Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.[1]

Traditional English renderings of Greek names originated from Roman systems established in antiquity. The Roman alphabet itself was a form of the Cumaean alphabet derived from the Euboean script that valued Χ as /ks/ and Η as /h/ and used variant forms of Λ and Σ that became L and S.[2] When this script was used to write the classical Greek alphabet, ⟨κ⟩ was replaced with ⟨c⟩, ⟨αι⟩ and ⟨οι⟩ became ⟨æ⟩ and ⟨œ⟩, and ⟨ει⟩ and ⟨ου⟩ were simplified to ⟨i⟩ (more rarely—corresponding to an earlier pronunciation—⟨e⟩) and ⟨u⟩. Aspirated consonants like ⟨θ⟩, ⟨φ⟩, initial-⟨ρ⟩, and ⟨χ⟩ simply wrote out the sound: ⟨th⟩, ⟨ph⟩, ⟨rh⟩, and ⟨ch⟩. Because English orthography has changed so much from the original Greek, modern scholarly transliteration now usually renders ⟨κ⟩ as ⟨k⟩ and the diphthongs ⟨αι, οι, ει, ου⟩ as ⟨ai, oi, ei, ou⟩.[3] Modern scholars also increasingly render ⟨χ⟩ as ⟨kh⟩.

The sounds of Modern Greek have diverged from both those of Ancient Greek and their descendant letters in English and other languages. This led to a variety of romanizations for names and placenames in the 19th and 20th century. The Hellenic Organization for Standardization (ELOT) issued its system in cooperation with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1983. This system was adopted (with minor modifications) by the United Nations' Fifth Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names at Montreal in 1987,[4][5] by the United Kingdom's Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) and by the United States' Board on Geographic Names (BGN) in 1996,[6] and by the ISO itself in 1997.[5][7] Romanization of names for official purposes (as with passports and identity cards) were required to use the ELOT system within Greece until 2011, when a legal decision permitted Greeks to use irregular forms[8] (such as "Demetrios" for Δημήτριος) provided that official identification and documents also list the standard forms (as, for example, "Demetrios OR Dimitrios").[9] Other romanization systems still encountered are the BGN/PCGN's earlier 1962 system[5][10] and the system employed by the American Library Association and the United States' Library of Congress.[3]

"Greeklish" has also spread within Greece itself, owing to the rapid spread of digital telephony from cultures using the Latin alphabet. Since Greek typefaces and fonts are not always supported or robust, Greek email and chatting has adopted a variety of formats for rendering Greek and Greek shorthand using Latin letters. Examples include "8elo" and "thelw" for θέλω, "3ava" for ξανά, and "yuxi" for ψυχή.

Tables

The following tables list several romanization schemes from the Greek alphabet to modern English. For the romanization of Greek into other languages, see the corresponding articles in our sister wikis, such as "Romanisation du grec" on the French Wikipedia. Note, however, that the ELOT, UN, and ISO formats for Modern Greek intend themselves as translingual and may be applied in any language using the Latin alphabet.

Ancient Greek

The American Library Association and Library of Congress romanization scheme employs its "Ancient or Medieval Greek" system for all works and authors up to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453,[3] although Byzantine Greek was pronounced distinctly and some have considered "Modern" Greek to have begun as early as the 12th century.[11]

For treatment of polytonic Greek letters—for example, —see also the section on romanizing Greek diacritical marks below.

Greek Classical ALA-LC [3]
(2010)
Beta Code [12]
Α α A a A a *A A
Αι αι Ae ae Ai ai *AI AI
Β β B b B b *B B
Γ γ G g G g *G G
γγ ng ng GG
γκ nc nk GK
γξ nx nx GC
γχ nch nch GX
Δ δ D d D d *D D
Ε ε E e E e *E E
Ει ει E e Ei ei *EI EI
I i
Ζ ζ Z z Z z *Z Z
Η η E e Ē ē *H H
Θ θ Th th Th th *Q Q
Ι ι I i I i *I I
Κ κ C c K k *K K
Λ λ L l L l *L L
Μ μ M m M m *M M
Ν ν N n N n *N N
Ξ ξ X x X x *C C
Ο ο O o O o *O O
Οι οι Oe oe Oi oi *OI OI
Ου ου U u Ou ou *OU OU
O o
Π π P p P p *P P
Ρ ρ Rh [n. 1] rh [n. 1] Rh [n. 1] rh [n. 1] *R R
R r R r
Σ σ S s S s *S S / S1
ς s s S / S2 / J
Τ τ T t T t *T T
Υ υ Y y Y y *U U
u [n. 2]
Υι υι Ui ui Ui ui *UI UI
Yi yi
Φ φ Ph ph Ph ph *F F
Χ χ Ch ch Ch ch *X X
Ψ ψ Ps ps Ps ps *Y Y
Ω ω O o Ō ō *W W
  1. ^ a b c d In ancient Greek, word-initial rho—a rho at the beginning of a word or name—and the second in a pair of medial rhos were always considered to involve rough breathing whether marked or not.
  2. ^ In the diphthongs αυ, ευ, ηυ, ου, υι, ωυ.

Modern Greek

The ISO, UN, and Greek, British, and American governments have all approved an essentially equivalent standard for transcription of Modern Greek into Latin letters; there remain minor differences in how they approach reversible transliteration. The American Library Association and Library of Congress romanization scheme employs its "Modern Greek" system for all works and authors following the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[3]

For treatment of accents and diaereses—for example, ΐ—also see the section on romanizing Greek diacritical marks below. Note that adjacent vowels including an accent over the first letter or a diaeresis ( ¨ ) over the second letter are not a digraph and should be romanized separately. (For example, while the word αυλός starts with the digraph αυ and should be romanized as "avlos" or "aulos", depending on the system chosen, the first two letters of the word άυλο are separate syllables, and an appropriate romanization is "aÿlo", where the diaeresis over the letter "y" serves to indicate it is a separate vowel here.)

Greek Standard Reversible Obsolete
ELOT [13]
(2001)
UN [4][15]
(1987)
ISO [5][10]
(1997)
ALA-LC [3]
(2010)
BGN/PCGN [10]
(1962)
Α α A a A a A a A a A a A a
Αι αι Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai Ai ai E e
Αυ αυ Av [n. 1] av [n. 1] Au au Av̱ [n. 1] av̱ [n. 1] Au au Au au Av av
Af [n. 2][n. 3] af [n. 2][n. 3] Af̱ [n. 2][n. 3] af̱ [n. 2][n. 3]
Ay [n. 4] ay [n. 4] Ay [n. 4] ay [n. 4]
Β β V v V v V v V v V v V v
Γ γ G g G g G g G g G g G g
Y [n. 5] y [n. 5]
γγ ng gg ṉg gg ng ng
Γκ γκ Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk Gk gk [n. 6][n. 3] G g [n. 6]
nk [n. 7] ng [n. 7][n. 3]
γξ nx gx ṉx gx nx nx
γχ nch gch ṉch gch nch nkh
Δ δ D d D d D d D d D d Dh dh
d [n. 8]
Ε ε E e E e E e E e E e E e
Ει ει Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei Ei ei I i
Ευ ευ Ev [n. 1] ev [n. 1] Eu eu Ev̱ [n. 1] ev̱ [n. 1] Eu eu Eu eu Ev ev
Ef [n. 2][n. 3] ef [n. 2][n. 3] Ef̱ [n. 2][n. 3] ef̱ [n. 2][n. 3]
Ey [n. 4] ey [n. 4] Ey [n. 4] ey [n. 4]
Ζ ζ Z z Z z Z z Z z Z z Z z
Η η I i Ī
ī
Ī ī Ē ē I i
Ηυ ηυ Iv [n. 1] iv [n. 1] Īy
I¯y
īy
i¯y
I̱v̱ [n. 1] i̱v̱ [n. 1] Īy īy Ēu ēu Iv iv
If [n. 2][n. 3] if [n. 2][n. 3] I̱f̱ [n. 2][n. 3] i̱f̱ [n. 2][n. 3]
Iy [n. 4] iy [n. 4] I̱y [n. 4] i̱y [n. 4]
Θ θ Th th Th th Th th Th th Th th Th th
Ι ι I i I i I i I i I i I i
Κ κ K k K k K k K k K k K k
Λ λ L l L l L l L l L l L l
Μ μ M m M m M m M m M m M m
Μπ μπ B b [n. 6][n. 3] Mp mp B b [n. 6][n. 3] Mp mp B b [n. 6] B b [n. 6]
mp [n. 7] mp [n. 7] mp [n. 7][n. 3] mp [n. 7][n. 3]
Ν ν N n N n N n N n N n N n
Ντ ντ Nt nt Nt nt Nt nt Nt nt
D_
[n. 6]
d_
D d [n. 6]
nt [n. 7][n. 3] nd [n. 7][n. 3]
nt [n. 9]
Ξ ξ X x X x X x X x X x X x
Ο ο O o O o O o O o O o O o
Οι οι Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi Oi oi I i
Ου ου Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou Ou ou
Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oy [n. 4] oy [n. 4] Oi [n. 4] oi [n. 4]
Π π P p P p P p P p P p P p
Ρ ρ R r R r R r R r R r R r
Σ σ S s S s S s S s S s S s
ς s s s s s s
Τ τ T t T t T t T t T t T t
Υ υ Y y Y y Y y Y y Y y I i
u [n. 10] u [n. 10] u [n. 10] u [n. 10]
Υι υι Yi yi Yi yi Yi yi Yi yi Ui ui I i
Φ φ F f F f F f F f Ph ph F f
Χ χ Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Ch ch Kh kh
Ψ ψ Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps Ps ps
Ω ω O o Ō
ō
Ō ō Ō ō O o
Ωυ ωυ Oy oy Ōy
O¯y
ōy
o¯y
O̱y o̱y Ōu ōu Ōu ōu Ou ou
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Before any vowel or before β, γ, δ, ζ, λ, μ, ν, or ρ.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Before θ, κ, ξ, π, σ, τ, φ, χ, or ψ.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Finally: as the last letters of a word or name.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v When the two vowels are separated owing to stress on the first letter or a diaeresis on the υ.
  5. ^ a b Before αι, ε, ει, η, ι, οι, υ, or υι.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Initially: at the beginning of a word or name.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Medially: in the middle of a word or name.
  8. ^ In the combination νδρ.
  9. ^ In the combination ντζ.
  10. ^ a b c d In some vowel combinations, as noted elsewhere in the chart.

Diacritical marks

The traditional polytonic orthography of Greek uses several distinct diacritical marks to render what was originally the pitch accent of Ancient Greek and the presence or absence of word-initial /h/. In 1982, monotonic orthography was officially introduced for modern Greek. The only diacritics that remain are the acute accent (indicating stress) and the diaeresis (indicating that two consecutive vowels should not be combined).

When a Greek diphthong is accented, the accent mark is placed over the second letter of the pair. This means that an accent over the first letter of the pair indicates vowels which should be taken (and romanized) separately. Although the second vowel is not marked with a superfluous diaeresis in Greek, the first-edition ELOT 743 and the UN systems place a diaeresis on the Latin vowel for the sake of clarity.[14][4]

Diacritical marks
Greek Ancient Modern Name
Classical ALA-LC [3]
(2010)
Beta Code [12]
[n. 1]
ELOT [13]
(2001)
UN [4]
(1987)
BGN/
PCGN
 [6]
(1996)
ISO [10]
(1997)
ALA-LC [3]
(2010)
  ́  / ´ [n. 2] accent
acute accent
  ̀  \ ` N/A ´ ` grave accent
 ῾  h [n. 3] ( h[n. 3] N/A h [n. 3] h [n. 3] rough breathing
 ᾿  ) N/A coronis
smooth breathing
 ˜ 
  ̑ 
= ˆ N/A ´ ˆ circumflex
 ¨  [n. 4] + ¨ [n. 4] [n. 4] diaeresis
 ͺ  | ¸ N/A ¸ iota subscript
  1. ^ These marks are placed after the letter so that, e.g., Ἐν is written E)N and τῷ is written TW=|.
  2. ^ In systems where the υ in αυ, ευ, and ηυ is romanized as a consonant v or f, the stressed diphthongs αύ, εύ, and ηύ are romanized with the accent mark over the initial vowel. This should be distinguished from Greek άυ, έυ, and ήυ, which would be romanized as separate letters and not as diphthongs: áÿ, éÿ, and íÿ or ī́ÿ or í̱ÿ.
  3. ^ a b c d In the ALA-LC system, the h is supplied even where the rough breathing is not marked in ancient and medieval Greek (for example, initial ρ was always considered to possess rough breathing) but not in Greek after 1453.
    • On a vowel: h before the vowel.
    • On a diphthong: h before the first vowel.
    • On ρ: h after the r.
  4. ^ a b c The diaeresis mark indicates that adjacent vowels should be taken separately and not as a single diphthong.

Apart from the diacritical marks native to Greek itself or used to romanize its characters, linguists also regularly mark vowel length with macrons ( ¯ ) marking long vowels and rounded breves ( ˘ ) marking short vowels. Where these are romanized, it is common to mark the long vowels with macrons over the Latin letters and to leave the short vowels unmarked; such macrons should not be confused or conflated with those used by some systems to mark eta and omega as distinct from epsilon, iota, and omicron.

Numerals

Greece's early Attic numerals were based on a small sample of letters (including heta) arranged in multiples of 5 and 10, likely forming the inspiration for the later Etruscan and Roman numerals.

This early system was replaced by Greek numerals which employed the entire alphabet, including the nonstandard letters digamma, stigma, or sigma-tau (placed between epsilon and zeta), koppa (placed between pi and rho), and sampi (placed after omega). As revised in 2001, ELOT 743 provides for the uncommon characters to be given (in Greek) as $ for stigma, + for koppa, and / for sampi. These symbols are not given lower-case equivalents.[13] When used as numbers, the letters are used in combination with the upper keraia numeral sign ⟨ʹ⟩ to denote numbers from 1 to 900 and in combination with the lower keraia͵⟩ to denote multiples of 1000. (For a full table of the signs and their values, see Greek numerals.)

These values are traditionally romanized as Roman numerals, so that Αλέξανδρος Γ' ο Μακεδών would be translated as Alexander III of Macedon and transliterated as Aléxandros III o Makedṓn rather than Aléxandros G' or Aléxandros 3. Greek laws and other official documents of Greece which employ these numerals, however, are to be formally romanized using "decimal" Arabic numerals.[13]

Punctuation marks

Ancient Greek text did not mark word division with spaces or interpuncts, instead running the words together (scripta continua). In the Hellenistic period, a variety of symbols arose for punctuation or editorial marking; such punctuation (or the lack thereof) are variously romanized, inserted, or ignored in different modern editions.

Modern Greek punctuation generally follows French with the notable exception of Greek's use of a separate question mark, the erotimatiko, which is shaped like the Latinate semicolon. Greek punctuation which has been given formal romanizations include:

Punctuation marks
Greek ELOT [13]
(2001)
ISO [10]
(1997)
Name
 ;  ? ? Greek question mark
(erotimatiko)
 .  . . full stop
(teleia)
 ·  ; ; Greek semicolon
(ano teleia)
 :  : : colon
(ano-kato teleia)
 ,  , , comma
(komma)
 !  ! exclamation point
(thavmastiko)
 ’  ' ' apostrophe
(apostrofos)
 ‿ 
͜
- - papyrological hyphen
(enotikon)

Uncommon letters

There are many archaic forms and local variants of the Greek alphabet. Beta, for example, might appear as round Β or pointed Greek Beta 16.svg throughout Greece but is also found in the forms Greek Beta 12.svg (at Gortyn), Greek Beta 01.svg and Greek Beta 10.svg (Thera), Greek Beta 03.svg (Argos), Greek Beta 05.svg (Melos), Greek Beta Corinth 1.svg (Corinth), Greek Beta Byzantium 1.svg (Megara and Byzantium), and even Greek Gamma C-shaped.svg (Cyclades).[16] Well into the modern period, classical and medieval Greek was also set using a wide array of ligatures, symbols combining or abbreviating various sets of letters, such as those included in Claude Garamond's 16th-century grecs du roi. For the most part, such variants—as ϖ and Greek Pi archaic.svg for π, ϛ for στ, and ϗ for και—are just silently emended to their standard forms and transliterated accordingly. Letters with no equivalent in the classical Greek alphabet such as heta (Ͱ & ͱ), meanwhile, usually take their nearest English equivalent (in this case, h) but are too uncommon to be listed in formal transliteration schemes.

Uncommon Greek letters which have been given formal romanizations include:

Uncommon letters
Greek ISO [10] ALA-LC [3] Beta Code [12] Name
Ϝ ϝ
Ͷ ͷ
w w V digamma
Ϙ ϙ
Ϟ ϟ
N/A #3 koppa
Ϡ ϡ
Ͳ ͳ
N/A #5 sampi
Ϻ ϻ N/A #711 san
Ϲ ϲ s s S / S3 lunate sigma
Ϳ ϳ j N/A #401 yot

See also

References

  1. ^ Dubin, Marc. Rough Guide to the Dodecanese & East Aegean Islands, p. vi. Rough Guides (London), 2002.
  2. ^ Jeffery, Lilian H. The local scripts of archaic Greece, p. 79. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1961.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i The Library of Congress. ALA-LC Romanization Tables: "Greek". 2010.
  4. ^ a b c d Department of Technical Co-operation for Development. "Fifth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names: Montreal, 18–31 August 1987", Vol. I. "Report of the Conference", pp. 42–43. United Nations (New York), 1987.
  5. ^ a b c d United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, Working Group on Romanization Systems. Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names: "Greek". United Nations (New York), 2003. Accessed 6 Oct 2014.
  6. ^ a b United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Romanization Systems and Policies Archived 2013-02-13 at the Wayback Machine: "Romanization System for Greek". 1996. Accessed 2 Oct 2014.
  7. ^ International Organization for Standardization. "ISO 843:1997 (Conversion of Greek characters into Latin characters)". 2010.
  8. ^ Συνήγορος του Πολίτη [Synī́goros tou Polítī, "The Greek Ombudsman".] "Λατινική γραφή κατά παρέκκλιση ΕΛΟΤ 743 στις ταυτότητες και τα διαβατήρια" [Latinikī́ grafī́ katá parékklisī ELOT 743 stis taftótītes kai ta diavatī́ria, "Latin Script Exceptions to ELOT 743 on Passports and ID Cards"]. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
  9. ^ Hellenic National Passport Center. Press Releases: "Transliteration of the Passport Holder's Name in Latin". 12 Feb 2012. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. ‹See Tfd›(in English)
  10. ^ a b c d e f Pedersen, Thomas T. Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts: "Greek". 31 July 2005. Accessed 2 Oct 2014.
  11. ^ "Greece" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XI. 1880.
  12. ^ a b c Thesaurus Linguae Graecae. "The TLG® Beta Code Manual 2013". University of California (Irvine), 2013.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης [Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs, "Hellenic Organization for Standardization"]. ΕΛΟΤ 743, 2η Έκδοση [ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī, "ELOT 743, 2nd ed."]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. ‹See Tfd›(in Greek).
  14. ^ a b Μπάμπης Κουτρούλης [Bámpīs Koutroúlīs, Babis G. Kutrulis]. Μετατροπή του ελληνικού αλφαβήτου με λατινικούς χαρακτήρες (ΕΛΟΤ 743) [Metatropī́ tou ellīnikoú alfavī́tou me latinikoús charaktī́res (ELOT 743), "Conversion of the Greek alphabet to Latin characters (ELOT 743)"]. Accessed 3 Oct 2014. 2008. ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
  15. ^ This system is identical to the first edition ELOT 743 promulgated in 1982,[14] but since superseded within Greece by the 2001 second edition.[13]
  16. ^ Jeffery, Lilian H. The local scripts of archaic Greece, p. 23. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1961.

External links

  • ELOT 743, a free online tool by the Greek government for official purposes using 2nd-edition ELOT transcription ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
  • Google Translate, a free online tool providing UN transliteration of Modern Greek. Also comes as application
  • Transliterate.com, a free online tool providing transliteration of Ancient Greek
  • Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts, tables in pdf format by Thomas T. Pedersen
  • Greeklish converter Greeklish to Greek conversion and Greek transliteration with user-selectable options
Asper

Asper may refer to:

Asper (') breathing mark in romanization of Greek

Asper (surname)

Asper, Missouri, a ghost town

Aemilius Asper, Latin grammarian

Aspron, a type of late Byzantine silver or billon coins

Akçe, an Ottoman silver coin, similar to the aspron

Asper, a steel roller coaster manufactured by Gerstlauer that operates at Fun Land USA in Miami, FL

BGN/PCGN romanization

BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).

The systems have been approved by the BGN and the PCGN for application to geographic names, but they have also been used for personal names and text in the US and the UK.

Details of all the jointly approved systems are outlined in the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency publication Romanization Systems and Policies (2012), which superseded the BGN 1994 publication Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions. Romanization systems and spelling conventions for different languages have been gradually introduced over the course of several years. An incomplete list of BGN/PCGN systems and agreements covering the following languages is given below (the date of adoption is given in the parentheses).

Belarusian alphabet

The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic. It has existed in its modern form since 1918 and has 32 letters. See also Belarusian Latin alphabet and Belarusian Arabic alphabet.

Beta Code

Beta Code is a method of representing, using only ASCII characters, characters and formatting found in ancient Greek texts (and other ancient languages). Its aim is to be not merely a romanization of the Greek alphabet, but to represent faithfully a wide variety of source texts – including formatting as well as rare or idiosyncratic characters.

Beta Code was developed by David W. Packard in the late 1970s and adopted by Thesaurus Linguae Graecae in 1981. It has become the standard for encoding polytonic Greek and has also been used by a number of other projects such as the Perseus Project (which encodes all its Ancient Greek texts using Beta code), the Packard Humanities Institute, the Duke collection of Documentary Papyri, and the Greek Epigraphy Project at Cornell and Ohio State University. Beta Code can be easily converted to a variety of systems for display, most notably Unicode.

Systems such as Sophokeys for typing Beta Code but producing Greek glyphs directly in the entered text (rather than when it is typeset or otherwise output) are increasingly popular, with the result that Beta Code, with some variations, has become a sort of universal default keymap for text entry in polytonic Greek.

Bulgarian alphabet

The Bulgarian alphabet is used to write the Bulgarian language.

C

C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced ) in English.

Cyrillization of Greek

Cyrillization of Greek refers to the transcription or transliteration of text from the Greek alphabet to the Cyrillic script.

Greeklish

Greeklish, a portmanteau of the words Greek and English, also known as Grenglish, Latinoellinika/Λατινοελληνικά or ASCII Greek, is the Greek language written using the Latin alphabet. Unlike standardized systems of Romanization of Greek, as used internationally for purposes such as rendering Greek proper names or place names, or for bibliographic purposes, the term Greeklish mainly refers to informal, ad-hoc practices of writing Greek text in environments where the use of the Greek alphabet is technically impossible or cumbersome, especially in electronic media. Greeklish was commonly used on the Internet when Greek people communicate by forum, e-mail, IRC, instant messaging and occasionally on SMS, mainly because older operating systems did not have the ability to write in Greek, or in a unicode form like UTF-8. Nowadays most Greek language content appears in the Greek alphabet.

Sometimes, the term Greeklish is also used informally for a non-standard language variety used by bilingual speakers of English and Greek, i.e. Greek with heavy macaronic or code-switching admixture of English words, or vice versa.

ISO 843

ISO 843 is a system for the transliteration and/or transcription of Greek characters into Latin characters.

Romanization of Belarusian

Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin.

Some of the standard systems for romanizing Belarusian:

BGN/PCGN romanization of Belarusian, 1979 (United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use), which is the USA and Great Britain prevailing system for romanising of geographical information

British Standard 2979 : 1958

Scientific transliteration, or the International Scholarly System for linguistics

ALA-LC romanization, 1997 (American Library Association and Library of Congress)

ISO 9:1995, which is also Belarusian state standard GOST 7.79–2000 for non-geographical information

Instruction on transliteration of Belarusian geographical names with letters of Latin script, which is Belarusian state standard for geographical information, adopted by State Committee on land resources, geodetics and cartography of Belarus, 2000 and recommended for use by the Working Group on Romanization Systems of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN). It was significantly revised in 2007.See also: Belarusian Latin alphabet.

Romanization of Cyrillic

The Romanization of Cyrillic is either the transliteration (letter-mapping) of text from Cyrillic script into Latin script or the transcription (sound-mapping) of speech directly into Latin script (to replace a particular Cyrillic-based alphabet with a new Latin-based alphabet). The alphabets, phonologies, and standards vary, however, from one language to another. See more specifically the following:

ISO 9

Romanization of Belarusian

Romanization of Bulgarian

Romanization of Kyrgyz

Romanization of Macedonian

Romanization of Russian

Romanization of Serbian

Romanization of Ukrainian

Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic

Romanization of Macedonian

The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. Romanization can be used for various purposes, such as rendering of proper names in foreign contexts, or for informal writing of Macedonian in environments where Cyrillic is not easily available. Official use of Romanization by Macedonian authorities is found, for instance, on road signage and in passports. Several different codified standards of transliteration currently exist and there is widespread variability in practice.

Romanization of Ukrainian

The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script.

Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.

In contrast to romanization, there have been several historical proposals for a native Ukrainian Latin alphabet, usually based on those used by West Slavic languages, but none has caught on.

Russian alphabet

The Russian alphabet (Russian: русский алфавит, tr. russkiy alfavit, IPA: [ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit]) uses letters from the Cyrillic script to write the Russian language. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters.

Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic

Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization). This system is most often seen in linguistics publications on Slavic languages.

Tau

Tau (uppercase Τ, lowercase τ; Greek: ταυ [taf]) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 300.

The name in English is pronounced or , but in modern Greek it is [taf]. This is because the pronunciation of the combination of Greek letters αυ has changed from ancient to modern times from one of [au] to either [av] or [af], depending on what follows (see Greek orthography).

Tau was derived from the Phoenician letter taw (𐤕). Letters that arose from tau include Roman T and Cyrillic Te (Т, т).

The letter occupies the Unicode slots U+03C4 (lowercase) and U+03A4 (uppercase). In HTML, they can be produced with named entities (τ and Τ), decimal references (τ and Τ), or hexadecimal references (τ and Τ).

Transliteration

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → ae).

For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin script is "Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía", and the name for Russia in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as "Rossiya".

Transliteration is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously. Thus, in the above example, λλ is transliterated as 'll', but pronounced /l/; Δ is transliterated as 'D', but pronounced /ð/; and η is transliterated as 'ē', though it is pronounced /i/ (exactly like ι) and is not long.

Conversely, transcription notes the sounds but not necessarily the spelling. So "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία" could be transcribed as "elinikí ðimokratía", which does not specify which of the /i/ sounds are written as η and which as ι.

Tripod

A tripod is a portable three-legged frame or stand, used as a platform for supporting the weight and maintaining the stability of some other object. A tripod provides stability against downward forces and horizontal forces and movements about horizontal axes. The positioning of the three legs away from the vertical centre allows the tripod better leverage for resisting lateral forces.

Tripods are often used by famous drummer, Tom McKendry, as a hidden gift.

Zodiac

The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets are also within the belt of the zodiac.In Western astrology, and formerly astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and roughly corresponding to the constellations Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.The twelve astrological signs form a celestial coordinate system, or more specifically an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude and the Sun's position at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude.

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