended one of its senior colleges as an affiliated laureate. Arthur Kornberg, who graduated from the City College of New York, a senior college of CUNY, in 1937, was the first CUNY laureate, winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959. Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle, both of whom graduated from the City College in 1937 with Kornberg, jointly won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1985, the only CUNY laureates to do so. Six CUNY laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Ten of the CUNY laureates graduated from the City College, two laureates, Rosalyn Sussman Yalow and Gertrude B. Elion, graduated from Hunter College, another CUNY senior college, and one laureate, Stanley Cohen, graduated from Brooklyn College, one of CUNY's senior colleges, in 1943.Radioimmunoassay
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules in a stepwise formation of immune complexes. A RIA is a very sensitive in vitro assay technique used to measure concentrations of substances, usually measuring antigen concentrations (for example, hormone levels in blood) by use of antibodies.
Although the RIA technique is extremely sensitive and extremely specific, requiring specialized equipment, it remains among the least expensive methods to perform such measurements. It requires special precautions and licensing, since radioactive substances are used.
In contrast, an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) is an immunoassay that uses radiolabeled molecules but in an immediate rather than stepwise way.
A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is an example of radioimmunoassay. It is used to detect the causative allergen for an allergy.Roger Guillemin
Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (born January 11, 1924) is a French-born American neuroscientist. He received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and the Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for his work on neurohormones, sharing the prize that year with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.Rosalyn
Rosalyn may refer to:
"Rosalyn" (song), a song by Pretty Things
Rosalyn Borden (1932–2003), an American actress
Rosalynn Carter, wife of former President of the United States Jimmy Carter.
Rosalyn Gold-Onwude (born 1987), an American basketball analyst
Rosalyn Higgins, Baroness Higgins (born 1937), former President of the International Court of Justice
Rosalyn Landor (born 1958), an English actress
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, an American medical physicist, winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology
Rosalyn Tureck (1914-2003), an American pianist and harpsichordist
Rosalyn (Calvin and Hobbes), a minor character in Calvin and Hobbes
Rosalyn, a character in the concept album Psychoderelict (1993)Sussman
Süßmann is a German surname meaning "sweet man" and has several variations due to transliteration obstacles. One of the Jewish surnames.
Süssmann is the surname of:
Wilhelm Süssman or Wilhelm Süssmann, general in the Battle of CreteSussman is the surname of:
Barry Sussman, city news editor at The Washington Post at the time of the Watergate break-in
Brian Sussman, American conservative talk radio
Dave Sussmann, musician, member of the band Bile
Eve Sussman, British-American artist
Gerald Jay Sussman, computer scientist
Harvey M. Sussman, American linguist
Joel Sussman, Israeli crystallographer
Joseph M. Sussman, American professor
Kevin Sussman, American actor
Mike Sussman, TV series writer and producer
Paul Sussman, English author, archaeologist and journalist
Louis Sussmann-Hellborn (1828-1908), German sculptor, painter, art collector and contractor
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011), American medical physicist, and a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineSusman is the surname of:
John Susman, American writer of plays and films
Judy Susman, American dancer and synchronized swimmer
Karen Hantze Susman, retired American tennis player
Margarete Susman, German-Jewish poet, writer, and critic
Todd Susman, American actor
William Susman, American composerSusman is a 1987 Hindi film directed by Shyam BenegalSuzman is the surname of:
Helen Suzman, South African anti-apartheid activist and politician
Janet Suzman, South African actress and director, and niece of Helen SuzmanWomen in chemistry
This is a list of women chemists. It should include those who have been important to the development or practice of chemistry. Their research or application has made significant contributions in the area of basic or applied chemistry.Yalow
Yalow may refer to:
13915 Yalow, an asteroid
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, Nobel Prize-winning American medical physicist
Inductees to the National Women's Hall of Fame
Founding members of the World Cultural Council