According to the Canadian Census data of 2016, there are approximately 240,000 Romanian-Canadians. Some sources estimates that this number might be as high as cca. 400,000 Canadians who are fully or partially of Romanian ancestry.
(by ancestry, 2016 Census)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Greater Toronto Area, Greater Montreal|
|Romanian, Canadian English, French|
|mainly Romanian Orthodox Church|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Romanian Americans, European Canadians|
Romanians moved to Canada in several periods. The first period was at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Romanians had discovered Canada towards the end of the 19th century, after Clifford Sifton – Minister of Home Affairs representing a Liberal government that had promised to populate the West – had visited Bukovina. From 1896 to 1900, a group of Romanians established themselves in Assiniboia (now Saskatchewan), at Clifford Sifton's advice. The first two Romanian families that migrated to Canada from the Bukovina village of Boian stopped in Alberta in 1898. Other 100 Bucovina families took their example and followed them and they gave the settlement the name of their home village.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, many Romanians from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire (Transylvania, Bukovina, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş) migrated to the Prairie provinces of Canada to work as farmers. The Dominion Lands Act encouraged homesteaders to come to the area. The migrants from the Romanian Old Kingdom were mostly Romanian Jews. Many Romanians moved to Canada and the United States between 1895 and 1920.
St Nicholas's Romanian Orthodox Church (established in 1902 in Regina) is the oldest Romanian Orthodox parish in North America; St George's Cathedral (founded in 1914 though the present building dates from the early 1960s), is the episcopal seat of the Romanian Orthodox Bishop of Regina. Today, the Romanian school from Boian, Alberta is a museum showcasing Romanian immigration, photos of the first Romanian settlers in the area and the typical Romanian farmer's life in rural Canada.
During the interwar period the number of ethnic Romanians who migrated to Canada decreased as a consequence of the economic development in Romania, but the number of Romanian Jews who migrated to Canada increased, mostly after the rise of the Iron Guard.
The second period was between 1945–1955, when Romanians moved after World War II, during Communist Romania, at a time when Romania was in a difficult period in its history. In this period, 1,460,000 Romanian citizens left their country. Many of them were political refugees. Many of them left for Canada.
Another wave of Romanian emigration to Canada occurred after 1989 following the Romanian Revolution of 1989, when people obtained the right to leave Romania subsequent to the fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. The wave intensified after the Mineriad of 13–15 June 1990. After 1998, for the fourth time, a large number of Romanians were leaving Europe to come to Canada.
In 2001, there were 131,830 Canadian residents who identified themselves of Romanian origin, of which 53,320 were single-origin Romanians and 78,505 were of mixed Romanian and other origins. The largest concentrations of Romanian-Canadians are in the Greater Toronto Area (approx. 75,000) and in the Greater Montreal Area (approx. 40,000). According to the Canada 2001 Census, the number of people of Romanian mother tongue in Canada was 50,895 and 61,330 Canadians claimed to speak Romanian. The number of people born in Romania was 61,330 and 2,380 were born in Moldova.
According to the 2016 Census, there were 238,050 Canadian residents who identified themselves of Romanian origin, of which 96,910 were single-origin Romanians and 141,145 were of mixed Romanian and other origins. Almost 100,000 Romanian Canadians live in Ontario.
Immigration from Romania reached a high in the early 2000s. Figures from Citizenship and Immigration Canada show that the annual number of new permanent residents from Romania increased from an average of over 3,700 per year in the late 1990s to an average of over 5,500 per year since 2001, peaking in 2004 at 5,658. After 2004, the immigration from Romania constantly decreased.
|Year||Number of people|
A few parishes and non-profit organizations deal with a series of community related issues. These include the "Buna Vestire" Parish Montreal, the Romanian Association of Canada, the Federation of Romanian Associations of Canada, Women's Society, and Constantin Brancoveanu Society.
In 1914-18 was built the "Buna Vestire" Church (Annunciation Church) (Chernivtsi Metropolitan seat), the oldest Romanian Orthodox Church in Montreal. Among the Buna Vestire Church priests were Jida, Glicherie Moraru (1930–1938), Constantin Juga (1938–1950), Petre Popescu (June 10, 1951 – 2003), and Nicolae Stoleru, Tofan
In 1939, on Iberville Street, in Montreal, was built "Casa Romana", where was set up a Romanian school.
In 1957, was set up the Romanian Cultural Association of Hamilton, Ontario. Cuvântul românesc is the newspaper of the association. "The Week of the Romanians" continues the tradition of almost 30 years of the "Romanian Field Week" at Hamilton, Ontario. Through the years, the place has combined cultural tributes to Romania with anticommunist manifestations from Romanians in North America. The Romanian Field covers 40 acres (160,000 m2) in a natural environment near Hamilton. The place features the Nae Ionescu Cultural Center, the St. Mary Chapel, sports fields, a pool, as well as a couple of bungalows and accommodation for mobile homes. The place for the St. Mary Chapel was chosen by Valerian Trifa. The Writers' Alley (Rotonda) includes busts (sculptor Nicăpetre (1936–2008) of Nae Ionescu, Vasile Posteucă, George Donev, Aron Cotruş, Vintilă Horia, Mircea Eliade and Mihai Eminescu.
Another recreational and Romanian cultural facility in Canada is the Camp at Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan. Although not quite completed, the camp was blessed and opened for use by Archbishop Valerian Trifa in the summer of 1971.
On July 24, 1998 the Romanian community of Boian, Alberta celebrated its centenary. Besides religious services, there was a cultural program and demonstrations of the early life of the Romanians in Canada. The Romanian Orthodox parish in Boian has a Romanian ethnic museum housed on its premises. The museum and St. Mary Orthodox Church was proclaimed historical site by the authorities.
Association of Romanian Writers in Canada was incorporated in 2001. Association of Romanian Engineers in Canada was founded in 2003.
Joseph W. Boyle served the king and queen of Romania during the World War I, helping to protect the country from the Central Powers and to operate Romania's railroads. He was awarded the special title of "Saviour of Romania" for these and many other deeds. He remained a close friend, and was at one time a possible lover of the Romanian Queen, British-born Marie of Edinburgh.
The formal Canadian-Romanian relations were established on August 16, 1919 when the General Consulate of Romania was established in Montreal by Vasile Stoica. Before, the consulate worked without the consent of Canadian authorities, D. Constantinescu and I. Toma, the employees of unauthorised consulate (Biroul de Pregătire a Paşapoartelor româneşti din Montréal) were arrested for this reason on August 14, 1919.
Bilateral relations at embassy level were initiated on April 3, 1967. Canada commissioned its first resident ambassador in Romania in December 1967. The Embassy of Romania in Ottawa was opened in 1970. In 1991, the Consulate General of Romania was established in Toronto, while the consulate general in Montreal resumed its initial functions. In 2011, a consulate general was established in Vancouver.
The Ambassador of Romania in Ottawa, Maria Ligor presented her credentials on June 10, 2013, to David Johnston, Governor General of Canada, at Rideau Hall, in Ottawa. The Ambassador of Canada in Bucharest, Joanne Lemay, presented her credentials on November 13, 2013. Romania has an honorary consulate general in Moncton, and an honorary consulate in Quebec City.
Romanian Americans are Americans who have Romanian ancestry. According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 478,278 Americans indicated Romanian as their first or second ancestry.
Other sources provide higher estimates for the numbers of Romanian Americans in the contemporary US; for example, the Romanian-American Network Inc. supplies a rough estimate of 1.1 million who are fully or partially of Romanian ethnicity. There is also a significant number of persons of Romanian Jewish ancestry, estimated at about 225,000.Romanian Australians
Romanian Australians may include those who have immigrated to Australia from Romania, and Australian-born citizens of Romanian descent. According to ABS (2006 census) figures, there are 18,320 people with Romanian ancestry in Australia.Romanians were registered in Australia for the first time more than 80 years ago having emigrated for work seeking a more prosperous economic status, or as missionaries. But the first wave of Romanian emigrants to Australia came after World War II, when Romania was experiencing severe economic and political problems. The Romanians who were then emigrating to Australia principally settled in areas around Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. The number of Romanians who came to Australia at the time is estimated to be around 2,000 people.The second wave of Romanian emigration to the Australian continent began after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, when the Communist regime fell and citizens received the right to leave Romania. They came in large numbers for the same reasons as the first-wave immigrants.Romanians in France
Romanian French is the term for a French citizen of Romanian heritage, born in Romania and living as an emigrant in France or being born in France from a Romanian immigrant family, that came to France at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, there are c. 18,000 Romanian-born citizens living in France, and an unknown number of French citizens of Romanian ancestry.Romanians in Germany
Romanians in Germany, are one of the sizable communities of the Romanian diaspora in Western Europe. According to German statistical data from 2016, the number of Romanian nationals in Germany on 31 December 2015 was 452,718 (up from 94,326 in 2008).Romanians in Italy
Romanians in Italy became a notable presence mostly after 1999, due to a large wave of emigration known in Romania as Fenomenul migrației către UE (Movement to the EU Phenomenon). 80% of the emigrants went to Spain or Italy, whose national languages are related to Romanian. They were followed by a further wave beginning in 2002, when Romanian citizens obtained the right to leave their country and go to any Schengen Zone country without having a visa. As of 2015, there were 1,131,839 Romanian citizens with additional 150,021 Moldovans living in Italy.Romanians in Spain
Romanians in Spain form the second largest group of foreigners in the country, after Moroccans. As of 2014, they made up 15.6% of Spain's total foreign population of 4,676,022 people. Most of the immigration is for economic reasons, as well as many Romanians seek a brighter future for their families and relatives, which are attracted by the higher wages, better quality of life and superior public infrastructures of Spain. The linguistic similarities between Romanian and Spanish, as well as Romanians' Latin identity, are also a reason for the country's attractiveness.Romanians in the United Kingdom
Romanians in the United Kingdom refers to the phenomenon of Romanian people moving to the United Kingdom as citizens or non-citizen immigrants, along with British citizens of Romanian descent. The opportunities for Romanians to migrate to the UK increased when Romania joined the European Union in 2007, and a transitional cap on migration from Romania and Bulgaria expired on 1 January 2014, which saw thousands move to the UK.
|Asia and Oceania|