A Roman mosaic is a mosaic made during the Roman period, throughout the Roman Republic and later Empire. Mosaics were used in a variety of private and public buildings. They were highly influenced by earlier and contemporary Hellenistic Greek mosaics, and often included famous figures from history and mythology, such as Alexander the Great in the Alexander Mosaic. A large proportion of surviving examples come from Italian sites such as Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as other areas of the Roman Empire.
The earliest examples of Roman mosaic flooring date to the late Republican period (2nd century BC) and are housed in Delos, Greece. Witts claims that tessellated pavements, using tesserae, were used in Europe from the late fifth to early fourth centuries BC. This is contradicted by Ruth Westgate, who contends that the earliest tessellated mosaics of the Hellenistic period date to the 3rd century BC, with the 2nd to early 1st-century BC mosaics of Delos constituting roughly half of the known examples. Hetty Joyce and Katherine M. D. Dunbabin concur with this assessment, asserting that the transition from pebble mosaics to more complex tessellated mosaics originated in Hellenistic-Greek Sicily during the 3rd century BC, developed at sites such as Morgantina and Syracuse. The earliest known pebble mosaics and use of chip pavement are found at Olynthus in Greece's Chalcidice, dated to the 5th to 4th centuries BC, while other examples can be found at Pella, capital of Macedon, dated to the 4th century BC.
The earliest mosaics of Roman Pompeii, dated to the Pompeian First Style of wall painting in the late 2nd and early 1st centuries BC, were clearly derived from the Hellenistic Greek model. However, they contained far more figured scenes on average, less abstract design, the absence of lead strips, as well as an almost complete lack of complex, three-dimensional scenes utilizing polychromy until the Pompeian Second Style of wall painting (80-20 BC). The mosaics in the Villa Romana del Casale (c. 300 AD) from Roman Sicily perhaps represent the hallmark of mosaic art in the Late Imperial period. The mosaic decoration of the local palace complex culminates in the gallery, which contains a scene of animal hunting and fighting covering an area of 3,200 square feet (300 m2).
Roman mosaics are constructed from geometrical blocks called tesserae, placed together to create the shapes of figures, motifs and patterns. Materials for tesserae were obtained from local sources of natural stone, with the additions of cut brick, tile and pottery creating coloured shades of, predominantly, blue, black, red, white and yellow. Polychrome patterns were most common, but monochrome examples are known. Marble and glass were occasionally used as tesserae, as were small pebbles, and precious metals like gold. Mosaic decoration was not just confined to floors but featured on walls and vaults as well. Traces of guidelines have been found beneath some mosaics, either scored into or painted onto the mortar bedding. The design might also be pegged out in string, or mounted in a wooden frame.
The collapse of buildings in antiquity can, paradoxically, both irrevocably destroy mosaics or protect and preserve them.
Imagery of famous individuals or entertaining scenes are common on Roman mosaics. The Alexander Mosaic from the House of the Faun, Pompeii depicts the Battle of Issus between Alexander the Great and Darius III. In addition to famous people from antiquity, mosaics can depict aspects of daily life. The Gladiator Mosaic from Rome depicts a fighting scene, naming each gladiator involved. A gladiatorial scene is also known from Leptis Magna.
One of the earliest depictions of Roman Christianity is a mosaic from Hinton St Mary (in Dorset, England) which shows Christ with a Chi-Rho behind his head. The mosaic is now in the British Museum. Orpheus mosaics, which often include many animals drawn by the god's playing, are very common; he was also used in Early Christian art as a symbol for Christ. Scenes of Dionysus are another common subject.
Progression within the mosaic technique developed the emblem, the "heart" of all mosaics. The word emblem is used to describe a small mosaic featuring a little genre scene or still life, characterised by particularly thin tesserae made separately and mounted in a central or important position in the main panel.
Antiochia ad Cragum (Greek: Αντιόχεια του Κράγου) also known as Antiochetta or Latin: Antiochia Parva (meaning "Little Antiochia") is an ancient Hellenistic city on Mount Cragus overlooking the Mediterranean coast, in the region of Cilicia, in Anatolia. In modern-day Turkey the site is encompassed in the village of Güneyköy, District of Gazipaşa, Antalya Province.
The city was founded by Antiochus IV Epiphanes around 170 BC. It minted coins from the mid-first to the mid-second centuries, the last known of which were issued under Roman Emperor Valerian. The city became part of the kingdom of Lesser Armenia in the 12th century. In 1332, the Knights Hospitallers took the city, after which it was known variously as Antiochetta, Antiocheta, Antiocheta in Rufine (Papal bull of Pope John XXII), and Antiochia Parva.
Some scholars claim an identity of Antiochia ad Cragum with the city Cragus (Kragos), or although it lies more than 100 km away, with Sidyma, which some scholars assert was the Lycian Cragus (Kragos).Ruins of the city remain, and include fortifications, baths, chapels, the Roman necropolis, and the largest Roman mosaic found in Turkey.In 2018, latrine mosaics with dirty jokes about Narcissus and Ganymede were discovered in Antiochia ad Cragum.Boxford, Berkshire
Boxford is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of West Berkshire, part of Berkshire in England.
The village is on the east bank of the Lambourn, about 4 miles (6.4 km) northwest of Newbury but south of the M4 motorway. The included hamlet of Westbrook is on the opposite bank of the Berkshire Downs tributary.Boxford Roman mosaic
Boxford Roman mosaic is a mosaic at Boxford, West Berkshire, England, rediscovered during an archaeological dig in August 2017. It dates from the Roman period.
The 4th century (AD) mosaic is over 6 metres (20 ft) long. Its central panel is thought to show Bellerophon, at the court of either Iobates or Proteus, battling Chimera.Anthony Beeson, an expert on Roman mosaics, said it is "without question the most exciting mosaic discovery made in Britain in the last 50 years and must take a premier place amongst those Romano-British works of art that have come down to modern Britons."Cantillana
Cantillana is a town located in the province of Seville, Andalusia, southern Spain.
Solar: 3.78 MW h solar farm (bannered by Prodiel.com) on the train station side of the Guadalquivir river, facing an electric substation served by delegates of Elecnor, Endesa, Imesa, Ingersol and Cabelte. Petrochemical: Repsol fuel stations mark Cantillana (24/7) and neighbouring Cantillana la Montana.
Excavated approximately 1.8 metres below the current residential surface, near the Church of Asuncion. The mosaic features a full image of sea creatures surrounding a mosaiced water well.Font de Mussa Mosaic
The Mosaic de la Font de Mussa (Mosaic from the Source of Mussa, in English) is a Roman mosaic found in Benifaió (Ribera Alta, Land of Valencia) and that dates of the 1st or 2nd century. It is located into the Museum of Prehistory of Valencia, where is one of the most highlighted pieces.Its a mosaic of opus tessellatum decorated with tesselles of marble of 6 millimeters.It presents a central decoration polychromated showing figures that represents the shepherd Faustulus and his brother in front of a cave where there is a wolf that would suckle to Romulus and Remus.Hinton St Mary
Hinton St Mary is a village and civil parish in the county of Dorset in southern England. It is sited on a low Corallian limestone ridge beside the River Stour, 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the market town Sturminster Newton. It lies within the North Dorset administrative district. In 2001 the parish had 97 households and a population of 221. In 2013 the estimated population of the parish was 260.The parish church, dedicated to St Peter, has a 15th-century tower. The manor house next to the church was once owned by the nuns of Shaftesbury Abbey.Hinton St Mary Mosaic
The Hinton St Mary Mosaic is a large, almost complete Roman mosaic discovered at Hinton St Mary, Dorset, England. It appears to feature a portrait bust of Jesus Christ as its central motif. The mosaic was chosen as Object 44 in the BBC Radio 4 programme A History of the World in 100 Objects, presented by British Museum director Neil MacGregor.
The mosaic covered two rooms, joined by a small decorated threshold. It is largely red, yellow and cream in colouring. On stylistic grounds it has been dated to the 4th century and is attributed to the mosaic workshop of Durnovaria (modern Dorchester). It is currently in storage at the British Museum, although the central medallion is on display there.Lopen
Lopen is a village and civil parish in the South Somerset district of Somerset, England, situated 8 miles (12.9 km) west of Yeovil. The village has a population of 260.Lopen Roman Mosaic
The Lopen Roman Mosaic is a Roman mosaic, probably from a Roman villa, in the village of Lopen, Somerset, England.It was discovered in 2001, by George Caton who was operating a mechanical digger and noticed small cubes of coloured stone, which turned out to be part of the floor of an eight-roomed Roman Villa and is the largest Roman Mosaic so far discovered in Britain. Photogrammetry by English Heritage was followed by excavation led by the Somerset County Council archaeologist. They exposed and documented the mosaic in three weeks. It was then covered with sand and soil to preserve it. The work was recognised with the award of the Tarmac Finders Award (for non professionals) at the British Archaeological Awards in 2002. The stones used for the mosaic are Blue Lias from the surrounding hills. The fragments which were discovered in the surrounding soil were used to create a new mosaic, including a picture of a dolphin, using methods which would have been available in Roman times. It is now displayed in All Saints Church.A further mosaic was found in an adjoining room, which probably extended beyond the area excavated, which was about 4.5 metres square. The main mosaic is almost 7 metres square and has a complicated geometrical design, including some stylized figurative elements such as leaves, cups and dolphins. It was probably laid by a putative specialist workshop based at Cirencester, known as the "Saltire school" for their fondness for saltires in designs, which is seen here. The walls of these rooms were probably also painted on plaster, but no traces survive here. The suite probably functioned as a dining roomMeander (art)
A meander or meandros (Greek: Μαίανδρος) is a decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif. Such a design is also called the Greek fret or Greek key design, although these are modern designations.
On the one hand, the name "meander" recalls the twisting and turning path of the Maeander River in Asia Minor, and on the other hand, as Karl Kerenyi pointed out, "the meander is the figure of a labyrinth in linear form". Among some Italians, these patterns are known as Greek Lines. Usually the term is used for motifs with straight lines and right angles; the many versions with rounded shapes are called running scrolls.
Meanders are common decorative elements in Greek and Roman art. In ancient Greece they appear in many architectural friezes, and in bands on the pottery of ancient Greece from the Geometric Period onwards. The design is common to the present-day in classicizing architecture. The meander is a fundamental design motif in regions far from a Hellenic orbit: labyrinthine meanders ("thunder" pattern) appear in bands and as infill on Shang bronzes, and many traditional buildings in and around China still bear geometric designs almost identical to meanders.
They were among the most important symbols in ancient Greece; and perhaps symbolized infinity and unity; many ancient Greek temples incorporated the sign of the meander. Greek vases, especially during their Geometric Period, were probably the main reason for the widespread use of meanders; alternatively, very ocean-like patterns of waves also appeared in the same format as meanders, which can also be thought of as the guilloche pattern. The shield of Philip II of Macedon, conserved in the museum of Vergina, is decorated with multiple symbols of the meander. Meanders are also prevalent on the pavement mosaics found in Roman villas throughout the Roman empire. A good example is at the Chedworth Roman Villa in England, leading many historians to believe that the pattern was part of the original inspiration for the Latin "G" character.
Meanders and their generalizations are used with increasing frequency in various domains of contemporary art. The painter Yang Liu, for example, has incorporated smooth versions of the traditional Greek Key (also called Sona drawing, Sand drawing, and Kolam) in many of her paintings.In Modern Greece, a black, white, and red meander is the symbol of the far-right political party Golden Dawn.Mosaic
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assembling of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae. Some, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics".
Mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns in Mycenean Greece; mosaics with patterns and pictures became widespread in classical times, both in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with wall and ceiling mosaics. Mosaic art flourished in the Byzantine Empire from the 6th to the 15th centuries; that tradition was adopted by the Norman Kingdom of Sicily in the 12th century, by the eastern-influenced Republic of Venice, and among the Rus in Ukraine. Mosaic fell out of fashion in the Renaissance, though artists like Raphael continued to practise the old technique. Roman and Byzantine influence led Jewish artists to decorate 5th and 6th century synagogues in the Middle East with floor mosaics.
Mosaic was widely used on religious buildings and palaces in early Islamic art, including Islam's first great religious building, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Mosaic went out of fashion in the Islamic world after the 8th century.
Modern mosaics are made by professional artists, street artists, and as a popular craft. Many materials other than traditional stone and ceramic tesserae may be employed, including shells, glass and beads.Museum of Somerset
The Museum of Somerset is located in the 12th century great hall of Taunton Castle, in Taunton in the county of Somerset, England. The museum is run by South West Heritage Trust, an independent charity and includes objects initially collected by the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society who own the castle.
Until 2008 the museum was known as the Somerset County Museum. Heritage Lottery Fund support was obtained to improve the museum, and the new museum reopened at the end of September 2011.
Exhibits include the Frome Hoard, the Low Ham Roman Mosaic, the bronze-age South Cadbury shield and a range of other objects relating to the history of the county.Musée Nicolas Poussin
The musée Nicolas Poussin is a museum in Andelys in France. It is housed in an 18th-century house and named after the painter Nicolas Poussin, born in the hamlet of Villers, near Andelys, in 1594. Its collections include 18th-century furniture, religious objects, window glass, a 3rd-century Gallo-Roman mosaic, 19th- and 20th-century paintings and a painting of Coriolanus by Poussin himself.Opus tessellatum
Opus tessellatum is the Latin name for the normal technique of Greek and Roman mosaic, made from tesserae that are larger than about 4 mm. It is distinguished from the finer opus vermiculatum which used tiny tesserae, typically cubes of 4 millimetres or less, and was produced in workshops in relatively small panels which were transported to the site glued to some temporary support. Opus tessellatum was used for larger areas and laid down at the final site. The two techniques were often combined, with small panels of opus vermiculatum called emblemata at the centre of a larger design in opus tessellatum. The tiny tesserae of opus vermiculatum allowed very fine detail, and an approach to the illusionism of painting. There was a distinct native Italian style of opus tessellatum using only black on a white background, which was no doubt cheaper than fully coloured work.Opus tessellatum is usually used for backgrounds consisting of horizontally or vertically arranged lines — but not both in a grid, which would be "opus regulatum".Perl, Saarland
Perl is a municipality in the district Merzig-Wadern, in Saarland, Germany. In 2010 its population was 7,593.Rose window
Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style that are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The name "rose window" was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose.The term "wheel window" is often applied to a window divided by simple spokes radiating from a central boss or opening, while the term "rose window" is reserved for those windows, sometimes of a highly complex design, which can be seen to bear similarity to a multi-petalled rose. Rose windows are also called Catherine windows after Saint Catherine of Alexandria who was sentenced to be executed on a spiked wheel. A circular window without tracery such as are found in many Italian churches, is referred to as an ocular window or oculus.
Rose windows are particularly characteristic of Gothic architecture and may be seen in all the major Gothic Cathedrals of Northern France. Their origins are much earlier and rose windows may be seen in various forms throughout the Medieval period. Their popularity was revived, with other medieval features, during the Gothic revival of the 19th century so that they are seen in Christian churches all over the world.Thalassa
In Greek mythology, Thalassa (; Greek: Θάλασσα, "sea") was the primeval spirit of the sea.Walterstone
Walterstone is a village and civil parish in Herefordshire, England, near the Welsh border and the Brecon Beacons National Park, 14 miles (23 km) south-west of Hereford. The parish had a population of 97 in the 2001 UK Census and is grouped with Craswall, Llanveynoe and Longtown to form Longtown Group Parish Council for administrative purposes.There is a motte-and-bailey castle in the village to the west of St Mary's church and an Iron Age hill fort on high ground two-thirds of a mile (1.1 km) to the east. The River Monnow and the Welsh Marches railway line share a valley south-east of the village.The Grade II listed Parish Church of St Mary is part of the Ewyas Harold group of parishes. In the chancel, there is early 17th century stained-glass depicting the quartered arms of the Cecils, brought from the nearby Allt Yr Ynys. The churchyard cross is listed Grade II*.The 300-year-old village pub, the Carpenter's Arms, is situated next to the church and has been in the same family for the last 100 years.In the 18th century, a Roman mosaic was reported to have been found in the parish. The exact site is not known but is thought to be in the Coed-y-Grafel area north of the village.In the 1870s the Imperial Gazetteer recorded the area of the village as 1,241 acres (502 ha) with a population of 173.Allt Yr Ynys, a Grade II listed 16th-century manor house 1 1⁄4 miles (2.0 km) south of the village, has been a country house hotel.