Ronga language

Ronga (XiRonga; sometimes ShiRonga or GiRonga) is a Bantu language of the Tswa–Ronga branch spoken just south of Maputo in Mozambique. It extends a little into South Africa. It has about 650,000 speakers in Mozambique and a further 90,000 in South Africa, with dialects including Konde, Putru and Kalanga.

The Swiss philologist Henri Alexandre Junod seems to have been the first linguist to have studied it, in the late 19th century.

Ronga
Native toMozambique, South Africa
Native speakers
720,000 (2006)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3rng
Glottologrong1268[2]
S.54[3]
Linguasphere99-AUT-dd
incl. varieties
99-AUT-dda...-dde

Writing

Its alphabet is based on that of Tsonga as provided by Methodist missionaries and Portuguese settlers.

Methodist alphabet
Letter: A B C D E G H I J K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U V W X Y Z
Value: a b~β d e~ɛ ɡ h i k l m n ŋ ɔ~o p r s ʂ t u v w ʃ j z ʐ
1989 alphabet[4]
Letter A B By Ch D E G H Hl I J K L Lh M N O P Ps R S Sv Sw T U V Vh W X Xj Y Z Zv Zw
Value a b~β b͡ʐ d e~ɛ ɡ h ɸ i k l ʎ m n ŋ ɔ~o p p͡ʂ r s ʂ t u ʋ v w ʃ ʒ j z ʐ

Grammar

Ronga is grammatically so close to Tsonga in many ways that census officials often consider it a dialect; its noun class system is very similar and its verbal forms are almost identical. Its most immediately noticeable difference is a much greater influence from Portuguese, due to being centred near the capital Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques).

Literature

The first book to be published in Ronga was the Gospel of John translated mainly by Henri Berthoud from the Swiss Romande Mission. It was published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1896. Further translation was done by Pierre Loze from Mission Romande (Swiss Romande Mission) and H.L. Bishop (Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society), assisted by Jeremia Caetano and Efraim Hely. The New Testament was published in 1903, and the whole Bible was published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1923.

References

  1. ^ Ronga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ronga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ "Table from 'I Seminario sobre a Padronizacão da Ortografia de Línguas Moçambicanas'". www.bisharat.net.
ISimangaliso Wetland Park

iSimangaliso Wetland Park (previously known as the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park) is situated on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 275 kilometres north of Durban. It is South Africa's third-largest protected area, spanning 280 km of coastline, from the Mozambican border in the north to Mapelane south of the Lake St. Lucia estuary, and made up of around 3,280 km2 of natural ecosystems, managed by the iSimangaliso Authority. The park includes:

Lake St. Lucia

St. Lucia Game Reserve

False Bay Park

Kosi Bay

Lake Etrza Nature Reserve

Lake Sibhayi

St. Lucia Marine Reserve

St. Lucia Marine Sanctuary

Sodwana Bay National Park

Mapelane Nature Reserve

Maputaland Marine Reserve

Cape Vidal

Ozabeni

Mfabeni

Tewate Wilderness Area

Mkuze Game ReserveThe park was previously known as the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, but was renamed effective 1 November 2007. The word isimangaliso means "a miracle" or "something wondrous" in Zulu. The name came as a result of Shaka's subject having been sent to the land of the Tsonga. When he came back he described the beauty that he saw as a miracle.

José Craveirinha

José Craveirinha (28 May 1922 - 6 February 2003) was a Mozambican journalist, story writer and poet, who is today considered the greatest poet of Mozambique. His poems, written in Portuguese, address such issues as racism and the Portuguese colonial domination of Mozambique. A supporter of the anti-Portuguese group FRELIMO during the colonial wars, he was imprisoned in the 1960s. He was one of the African pioneers of the Négritude movement, and published six books of poetry between 1964 and 1997. Craveirinha also wrote under the pseudonyms Mário Vieira, José Cravo, Jesuíno Cravo, J. Cravo, J.C., Abílio Cossa, and José G. Vetrinha.

Languages of Eswatini

Eswatini is home to several languages. Native languages are Swazi, Zulu, Tsonga, Afrikaans, and English. Recent immigrant languages include Chichewa and Southern Sotho.

Piri piri

Piri piri ( PIRR-ee-PIRR-ee, often hyphenated or as one word, and with variant spellings peri peri or pili pili) is a cultivar of Capsicum frutescens, a chili pepper that grows both wild and as a crop. Its name sometimes refers to the bird's eye chili.

It is a small member of the genus Capsicum. The cultivar was developed from the malagueta pepper in southeastern Africa and was spread by the Portuguese to their Indian territories of Gujarat and Goa.

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