Romantic poetry

Romantic poetry is the poetry of the Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. It involved a reaction against prevailing Enlightenment ideas of the 18th century,[1] and lasted from 1800 to 1850, approximately.[2][3]

The Funeral of Shelley by Louis Edouard Fournier
The Funeral of Shelley by Louis Edouard Fournier (1889); the group members, from left to right, are Trelawny, Hunt and Byron

English Romantic poetry

In early-19th-century England, the poet William Wordsworth defined his and Samuel Taylor Coleridge's innovative poetry in his Preface to Lyrical Ballads (1798):

I have said before that poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin in emotion recollected in tranquility: the emotion is contemplated till, by a species of reaction, the tranquility gradually disappears, and an emotion, kindred to that which was before the subject of contemplation, is gradually produced, and does itself actually exist in the mind.[4]

The poems of Lyrical Ballads intentionally re-imagined the way poetry should sound: "By fitting to metrical arrangement a selection of the real language of men," Wordsworth and his English contemporaries, such as Coleridge, John Keats, Percy Shelley, and William Blake, wrote poetry that was meant to boil up from serious, contemplative reflection over the interaction of humans with their environment. Although many stress the notion of spontaneity in Romantic poetry, the movement was still greatly concerned with the difficulty of composition and of translating these emotions into poetic form. Indeed, Coleridge, in On Poesy or Art, sees art as “the mediatress between, and reconciler of nature and man”.[5] Such an attitude reflects what might be called the dominant theme of English Romantic poetry: the filtering of natural emotion through the human mind in order to create meaning.

Karel Hynek Macha statue.jpeg
In the Western cultural context, romanticism substantially contributed to the idea of what a real poet should look like. An idealized statue of a Czech man Karel Hynek Mácha (in Petřín Park, Prague) represents him as a slim, tender and perhaps unhealthy boy. However, he had in reality a strong, robust and muscular body.

Characteristics of English Romantic poetry

The Sublime

One of the most important concepts in Romantic poetry. The sublime in literature refers to use of language and description that excites thoughts and emotions beyond ordinary experience. Though often associated with grandeur, the sublime may also refer to the grotesque or other extraordinary experiences that "take us beyond ourselves.”[6]

The literary concept of the sublime became important in the eighteenth century. It is associated with the 1757 treatise by Edmund Burke, though it has earlier roots. The idea of the sublime was taken up by Immanuel Kant and the Romantic poets including especially William Wordsworth.

Reaction against Neoclassicism

Romantic poetry contrasts with neoclassical poetry, which was the product of intellect and reason, while romantic poetry is more the product of emotion. Romantic poetry at the beginning of the nineteenth century was a reaction against the set standards, conventions of eighteenth century poetry. According to William J. Long, “The Romantic Movement was marked, and is always marked, by a strong reaction and protest against the bondage of rule and custom which in science and theology as well as literature, generally tend to fetter the free human spirit.”


Belief in the importance of the imagination is a distinctive feature of romantic poets such as John Keats, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and P. B. Shelley, unlike the neoclassical poets. Keats said, “I am certain of nothing but of the holiness of the Heart's affections and the truth of Imagination- What the imagination seizes as beauty must be truth.” For Wordsworth and William Blake, as well as Victor Hugo and Alessandro Manzoni, the imagination is a spiritual force, is related to morality, and they believed that literature, especially poetry, could improve the world. The secret of great art, Blake claimed, is the capacity to imagine. To define imagination, in his poem "Auguries of Innocence", Blake said:

To see a world in a grain of sand,
And heaven in a wild flower,
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand,
And eternity in an hour.

Nature poetry

Love for nature is another important feature of romantic poetry, as a source of inspiration. This poetry involves a relationship with external nature and places, and a belief in pantheism. However, the romantic poets differed in their views about nature. Wordsworth recognized nature as a living thing, teacher, god and everything. These feelings are fully developed and expressed in his epic poem The Prelude. In his poem "The Tables Turn" he writes:

One impulse from the vernal wood
Can teach you more of man,
Of moral evil and good,
Than all sages can.

Shelley was another nature poet, who believed that nature is a living thing and there is a union between nature and man. Wordsworth approaches nature philosophically, while Shelley emphasises the intellect. John Keats is another a lover of nature, but Coleridge differs from other romantic poets of his age, in that he has a realistic perspective on nature. He believes that nature is not the source of joy and pleasure, but rather that people's reactions to it depends on their mood and disposition. Coleridge believed that joy does not come from external nature, but that it emanates from the human heart.


Melancholy occupies a prominent place in romantic poetry, and is an important source of inspiration for the Romantic poets. In '"Ode to a Nightingale", Keats wrote:

...................................................for many a time
I have been half in love with easeful Death,
Call’d him soft names in many a mused rhyme,
To take into the air my quiet breath;
Now more than ever seems it rich to die,
To cease upon the midnight with no pain.


Romantic poetry was attracted to nostalgia, and medievalism is another important characteristic of romantic poetry, especially in the works of John Keats and Coleridge. They were attracted to exotic, remote and obscure places, and so they were more attracted to Middle Ages than to their own age.


The world of classical Greece was important to the Romantics. John Keats' poetry is full of allusions to the art, literature and culture of Greek, as for example in "Ode on a Grecian Urn".


Most of the romantic poets used supernatural elements in their poetry. Samuel Taylor Coleridge is the leading romantic poet in this regard, and "Kubla Khan" is full of supernatural elements.


Romantic poetry is the poetry of sentiments, emotions and imagination. Romantic poetry opposed the objectivity of neoclassical poetry. Neoclassical poets avoided describing their personal emotions in their poetry, unlike the Romantics.


French literature from the first half of the century was dominated by Romanticism, which is associated with such authors as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, père, François-René de Chateaubriand, Alphonse de Lamartine, Gérard de Nerval, Charles Nodier, Alfred de Musset, Théophile Gautier and Alfred de Vigny. Their influence was felt in theatre, poetry, prose fiction. The effect of the romantic movement would continue to be felt in the latter half of the century in diverse literary developments, such as "realism", "symbolism", and the so-called fin de siècle "decadent" movement.


German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement in the philosophy, the arts, and the culture of German-speaking countries in the late-18th and early 19th centuries. Compared to English Romanticism, German Romanticism developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805); in contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.

Sturm und Drang, literally "Storm and Drive", "Storm and Urge", though conventionally translated as "Storm and Stress")[7] is a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that took place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements. The period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play Sturm und Drang, which was first performed in 1777.

The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang, with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, H. L. Wagner and Friedrich Maximilian Klinger also significant figures. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was also a notable proponent of the movement, though he and Friedrich Schiller ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism.

Jena Romanticism

Jena Romanticism – also the Jena Romantics or Early Romanticism (Frühromantik)) – is the first phase of Romanticism in German literature represented by the work of a group centred in Jena from about 1798 to 1804.

Heidelberg Romanticism

Heidelberg was the centre of the epoch of Romantik (Romanticism) in Germany. The phase after Jena Romanticism is often called Heidelberg Romanticism (see also Berlin Romanticism). There was a famous circle of poets, the Heidelberg Romantics, such as Joseph von Eichendorff, Johann Joseph von Görres, Ludwig Achim von Arnim, and Clemens Brentano. A relic of Romanticism is the Philosophers' Walk (German: Philosophenweg), a scenic walking path on the nearby Heiligenberg, overlooking Heidelberg.

The Romantik epoch of German philosophy and literature, was described as a movement against classical and realistic theories of literature, a contrast to the rationality of the Age of Enlightenment. It elevated medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be from the medieval period. It also emphasized folk art, nature and an epistemology based on nature, which included human activity conditioned by nature in the form of language, custom and usage.


Romanticism in Poland was a literary, artistic and intellectual period in the evolution of Polish culture, which began around 1820, coinciding with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822. It ended with the suppression of the Polish-Lithuanian January 1863 Uprising against the Russian Empire in 1864. The latter event ushered in a new era in Polish culture known as Positivism.[8]


The 19th century is traditionally referred to as the "Golden Era" of Russian literature. Romanticism permitted a flowering of especially poetic talent: the names of Vasily Zhukovsky and later that of his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Pushkin is credited with both crystallizing the literary Russian language and introducing a new level of artistry to Russian literature. His best-known work is a novel in verse, Eugene Onegin. An entire new generation of poets including Mikhail Lermontov, Yevgeny Baratynsky, Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet followed in Pushkin's steps.

Pushkin is considered by many to be the central representative of Romanticism in Russian literature; however, he can't be labelled unequivocally as a Romantic. Russian critics have traditionally argued that his works represent a path from neo-Classicism through Romanticism to Realism. An alternative assessment suggests that "he had an ability to entertain contrarities [sic] which may seem Romantic in origin, but are ultimately subversive of all fixed points of view, all single outlooks, including the Romantic" and that "he is simultaneously Romantic and not Romantic".[9]

Influence of British Romantic poetry

Scottish poet Robert Burns became a "people’s poet" in Russia. In Imperial times the Russian aristocracy were so out of touch with the peasantry that Burns, translated into Russian, became a symbol for the ordinary Russian people. In Soviet Russia,Burns was elevated as the archetypical poet of the people – not least since the Soviet regime slaughtered and silenced its own poets. A new translation of Burns, begun in 1924 by Samuil Marshak, proved enormously popular selling over 600,000 copies.[10][11] In 1956, the Soviet Union became the first country in the world to honour Burns with a commemorative stamp. The poetry of Burns is taught in Russian schools alongside their own national poets. Burns was a great admirer of the egalitarian ethos behind the French Revolution. Whether Burns would have recognised the same principles at work in the Soviet State at its most repressive is moot. This didn’t stop the Communists from claiming Burns as one of their own and incorporating his work into their state propaganda. The post-communist years of rampant capitalism in Russia have not tarnished Burns' reputation.[12]

Lord Byron was a major influence on almost all Russian poets of the Golden Era, including Pushkin, Vyazemsky, Zhukovsky, Batyushkov, Baratynsky, Delvig and, especially, Lermontov.[13]


Germany and England were major influences on Romantic Spanish poetry. During the late 18th century to the late 19th century, Romanticism spread in the form of philosophy and art throughout Western societies, and the earlier period of this movement overlapped with the Age of Revolutions. The idea of the creative imagination was stressed above the idea of reason, and minute elements of nature, including as insects and pebbles, were now considered divine. Nature was perceived in many different ways by the Spanish Romantics, and Instead of employing allegory, as earlier poets had done, these poets tended to use myth and symbol. The power of human emotion furthermore is emphasised during this period.[2] Leading Romantic poets include Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (considered the most important), Manuel José Quintana, José Zorrilla, Rosalía de Castro (in Galician and Spanish), and José de Espronceda. In Catalonia, the Romantic movement was a major trigger for the Catalan Renaissance or 'Renaixença', which would gradually bring back prestige to the Catalan language and literature (in decadence since its 15th-century Golden Age), with the leading figure in poetry of Jacint Verdaguer.[14]


In Swedish literature the Romantic period is between 1809 and 1830,[15] while in Europe, the period is usually seen as running between 1800–1850. The Swedish version was very much influenced by German literature. During this relatively short period, there were so many great Swedish poets, that the era is called the Golden Age.[16] The period started around when several periodicals were published that criticised the literature of the 18th century. The important periodical Iduna, published by the Gothic Society (1811), presented a romanticised version of Gothicismus,[17] a 17th-century cultural movement in Sweden that had centered on the belief in the glory of the Swedish Geats or Goths. The early 19th-century Romantic nationalist version emphasised the Vikings as heroic figures.[18]

United States

Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern region of the United States, rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Herder and Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume,[19] and the transcendental philosophy of Immanuel Kant and of German Idealism. It was also influenced by Indian religions, especially the Upanishads.

The movement was a reaction to or protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality.[20] The doctrine of the Unitarian church as taught at Harvard Divinity School was of particular interest.

Poet Walt Whitman (1819–1892), whose major work Leaves of Grass was first published in 1855, was influenced by transcendentalism.[21] Influenced by Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Transcendentalist movement, itself an offshoot of Romanticism, Whitman's poetry praises nature and the individual human's role in it. However, much like Emerson, Whitman does not diminish the role of the mind or the spirit; rather, he elevates the human form and the human mind, deeming both worthy of poetic praise.

Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) is best known for his poetry and short stories, and is widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole. Poe, however, strongly disliked transcendentalism.[22]

Another American Romantic poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807–1882), was the most popular poet of his day.[23] He was one of the first American celebrities and was also popular in Europe, and it was reported that 10,000 copies of The Courtship of Miles Standish sold in London in a single day.[24] However, Longfellow's popularity rapidly declined, beginning shortly after his death and into the twentieth century as academics began to appreciate poets like Walt Whitman, Edwin Arlington Robinson, and Robert Frost.[25] In the twentieth century, literary scholar Kermit Vanderbilt noted, "Increasingly rare is the scholar who braves ridicule to justify the art of Longfellow's popular rhymings."[26] 20th-century poet Lewis Putnam Turco concluded "Longfellow was minor and derivative in every way throughout his career [...] nothing more than a hack imitator of the English Romantics."[27]

See also


  1. ^ Introduction to Romanticism. Retrieved on 2012-05-17.
  2. ^ a b Romanticism. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  3. ^ Romanticism : Introduction – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
  4. ^ "Preface to Lyrical Ballads. William Wordsworth (1800). 1909-14. Famous Prefaces. The Harvard Classics". Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  5. ^ Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. On Poesy or Art. Harvard Classics, 1914.
  6. ^ mphillips (2014-10-29). "The Sublime: From A Poet's Glossary". The Sublime: From A Poet's Glossary. Retrieved 2018-07-13.
  7. ^ E.g. H. B. Garland, Storm and Stress (London, 1952).
  8. ^ Czesław Miłosz, "Romanticism", The History of Polish Literature, IV, pp. 195–280. University of California Press, 1983. ISBN 0-520-04477-0. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  9. ^ Basker, Michael. "Pushkin and Romanticism". In Ferber, Michael, ed., A Companion to European Romanticism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2005.
  10. ^ Classical Music on CD, SACD, DVD and Blu-ray: Russian Settings of Robert Burns. Europadisc (2009-01-26). Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  11. ^ Peter Henry. "Sure way of getting Burns all wrong". Archived from the original on December 11, 2004. Retrieved 2009-06-10..
  12. ^ "From Rabbie with love". (2005-04-10). Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  13. ^ Розанов. Байронизм // Словарь литературных терминов. Т. 1. — 1925 (текст). Retrieved on 2012-06-17.
  14. ^ La Renaixença (The Catalan Cultural Renaissance). Retrieved on 2019-01-13.
  15. ^ These years are given by Tigerstedt, E.N., Svensk litteraturhistoria (Tryckindustri AB, Solna, 1971.
  16. ^ Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute, 1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X, pp. 67-68; Gustafson, Alrik, Svenska literature's history, 2 volums (Stockholm, 1963). First published as A History of Swedish Literature. American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1961, pp. 143-148.
  17. ^ Algulin, pp. 67-68.
  18. ^ Benson, Adolph Burnett (1914), The Old Norse Element in Swedish Romanticism (Columbia University Press).
  19. ^ "Transcendentalism", Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  20. ^ Finseth, Ian. "American Transcendentalism". Excerpted from "Liquid Fire Within Me": Language, Self and Society in Transcendentalism and Early Evangelicalism, 1820-1860, - M.A. Thesis, 1995. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  21. ^ Gura, Philip F. American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007: 7–8. ISBN 0-8090-3477-8.
  22. ^ Koster, Donald N. (2002), "Influences of Transcendentalism on American Life and Literature". In Galens, David. Literary Movements for Students, Vol. 1. Detroit: Thompson Gale.
  23. ^ Bayless, 40
  24. ^ Brooks, 523.
  25. ^ Williams, 23
  26. ^ Gioia, 68
  27. ^ Turco, Lewis Putnam. Visions and Revisions of American Poetry. Fayetteville, AK: University of Arkansas Press, 1986: 33. ISBN 0-938626-49-3.


Arabic poetry

Arabic poetry (Arabic: الشعر العربي‎ ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature. Present knowledge of poetry in Arabic dates from the 6th century, but oral poetry is believed to predate that.

Arabic poetry is categorized into two main types, rhymed or measured, and prose, with the former greatly preceding the latter. The rhymed poetry falls within fifteen different meters collected and explained by al-Farahidi in The Science of ‘Arud. Al-Akhfash, a student of al-Farahidi, later added one more meter to make them sixteen. The meters of the rhythmical poetry are known in Arabic as "seas" (buḥūr). The measuring unit of seas is known as "taf‘īlah", and every sea contains a certain number of taf'ilas which the poet has to observe in every verse (bayt) of the poem. The measuring procedure of a poem is very rigorous. Sometimes adding or removing a consonant or a vowel can shift the bayt from one meter to another. Also, in rhymed poetry, every bayt has to end with the same rhyme (qāfiyah) throughout the poem.

Al-Kʰalīl b. ˀAḫmad al-Farāhīdī (711 – 786 A. D.) was the first Arab scholar to subject the prosody of Arabic poetry to a detailed phonological study. He failed to produce a coherent, integrated theory which satisfies the requirements of generality, adequacy, and simplicity; instead, he merely listed and categorized the primary data, thus producing a meticulously detailed but incredibly complex formulation which very few indeed are able to master and utilize.

Researchers and critics of Arabic poetry usually classify it in two categories: classical and modern poetry. Classical poetry was written before the Arabic renaissance (al-Nahḍah). Thus, all poetry that was written in the classical style is called "classical" or "traditional poetry" since it follows the traditional style and structure. It is also known as "vertical poetry" in reference to its vertical parallel structure of its two parts. Modern poetry, on the other hand, deviated from classical poetry in its content, style, structure, rhyme and topics.


Defamiliarization or ostranenie (Russian: остранение, IPA: [ɐstrɐˈnʲenʲɪjə]) is the artistic technique of presenting to audiences common things in an unfamiliar or strange way in order to enhance perception of the familiar. According to the Russian formalists who coined the term, it is the central concept of art and poetry. The concept has influenced 20th-century art and theory, ranging over movements including Dada, postmodernism, epic theatre, science fiction, and Biblical criticism; additionally, it is used as a tactic by recent movements such as culture jamming.

Demon (poem)

Demon (Russian: Демон) is a poem by Mikhail Lermontov, written in several versions in the years 1829 to 1839. It is considered a masterpiece of European Romantic poetry.

Lermontov began work on the poem when he was just 14 or 15, but completed it only during his Caucasus exile. Lermontov wrote six major variations of the poem, and the final version was not published until 1842, after his death.The poem is set in Lermontov's beloved Caucasus Mountains. It opens with the eponymous protagonist wandering the earth, hopeless and troubled. He dwells in infinite isolation, his immortality and unlimited power a worthless burden. Then he spies the beautiful Georgian Princess Tamara, dancing for her wedding, and in the desert of his soul wells an indescribable emotion.

The Demon, acting as a brutal and powerful tyrant, destroys his rival: at his instigation, robbers come to despoil the wedding and kill Tamara's betrothed. The Demon courts Tamara, and Tamara knows fear, yet in him she sees not a demon nor an angel but a tortured soul. Eventually she yields to his embrace, but his kiss is fatal. And though she is taken to Heaven, the Demon is left again "Alone in all the universe, Abandoned, without love or hope!...".

Dobrica Erić

Dobrica Erić (Serbian Cyrillic: Добрица Ерић; August 22, 1936 – March 29, 2019) was a Serbian writer and poet.He is the author of numerous novels, five books of romantic poetry, 23 poetry books, 5 theatre dramas and over 40 children's books. He was a "deserved creator" of the city of Belgrade. His first book of poetry was published in 1959. His works have been translated into numerous languages. He lived and worked in Belgrade and Gruža.

Doppo Kunikida

Doppo Kunikida (国木田 獨歩, Kunikida Doppo, 30 August 1871 – 23 June 1908) was a Japanese author of novels and romantic poetry during the Meiji period, noted as one of the inventors of Japanese naturalism.

Duvvuru Ramireddy

Duvvuru Ramireddy (1895–1947) was an eminent Telugu poet. He was born in a farmers family in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. He won many laurels including the title Kavikokila in 1929 by the Andhra Maha Parishad, Vijayawada. RamiReddy wrote prabandhas, Kandakavyas and also translated romantic poetry from Sanskrit and Arabic. Besides he provided Lyrics and Dialogues to Telugu films. He also wrote "Hyderabad Paryatana" in Telugu language.

Forseti (band)

Forseti was a German neofolk band formed in Jena in 1997 and disestablished in 2005. The band is known for its musical settings of German romantic poetry.

I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud

"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" (also commonly known as "Daffodils") is a lyric poem by William Wordsworth. It is Wordsworth's most famous work.The poem was inspired by an event on 15 April 1802, in which Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy came across a "long belt" of daffodils. Written some time between 1804 and 1807 (in 1804 by Wordsworth's own account), it was first published in 1807 in Poems in Two Volumes, and a revised version was published in 1815.In a poll conducted in 1995 by the BBC Radio 4 Bookworm programme to determine the nation's favourite poems, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud came fifth. Often anthologised, the poem is commonly seen as a classic of English romantic poetry, although Poems in Two Volumes, in which it first appeared, was poorly reviewed by Wordsworth's contemporaries.

Iacob Negruzzi

Iacob C. Negruzzi (December 31, 1842 – January 6, 1932) was a Moldavian, later Romanian poet and prose writer.

Born in Iași, he was the son of Constantin Negruzzi and his wife Maria (née Gane). Living in Berlin between 1853 and 1863, he attended high school, followed by the University of Berlin, from which he obtained a doctorate in 1863. He was a professor at the University of Iași from 1864 to 1884, and at the University of Bucharest from 1885 until his retirement in 1897. He was elected to the Assembly of Deputies in 1870, and later joined the Romanian Senate. He was elected a titular member of the Romanian Academy in 1881, was later its general secretary, and served three terms as Academy president: 1893-1894, 1910-1913 and 1923-1926. Negruzzi was among the founders of Junimea, and became its secretary in 1868. He played a very significant role as editor of Convorbiri Literare, ensuring the magazine's regular appearance by investing an immense amount of energy and making significant sacrifices, including material ones. He continued as editor for ten years after moving to Bucharest in 1885. He wrote reviews and notes in Convorbiri; published selections from Copii de pe natură (which appeared in book form in 1874), as well as the novel Mihai Vereanu (which appeared in 1873); and initiated a column called "Corespondență", probably the country's first true letter to the editor section.His press debut came in 1866, with a one-act play that appeared in Foaia Soțietății pentru Literatura și Cultura Română în Bucovina; his first book was the 1872 Poezii. Although written starting in 1889, Amintirile din "Junimea" was only published in 1921. He translated several plays by Friedrich Schiller (The Robbers, Fiesco and Intrigue and Love appeared in book form in 1871; The Maid of Orleans in Convorbiri Literare in 1883; Don Carlos and Mary Stuart in the last of his six-volume complete works that came out between 1893 and 1897). Other translations included Romantic poetry, both French (Victor Hugo) and German (Schiller and Heinrich Heine), published in Poezii. His wife was Maria Rosetti.


The lied (, plural lieder (Collins English Dictionary n.d.; Random House Unabridged Dictionary 1997; American Heritage Dictionary 2018); German pronunciation: [liːt], plural [ˈliːdɐ], German for "song") is a term in the German vernacular to describe setting poetry to classical music to create a piece of polyphonic music (Böker-Heil, et al. 2011). The term is used for songs from the late fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries or even to refer to Minnesang from as early as the 12th and 13th centuries (Encyclopædia Britannica 1998). It later came especially to refer to settings of Romantic poetry during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and into the early twentieth century. Examples include settings by Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf or Richard Strauss. Among English speakers, however, "lied" is often used interchangeably with "art song" to encompass works that the tradition has inspired in other languages. The poems that have been made into lieder often center on pastoral themes or themes of romantic love (Anon. 2014).

Opium and Romanticism

Opium and Romanticism are well-connected subjects, as readers of Romantic poetry often come into contact with literary criticisms about the influence of opium on its works. The idea that opium has had a direct effect on works of romantic poetry is still under debate; however, the literary criticism that has emerged throughout the years suggests very compelling ideas about opium and its impact on Romantic texts. Usually these criticisms tend to focus on poets such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas De Quincey and George Crabbe.

Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah

Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah (16 October 1956 – 21 June 1991) was a Bengali poet. He was noted for his revolutionary and romantic poetry. He is considered one of the leading Bengali poets of the 1970s. He was the recipient of Munir Chaudhury Memorial Award in 1980. He is most notable for the song Bhalo Achi Bhalo Theko. This song is regarded by him as a suicide note to Taslima Nasrin. It was later adopted as a song for using in a Bengali movie Starring Salman Shah.

The Feast of the Poets

The Feast of the Poets is a poem by Leigh Hunt that was originally published in 1811 in the Reflector. It was published in an expanded form in 1814, and revised and expanded throughout his life (see 1811 in poetry, 1814 in poetry). The work describes Hunt's contemporary poets, and either praises or mocks them by allowing only the best to dine with Apollo. The work also provided commentary on William Wordsworth and Romantic poetry. Critics praised or attacked the work on the basis of their sympathies towards Hunt's political views.

The Forest of Anykščiai

The Forest of Anykščiai (Lithuanian: Anykščių šilelis), written by Antanas Baranauskas and published in 1861 by Laurynas Ivinskis, is a landmark poem in the history of the Lithuanian literature.The poem expresses the long-standing connection between the Lithuanian people and their forests. It was inspired by poetry of Adam Mickiewicz and bears similarities to the romantic poetry of Wordsworth and similar works of the early 19th century, but conveys additional meanings related to the perceived oppression of the country during its 19th-century inclusion in the Russian Empire.

The Golden Apples of the Sun

The Golden Apples of the Sun is an anthology of 22 short stories by American writer Ray Bradbury. It was published by Doubleday & Company in 1953.

The book's title is also the title of the final story in the collection. The words "the golden apples of the sun" are from the last line of the final stanza of W. B. Yeats' poem "The Song of Wandering Aengus" (1899):

Bradbury prefaces his book with the last three lines of this poem. When asked what attracted him to the line "the golden apples of the sun", he said, "[My wife] Maggie introduced me to Romantic poetry when we were dating, and I loved it. I love that line in the poem, and it was a metaphor for my story, about taking a cup full of fire from the sun."The Golden Apples of the Sun was Bradbury's third published collection of short stories. The first, Dark Carnival, was published by Arkham House in 1947; the second, The Illustrated Man, was published by Doubleday & Company in 1951.

The Novice (poem)

The Novice (Mtsyri, in Georgian, Мцыри in Russian) is a poem by Mikhail Lermontov written in 1839 and first published in 1840, hailed as "one of the last examples of the classic Russian romantic poetry," according to the Lermontov Encyclopedia.

Ukrainian school

In Polish poetry, the Ukrainian school were a group of Romantic poets of the early 19th century who hailed from Ukraine, on the southeastern fringes of the Polish-inhabited lands of the time (this period followed the partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth). The poets—Antoni Malczewski, Józef Bohdan Zaleski, Tomasz Padura and Seweryn Goszczyński—produced a distinct style of Polish Romanticism through the incorporation of Ukrainian life, landscapes, history, political events, and folklore into their works. They in turn influenced both Lithuanian and Ukrainian Romantic poetry, and, along with other Polish poets, constituted a link between the various literatures of the post-partition Commonwealth.

Yusuf III of Granada

Yusuf III (Arabic: يوسف الثالث‎) (1374–1417) was the thirteenth Nasrid ruler of the Moorish Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula from 1408 to 1417. He inherited the throne from his brother, Muhammed VII, and was a noted builder and poet.

Yusuf had constructed the northernmost of the Nasrid dynasty palaces on the hill of the Alhambra. His palace was allowed to fall into ruin after the Christian takeover, leaving only a lovely arcade and tower. Terraced gardens were reconstructed in the 20th century.

The following is a section of one of Yusuf's poems from Hispano-Arabic Poetry: A Student Anthology, published by James Monroe. It is typical of the romantic, yearning poetry of al-Andalus, which inspired the later romantic poetry of European chivalry. However, later Christian poems were strictly limited to male-female yearning, unlike this example.

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