Roman dictator

A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty. All other magistrates were subordinate to his imperium, and the right of the plebeian tribunes to veto his actions or of the people to appeal from them was extremely limited. However, in order to prevent the dictatorship from threatening the state itself, severe limitations were placed upon its powers: a dictator could only act within his intended sphere of authority; and he was obliged to resign his office once his appointed task had been accomplished, or at the expiration of six months. Dictators were frequently appointed from the earliest period of the Republic down to the Second Punic War, but the magistracy then went into abeyance for over a century, until it was revived in a significantly modified form, first by Sulla, and then by Julius Caesar. The office was formally abolished after the death of Caesar, and not revived under the Empire.[1][2][3]

Origin

With the abolition of the Roman monarchy in 509 BC, the imperium, or executive power, of the king was divided between two annually-elected magistrates, known as praetors. In time they would come to be known as consuls, although probably not until the creation of a third, junior praetor in 367 BC.[4] Neither consul was superior to the other, and the decisions of one could be appealed to the other (provocatio). Their insignia were the toga praetexta and the sella curulis, and each was attended by an escort of twelve lictors, each of whom bore the fasces, a bundle of rods topped by an axe; but by custom the lictors had to remove the axes from their fasces within the pomerium, the sacred boundary of Rome, to signify that the people, and not the consuls, were sovereign.[5]

After several years,[i] the fear of impending war with both the Sabines and the Latin League, combined with widespread suspicion that one or both of the consuls favoured the restoration of the monarchy, led to the call for a praetor maximus, or dictator ("one who gives orders"), akin to the supreme magistrate of other Latin towns.[7][2] According to most authorities, the first dictator was Titus Lartius in 501 BC, who appointed Spurius Cassius his magister equitum.[7][ii]

Although there are indications that the term praetor maximus may have been used in the earliest period,[iii] the official title of the dictator throughout the history of the Republic was magister populi, or "master of the infantry". His lieutenant, the magister equitum, was the "master of the horse" (that is, of the cavalry[iv]). However, the use of dictator to refer to the magister populi seems to have been widespread from a very early period.[2][11]

Nomination

The appointment of a dictator involved three steps: first, the Senate would issue a decree known as a senatus consultum, authorizing one of the consuls to nominate a dictator. Technically, a senatus consultum was advisory, and did not have the force of law, but in practice it was nearly always followed.[v] Either consul could nominate a dictator. If both consuls were available, the dictator was chosen by agreement; if they could not agree, the consuls would draw lots for the responsibility.[13] Finally, the Comitia Curiata would be called upon to confer imperium on the dictator through the passage of a law known as a lex curiata de imperio.[1][2][11]

A dictator could be nominated for different reasons, or causa. The three most common were rei gerundae causa, "for the matter to be done", used in the case of dictators appointed to hold a military command against a specific enemy; comitiorum habendorum causa, for holding the comitia, or elections, when the consuls were unable to do so; and clavi figendi causa, an important religious rite involving the driving of a nail into the wall of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, as a protection against pestilence.[vi][2][11] Other reasons included seditionis sedandae causa ("to quell sedition"); ferarium constituendarum causa (to establish a religious holiday in response to a dreadful portent[vii]); ludorum faciendorum causa (to hold the Ludi Romani, or "Roman Games", an ancient religious festival); quaestionibus exercendis, (to investigate certain actions);[16] and in one extraordinary case, senatus legendi causa, to fill up the ranks of the Senate after the Battle of Cannae.[17][18] These reasons could be combined (seditionis sedandae et rei gerundae causa), but are not always recorded or clearly stated in ancient authorities, and must instead be inferred.[19]

In the earlier period it was customary to nominate someone whom the consul considered the best available military commander; often this was a former consul, but this was never required. However, from 360 BC onward, the dictators were usually consulares.[2][viii] Normally there was only one dictator at a time, although a new dictator could be appointed following the resignation of another.[ix] A dictator could be compelled to resign his office without accomplishing his task or serving out his term if there were found to be a fault in the auspices under which he had been nominated.[22][23]

Insignia

Like other curule magistrates, the dictator was entitled to the toga praetexta and the sella curulis. He received a ceremonial bodyguard that was unique in Roman tradition: "[t]wenty-four lictors indicated his quasi-regal power, which, however, was rather a concentration of the consular authority than a limited revival of the kingship."[2][x]

In a notable exception to the Roman reluctance to reconstitute the symbols of the kings, the lictors of the dictator never removed the axes from their fasces, even within the pomerium. Symbolizing their power over life and death, the axes of a dictator's lictors set him apart from all other magistrates.[1] In an extraordinary sign of deference, the lictors of other magistrates could not bear fasces at all when appearing before the dictator.[24]

As the kings had been accustomed to appear on horseback, this right was forbidden to the dictator, unless he first received permission from the comitia.[25][26][11]

Powers and limitations

In addition to holding a military command and carrying out the actions decreed by the Senate, a dictator could summon the Senate or convene one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman people. The full extent of the dictatorial power was considerable, but not unlimited. It was circumscribed by the conditions of a dictator's appointment, as well as by the evolving traditions of Roman law, and to a considerable degree depended on the dictator's ability to work together with other magistrates. The precise limitations of this power were not sharply defined, but subject to debate, contention, and speculation throughout Roman history.[27]

In the pursuit of his causa, the dictator's authority was nearly absolute. However, as a rule he could not exceed the mandate for which he was appointed; a dictator nominated to hold the comitia could not then take up a military command against the wishes of the Senate.[xi][xii] Some dictators appointed to a military command also performed other duties, such as holding the comitia, or driving a nail into the wall of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; but presumably they did so with the Senate's consent.[30][31]

The imperium of the other magistrates was not vacated by the nomination of a dictator. They continued to perform the duties of their office, although subject to the dictator's authority, and continued in office until the expiration of their year, by which time the dictator had typically resigned.[2][24] It is uncertain whether a dictator's imperium could extend beyond that of the consul by whom he was nominated; Mommsen believed that his imperium would cease together with that of the nominating magistrate, but others have suggested that it could continue beyond the end of the civil year; and in fact there are several examples in which a dictator appears to have entered a new year without any consuls at all, although some scholars doubt the authenticity of these dictator years.[32][33][11]

Initially a dictator's power was not subject to either provocatio, the right to appeal from the decision of a magistrate, or intercessio, the veto of the tribune of the plebs.[34][35][1][2][24] However, the lex Valeria, establishing the right of appeal, was not abrogated by the appointment of a dictator, and by 300 BC even the dictator was subject to provocatio, at least within the city of Rome.[36][2][24] There is also evidence that the power of the plebeian tribunes was not vitiated by the dictator's commands, and 210 BC, the tribune threatened to prevent elections held by the dictator, Quintus Fulvius Flaccus, unless he agreed to withdraw his name from the list of candidates for the consulship.[37][38][24][xiii]

A dictator was expected to resign his office upon the successful completion of the task for which he was appointed, or at the expiration of six months.[1][2] These sharp limitations were intended to prevent the dictatorship from too closely resembling the absolute power of the Roman kings.[2] But the six month limitation may have been dispensed with when the Senate deemed it expedient; no consuls are known for the years 333, 324, 309, and 301, and it is reported that the dictator and magister equitum continued in office without any consuls.[33]

Most authorities hold that a dictator could not be held to account for his actions after resigning his office, the prosecution of Marcus Furius Camillus for misappropriating the spoils of Veii being exceptional, as perhaps was that of Lucius Manlius Capitolinus in 362,[xiv] which was dropped only because his son, Titus,[xv] threatened the life of the tribune who had undertaken the prosecution.[40][1] However, some scholars suggest that the dictator was only immune from prosecution during his term of office, and could theoretically be called to answer charges of corruption.[24]

Magister equitum

The dictator's lieutenant was the magister equitum, or "master of the horse". He would be nominated by the dictator immediately upon his own appointment, and unless the senatus consultum specified the name of the person to be appointed, the dictator was free to choose whomever he wished.[1][2] It was customary for the dictator to nominate a magister equitum even if he were appointed for a non-military reason. Before the time of Caesar, the only dictator who refused to nominate a magister equitum was Marcus Fabius Buteo in 216 BC, and he strenuously objected to his own nomination, because there was already a dictator in the field.[17]

Like the dictator, the magister equitum was a curule magistrate, entitled to the toga praetexta and the sella curulis. His imperium was equivalent to that of a praetor (in the later use of the term), in that he was accompanied by six lictors, half the number accorded to the consuls. But like the dictator, he could summon the Senate, and probably also the popular assemblies. His authority was not subject to recall, although if the dictator were compelled to resign due to a fault in the auspices, the magister equitum was also expected to resign, and when the dictator laid down his imperium, so would the magister equitum.[27]

In theory, the magister equitum was commander of the cavalry, but he was not limited to that role. The dictator and magister equitum did not always take the field together; in some instances the magister equitum was assigned the defense of the city while the dictator took an army into the field, while on other occasions the dictator remained at Rome to see to some important duty, and entrusted the magister equitum with an army in the field.[2] The magister equitum was necessarily subordinate to the dictator, although this did not always prevent the two from disagreeing.[27][xvi]

Decline and disappearance

During the first two centuries of the Republic, the dictatorship served as an expedient means by which a powerful magistracy could be created quickly in order to deal with extraordinary situations.[11] Created for military emergencies, the office could also be used to suppress sedition and prevent the growing number of plebeians from obtaining greater political power.[11] In the Conflict of the Orders, the dictator could generally be counted upon to support the patrician aristocracy, since he was always a patrician, and was nominated by consuls who were exclusively patrician. After the lex Licinia Sextia gave plebeians the right to hold one of the annual consulships, a series of dictators were appointed in order to hold elections, with the apparent goal of electing two patrician consuls, in violation of the Licinian law.[41][xvii]

After the Second Samnite War, the dictatorship was relegated almost exclusively to domestic activities. No dictator was nominated during the Third Samnite War, and the six-month limitation on its powers made the dictatorship impractical for campaigns beyond the Italian peninsula.[2][27] In 249 BC, Aulus Atilius Calatinus became the only dictator to lead an army outside Italy, when he invaded Sicily, and he was the only dictator to hold a military command during the First Punic War.[42] The last dictators to lead an army in the field were Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus in 217, and Marcus Junius Pera the following year, during the early stages of the Second Punic War.[43] All of the other dictators appointed during that conflict remained at Rome in order to hold the comitia;[xviii] the last dictator named in the traditional manner was Gaius Servilius Geminus, in 202 BC.[46][47][xix]

The dictatorship revived

Sulla Glyptothek Munich 309
Bust presumed to be that of Roman Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla

For the next century, Rome's ordinary magistrates and promagistrates successfully carried on all Roman campaigns, without the need for a dictator, and the office fell into abeyance. Then, in 82 BC, the dictatorship was suddenly revived by Sulla. Sulla, already a successful general, had previously marched on Rome and taken the city from his political opponents six years earlier; but after he permitted the election of magistrates for 87, and departed to campaign in the east, his enemies returned. In 83 he turned his attention to regaining Rome, and after defeating his opponents decisively the next year, the Senate and the people named him dictator legibus faciendis et rei publicae constituendae, giving Sulla the power to rewrite the Roman constitution, without any time limit.[49][xx]

Sulla's reforms of the constitution doubled the size of the Senate from 300 to 600, filling its ranks with his supporters. He then placed severe limits on the tribunician power, limiting the veto and forbidding ex-tribunes from holding higher magistracies. Although he resigned the dictatorship in 81, and held the consulship in 80, before returning to private life, Sulla's actions had weakened the Roman state and set a precedent for the concentration of power without effective limitation.[49]

The dictatorial power was then granted to Caesar in 49 BC, when he returned to Rome from his campaigns in Gaul, and put the forces of Pompeius ("Pompey the Great") to flight. He resigned the dictatorship after only eleven days, having held the comitia at which he himself was elected consul for the following year. Late in 48, Caesar was named dictator rei gerundae causa with a term of one year, and granted the tribunician power for an indefinite period. He saw to the impeachment of two tribunes who had tried to obstruct him, and having been granted censorial powers, he filled the depleted numbers of the Senate with his supporters, raising the number of senators to 900. In 47, he was named dictator for a term of ten years. Shortly before his assassination in BC 44, Caesar was named dictator perpetuo rei publicae constituendae, and given the power to appoint magistrates at will.[50][51][52]

Abolition

Caesar's murder came at the hands of conspirators who presented themselves as saviours of the Republic. In order to maintain popular support, Caesar's followers took great care to show their own commitment to preserving the Roman state. The month after the assassination, Mark Antony, who had been Caesar's magister equitum in BC 47, proposed a series of laws, confirming Caesar's actions, but allowing appeals and formally abolishing the dictatorship. These were passed, as the leges Antoniae.[53]

In 23 BC, when Caesar's nephew and heir Augustus had attained full control of the state, the Senate offered to appoint him dictator, but he declined, while at the same time accepting proconsular imperium and the tribunician power for life. Thus, Augustus preserved the appearance of respecting Republican forms, even as he arrogated most of the powers of the Roman state.[54] Following his example, none of the emperors who succeeded him ever adopted the title of dictator. When Constantine chose to revive the ancient concept of the infantry commander, he pointedly gave the office the name of magister peditum, "master of the foot", rather than magister populi, the official style of a dictator.[55]

See also

  • Constitution of the Roman Republic – The norms, customs, and written laws, which guided the government of the Roman Republic
  • Dictator – An absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state

Footnotes

  1. ^ The exact date is uncertain, as are many of the details of this event, but 501 BC is the date generally favoured by historians.[6]
  2. ^ An alternative tradition mentioned by Livy is that the first dictator was Manius Valerius Maximus, although Livy thought this improbable, as dictators were supposed to be consulares, that is, men who had already served as consul; and had a Valerius been desired, Manius' brother, Marcus (described by Livy as either the uncle or father of Manius), consul in 505 BC, would have been chosen instead.[7] Modern historians generally share Livy's view, notwithstanding the fact that Manius Valerius was appointed dictator in BC 494, without having first held the consulship.[8]
  3. ^ Lintott considers the evidence for praetor maximus as the original name of the magistracy inconclusive, as it depends on the interpretation of an ancient law calling for an official of this title to drive a nail into the wall of the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus; the law seems to have dated from the period of the monarchy, and under the Republic was interpreted to mean that this duty should be undertaken by a dictator, as the highest-ranking magistrate; but the first to perform it after the expulsion of the Tarquins was a consul, Marcus Horatius Pulvillus. Nevertheless, the law seems to confirm the existence of such a magistracy in the time of the kings, which might be considered the forerunner of the later magister populi.[9][10]
  4. ^ Literally, of the equites, sometimes translated as "knights".
  5. ^ A notable exception occurred in BC 431, when the consuls Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus and Gaius Julius Mento were directed to nominate a dictator, probably after having been defeated in an attempt to dislodge the Aequi and Volsci from their fortifications on Mount Algidus. The consuls, who still felt themselves able to hold the military command, refused, until the tribunes of the plebs threatened to have them imprisoned if they did not nominate a dictator.[12]
  6. ^ As this was an annual ritual, it must generally have been observed by the consuls; but Livy mentions an ancient law calling for it to be performed by the praetor maximus, apparently a magistrate in the time of the kings; and on at least one occasion when there was a dictator, it was interpreted to mean that the rite must be performed by the dictator, as the magistrate then holding the greatest imperium.[10]
  7. ^ In 344 BC, "a shower of stones rained down and darkness spread over the sky in the daytime."[14] This appeared to be a repetition of an omen that occurred during the reign of Tullus Hostilius, the third King of Rome, when a shower of stones fell on the Alban Mount after the war in which Hostilius had destroyed the ancient Latin city of Alba Longa, and transferred its people to Rome. In a response, a nine-day religious festival was decreed, with the intention that it be repeated should such an omen occur again.[15]
  8. ^ The major exception was the ill-starred Marcus Claudius Glicia, freedman of Publius Claudius Pulcher, who nominated him dictator in a fit of pique, when the Senate deprived him of his command after he had ignored ill omens and been defeated in the Battle of Drepana. The Senate compelled Glicia to abdicate the office, even before he could name a magister equitum.[20][21]
  9. ^ The chief exception occurred in 216 BC, when Marcus Fabius Buteo was nominated dictator in order to fill up the ranks of the Senate following the Battle of Cannae, even as the dictator Marcus Junius Pera held the military command against Hannibal.[17]
  10. ^ Lintott suggests only twelve fasces were displayed when the dictator was within the city.[24]
  11. ^ For instance, Lucius Manlius Capitolinus was appointed clavi figendi causa, but wished to lead an army against the Hernici. He proceeded to levy troops, but was compelled to resign before he could take the field, and was prosecuted the following year.[28]
  12. ^ However, the Senate might request a dictator for a reason other than the one publicly announced; for example Gaius Julius Iulus was ostensibly nominated in BC 352 in order to carry on a war against the Etruscans, but in fact there was no threat from the Etruscans; he was appointed in order to procure the election of two patrician consuls, in violation of the lex Licinia Sextia.[29]
  13. ^ In this instance, the parties were deadlocked, and agreed to submit the matter to the Senate for resolution. The Senate decided that it would be better to allow Fulvius to stand for election, given his vast experience (before his dictatorship, he had been consul three times, praetor, censor, and magister equitum).[37]
  14. ^ The precise nature of the charges differs according to source; Broughton lists four reasons given by ancient authorities: "1. remaining Dictator when his religious duty was done; 2. remaining in office beyond his legal term; 3. raising a levy with too great severity; 4. mistreatment of his son, the future T. Manlius Torquatus..."[39]
  15. ^ The future Titus Manlius Torquatus would himself become dictator three times; in BC 353, 349, and 320, and consul twice, in 344 and 340. This was the Manlius who won his surname from having defeated a giant Gaul in single combat, and taking his torque. Despite his ill-treatment at the hands of his father, so powerful was his respect for paternal discipline, that when his eldest son disobeyed orders by engaging in single combat with the leader of the Latin cavalry (whom he defeated and slew), the consul commanded that his victorious son be scourged and beheaded.
  16. ^ In 325 BC, the dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor was so furious when the magister equitum engaged the enemy in battle against his express orders, that he intended to have young Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus scourged and perhaps beheaded, notwithstanding the fact that Fabius had won a famous victory; he was restrained only when Fabius escaped and made his way to Rome, where the entire Roman people interceded on his behalf and begged the dictator to show mercy. A century later, when Fabius' grandson, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus was dictator, his magister equitum, Marcus Minucius Rufus, defied him openly, and likewise fled to Rome in fear for his life, where he convinced the Senate to grant him imperium equal to that of the dictator's. But in this case, it was the dictator who came to the rescue of his rebellious magister equitum, when Minucius improvidently offered battle and came near to destruction.[27]
  17. ^ For example, in BC 352, the dictator Gaius Julius Iulus was nominated, ostensibly to fight a war against the Etruscans, although there was no actual threat from Etruria; however he failed to prevent the election of a plebeian consul. Two years later, the dictator Lucius Furius Camillus succeeded in procuring the election of two patricians.[41]
  18. ^ Titus Manlius Torquatus also held the Roman games in 208 BC.[44][45]
  19. ^ Despite the impending end of the war, there was a series of unwelcome prodigies in Italy; in Cumae the skies darkened at mid-day, and a shower of stones fell there and on the Palatine Hill at Rome. A similar omen in the time of Tullus Hostilius, the third King of Rome, had led to a nine-day religious festival, and in 344 BC, Publius Valerius Poplicola had been nominated dictator in response to a second occurrence; he also organized a religious festival. For the third occurrence in 202, a nine-day religious festival was held before the dictator Servilius was nominated, since his chief purpose was to hold the comitia.[48]
  20. ^ The legislation was introduced by Lucius Valerius Flaccus, who had been appointed interrex at Sulla's request, as both consuls were dead. In turn, Sulla named Flaccus his magister equitum.[49]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, p. 509.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 339 ("Dictator").
  3. ^ Lintott, pp. 109–113.
  4. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 286 ("Consul").
  5. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, pp. 429 ("Fasces"), 609 ("Lictores"), 639 ("Magistracy, Roman"), 1080 ("Toga").
  6. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 9.
  7. ^ a b c Livy, ii. 18.
  8. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 9, 14.
  9. ^ Lintott, p. 104 (note 47).
  10. ^ a b Livy, vii. 3.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Lintott, p. 110.
  12. ^ Livy, iv. 26.
  13. ^ Livy, iv. 27.
  14. ^ Livy, vii. 28, Betty Radice, trans.
  15. ^ Livy, i. 31.
  16. ^ Livy, ix. 27.
  17. ^ a b c Livy, xxiii. 23.
  18. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 112, 132, 150, 152, 248.
  19. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 112.
  20. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 276.
  21. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 215.
  22. ^ Livy, viii. 15, 17, 23.
  23. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 139, 140, 145.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Lintott, p. 111.
  25. ^ Livy, xxiii. 14.
  26. ^ Plutarch, "Life of Fabius Maximus", 4.
  27. ^ a b c d e Lintott, p. 112.
  28. ^ Livy, vii. 3–5.
  29. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 125.
  30. ^ Livy, xxxiii. 14.
  31. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 248.
  32. ^ Mommsen, Römisches Staatsrecht, ii. 133–172.
  33. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, pp. 140, 141, 147–149, 162, 163, 169–171.
  34. ^ Livy, ii. 18, iii. 20.
  35. ^ Dionysius, vi. 58.
  36. ^ Livy, viii. 29–35.
  37. ^ a b Livy, xxvii. 6.
  38. ^ Plutarch, "Life of Fabius Maximus", 9.
  39. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 118.
  40. ^ Livy, vii. 4, 5.
  41. ^ a b Broughton, vol. I, pp. 125, 128.
  42. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 215.
  43. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 243, 248.
  44. ^ Livy, xxvii. 34.
  45. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 290.
  46. ^ Livy, xxx. 39.
  47. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 316.
  48. ^ Livy, xxx. 38.
  49. ^ a b c Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 1022 ("Sulla").
  50. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 139–155 ("Caesar", no. 18).
  51. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, pp. 189, 190 ("Caesar").
  52. ^ Lintott, p. 113.
  53. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 601 ("Lex").
  54. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 428 ("Augustus").
  55. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, p. 638 ("Magister Militum").

Bibliography

Arpi

Arpi, Argyrippa, or Argos Hippium was an ancient city of Apulia, Italy, 20 mi. W. of the sea coast, and 5 mi. N. of the modern Foggia. The legend attributes its foundation to Diomedes, and the figure of a horse, which appears on its coins, shows the importance of horse-breeding in early times in the district. Its territory extended to the sea, and Strabo says that from the extent of the city walls one could gather that it had once been one of the greatest cities of Italy. As a protection against the Samnites, Arpi became an ally of Rome. In the war with Pyrrhus, the Arpani aided Rome with a contingent of 4000 foot and 400 horse. Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae, but the consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, son of the famous Roman dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, captured it in 213 B.C., and it never recovered its former importance. It lay on a by-road from Luceria to Sipontum. No Roman inscriptions have, indeed, been found here, and remains of antiquity are scanty. Foggia is its medieval representative.

Aulus Atilius Calatinus

Aulus Atilius Calatinus (dead by 216 BC) was a politician and general in Ancient Rome. He was the first Roman dictator to lead an army outside Italy (then understood as the Italian mainland), when he led his army into Sicily. He was consul in 258 BC and again in 254, a praetor and triumphator in 257, and finally a censor in 247. Calatinus must have died by 216, because Marcus Fabius Buteo (censor in 241) was named the oldest living ex-censor; Calatinus would have been senior to him in terms of the date of censorship and their respective ages.

Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis

Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis was an ancient Roman who, according to Livy, was Roman dictator in 498 or 496 BC, when he conquered the Latins in the great Battle of Lake Regillus and subsequently celebrated a triumph. Many of the coins of the Postumii Albi commemorate this victory of their ancestor, as in the one pictured. Roman folklore related that Castor and Pollux were seen fighting in this battle on the side of the Romans, whence the dictator afterwards promised a temple to Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum.

He was consul in 496 BC, in which year some of the annals, according to Livy, placed the battle of Lake Regillus; and it is to this year that Dionysius assigns it. The name "Regillensis" is usually supposed to have been derived from this battle; but Niebuhr thinks that it was taken from a place of residence, just as the Claudii bore the same name, and that the later annalists only spoke of Postumius as commander in consequence of the name. Livy states expressly, that Scipio Africanus was the first Roman who obtained a surname from his conquests.In 495 BC. Postumius was chosen at short notice by the Romans to lead the cavalry to victory against a Sabine invading force.He was, according to some genealogies, the father of Spurius Postumius Albus Regillensis and Aulus Postumius Albus Regillensis.

Aurelia Cotta

Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (c. 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).

Battle of Mount Algidus

The Battle of Mount Algidus was fought in 458 BC, between the Roman Republic and the Aequi, near Mount Algidus in Latium. The Roman dictator Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus turned an expected Roman defeat into an important victory.

Dictator

A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A state which is ruled by a dictator is called a dictatorship. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium).Like the term "tyrant" (which was originally a non-pejorative Ancient Greek title), and to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. Thus, in modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of law procedures, and cult of personality. Dictatorships are often one-party or dominant-party states.A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, and civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators. They may hold left or right-wing views, or may be apolitical.

Et tu, Brute?

Et tu, Brute? (pronounced [ɛt ˈtuː ˈbruːtɛ]) is a Latin phrase literally meaning "and you, Brutus?" or "also you, Brutus?", often translated as "You as well, Brutus?" or "Even you, Brutus?". It is notable for its occurrence in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, where it is spoken by the Roman dictator Julius Caesar to his friend Marcus Junius Brutus at the moment of Caesar's assassination. The first known occurrences of the phrase are said to be in two earlier Elizabethan plays; Henry VI, Part 3 by Shakespeare, and an even earlier play, Caesar Interfectus, by Richard Eedes. The phrase is often used apart from the plays to signify an unexpected betrayal by a friend.

Caesar utters these words in Act III, scene 1, as he is being stabbed to death, having recognized his friend and protégé Brutus as one of the assassins. However, there is no evidence that the historical Caesar spoke these words. Contrary to popular belief the words are not Caesars final words in the play, he says "Then fall Caesar!" right after.

Falernian wine

Falernian wine (Latin: Falernum) was produced from Aglianico grapes (and quite possibly Greco as well) on the slopes of Mount Falernus near the border of Latium and Campania, where it became the most renowned wine produced in ancient Rome; Silius Italicus attributed its origin to a mythic figure named Falernus, who lived in the late 3rd century BC. Considered a "first growth" or "cult wine" for its time, it was often mentioned in Roman literature, but has since disappeared. There were three vineyards (or appellations) recognized by Romans: Caucinian Falernian from the vineyards on the highest slopes of Mount Falernus; Faustian Falernian, the most famous, from land on the central slopes corresponding to the current hilly areas of the town of Falciano del Massico and Carinola di Casanova, owned by Faustus, son of the Roman dictator Sulla; and wine from the lower slopes and plain that was simply called Falernian. The area is now occupied by the modern day vineyards of Rocca di Mondragone and Monte Massico.

Gaius Claudius Centho

Gaius Claudius Centho or Cento was a 3rd-century BC member of a prominent and wealthy patrician Roman Republic family. He was the third son of Appius Claudius Caecus, and a member of the Claudii. He was consul in the year 240 BC. He was Roman censor in 225, interrex in 217 and Roman dictator in 213.

Liberty pole

A liberty pole is a wooden pole, or sometimes spear or lance, surmounted by a "cap of liberty", mostly of the Phrygian cap form outside the Netherlands. The symbol originated in the immediate aftermath of the assassination of the Roman dictator Julius Caesar by a group of Rome's Senators in 44 BC. Immediately after Caesar was killed the assassins, or Liberatores as they called themselves, went though the streets with their bloody weapons held up, one carrying a pileus (a kind of skullcap that identified a freed slave, not in fact a Phrygian cap) carried on the tip of a spear. This symbolized that the Roman people had been freed from the rule of Caesar, which the assassins claimed had become a tyranny because it overstepped the authority of the Senate and thus betrayed the Republic.

The liberty pole was not thereafter part of the normal Roman depiction of Libertas, the Roman goddess of liberty, who is very often shown holding out a pileus, and carrying a pole or rod. Both refer to the ceremony granting freeman status to a slave, where the subject was touched with the rod, and given the hat. But the hat raised on the end of the pole was shown as an attribute held by Libertas on some coins of the emperor Antoninus Pius, which was enough, with the literary references, to bring it to the attention of Renaissance antiquarians. The pileus itself was shown between two daggers, with the inscription "Ides of March", on some very famous coins made by the assassins of Julius Caesar in the civil war following the assassination.After the Renaissance the liberty pole became a common element in the depiction of liberty, initially in a small version carried by personifications, and also later as a larger actual physical object planted in the ground, used as a type of flagstaff.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla (consul 5 BC)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla was a Roman senator of the Augustan age. Perhaps he was a son of Publius Cornelius Sulla, designated consul for 65 BC, which made him a grandnephew of the Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Lucius Cornelius Sulla was consul (together with the emperor Augustus) in 5 BC. His sons were Faustus Cornelius Sulla Lucullus and Lucius Cornelius Sulla Magnus, both of whom became senators in Emperor Tiberius's reign.

Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC)

Lucius Julius Caesar (fl. 1st century BC) was a Roman politician and senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC. A supporter of his cousin, the Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar, Lucius was a key member of the senatorial faction which strove to avoid civil war between the Roman Senate and his nephew Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the aftermath of the Dictator's assassination.

Manius Valerius Maximus

Manius Valerius Maximus was Roman dictator in 494 BC during the first secession of the plebs. His brothers were Publius Valerius Publicola and Marcus Valerius Volusus. They were said to be the sons of Volesus Valerius.

Marcus Furius Camillus

Marcus Furius Camillus (; c. 446 – 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome.

Platonic Academy

The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato in c. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle studied there for twenty years (367–347 BC) before founding his own school, the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. The Platonic Academy was destroyed by the Roman dictator Sulla in 86 BC.

Pompeia (wife of Caesar)

Pompeia (fl. 1st century BC) was the second wife of Julius Caesar. Her parents were Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former consul, and Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman dictator Sulla.

Caesar married Pompeia in 67 BC, after he had served as quaestor in Hispania, his first wife Cornelia having died in 69 BC. Caesar was the nephew of Gaius Marius, and Cornelia had been the daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna so that they were related to both the leaders of the losing populares side in the civil war of the 80s BC.

In 63 BC Caesar was elected to the position of the Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the Roman state religion, which came with an official residence on the Via Sacra. In 62 BC Pompeia hosted the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess"), which no man was permitted to attend, in this house. However a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Pompeia. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, and he was acquitted. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion". This gave rise to a proverb, sometimes expressed: "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion".

Ptolemy XIV of Egypt

Ptolemy XIV (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, Ptolemaĩos, who lived 60 BC/59 BC–44 BC and reigned 47 BC–44 BC), was a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. Following the death of his older brother Ptolemy XIII of Egypt on January 13, 47 BC, he was proclaimed Pharaoh and co-ruler by their older sister and remaining Pharaoh, Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He and Cleopatra were married, but Cleopatra continued to act as lover of Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Ptolemy is considered to have reigned in name only, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority. On March 15, 44 BC Caesar was murdered in Rome by a group of conspirators whose most notable members were Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Ptolemy soon followed him in death. An inscription mentioning him as alive was dated at July 26, 44 BC. It has been assumed but remains uncertain that Cleopatra poisoned her co-ruler, with aconite, to replace him with his nephew Ptolemy XV Caesarion, her son by Caesar who was proclaimed co-ruler on September 2, 44 BC and whom his mother intended to support as successor of his father.

Silla (opera)

Silla (full title Lucio Cornelio Silla, HWV 10) is an opera seria (referred to as a dramma per musica) in three acts by George Frideric Handel. The Italian-language libretto was by Giacomo Rossi. The story concerns the Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138–78 BC) as recounted by Plutarch.

The opera appears to have been a pièce d'occasion, which may have been performed only once. The music was recycled in Handel's later opera Amadigi di Gaula.

Titus Lartius

Titus Lartius, surnamed either Flavus or Rufus, was one of the leading men of the early Roman Republic, twice consul and the first Roman dictator.

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