Roman consul

A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).

Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces. However, after the establishment of the Empire (27 BC), the consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome's republican heritage and held very little power and authority, with the Emperor acting as the supreme authority.


Under the Republic

After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King, Tarquin the Proud, a harsh ruler at the end of the Roman Kingdom, most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship. This change in leadership came about when the king's son, Sextus Tarquinius, raped the wife and daughter of powerful Roman nobles. A group of nobles led by Lucius Junius Brutus, with the support of the Roman Army, expelled Tarquinius and his family from Rome in 509 BC. Originally, consuls were called praetors ("leader"), referring to their duties as the chief military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul became commonly used.[1] Ancient writers usually derive the title consul from the Latin verb consulere, "to take counsel", but this is most likely a later gloss of the term,[2] which probably derives—in view of the joint nature of the office—from con- and sal-, "get together" or from con- and sell-/sedl-, "sit down together with" or "next to".[3] In Greek, the title was originally rendered as στρατηγὸς ὕπατος, strategos hypatos ("the supreme general"), and later simply as ὕπατος.[2]

The consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the traditional establishment of the Republic in 509 BC, but the succession of consuls was not continuous in the 5th century BC. During the 440s, the office was quite often replaced with the establishment of the Consular Tribunes, who were elected whenever the military needs of the state were significant enough to warrant the election of more than the two usual consuls.[4] These remained in place until the office was abolished in 367/366 BC and the consulship was reintroduced.[5]

Consuls had extensive powers in peacetime (administrative, legislative and judicial), and in wartime often held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, could only be carried out by the highest state officials. Consuls also read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field.

Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with veto power over the other's actions, a normal principle for magistracies. It is thought that originally only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had an aristocratic bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. However, they formally assumed powers only after the ratification of their election in the older Comitia Curiata, which granted the consuls their imperium by enacting a law, the "lex curiata de imperio".

If a consul died during his term (not uncommon when consuls were in the forefront of battle) or was removed from office, another would be elected by the Comitia Centuriata to serve the remainder of the term as consul suffectus (suffect consul). A consul elected to start the year - called a consul ordinarius (ordinary consul) - held more prestige than a suffect consul, partly because the year would be named for ordinary consuls (see consular dating).

According to tradition, the consulship was initially reserved for patricians and only in 367 BC did plebeians win the right to stand for this supreme office, when the Lex Licinia Sextia provided that at least one consul each year should be plebeian. The first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year. Nevertheless, the office remained largely in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer, only fifteen novi homines - "new men" with no consular background - were elected to the consulship until the election of Cicero in 63 BC.[6] Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the early Republic (see Conflict of the Orders), noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names. It is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family.[7] Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, the office of consul was gradually monopolized by a patrician elite.[8]

During times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the consulship became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum, the sequence of offices pursued by the ambitious Roman who chose to pursue political power and influence. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the minimum age of election to consul became, in effect, 41 years of age.

Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a consular year, a former consul would usually serve a lucrative term as a proconsul, the Roman Governor of one of the (senatorial) provinces. The most commonly chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul.

Under the Empire

Flavius Anastasius Probus 01b
Flavius Anastasius (consul of the Eastern Roman Empire for AD 517) in consular garb, holding a sceptre and the mappa, a piece of cloth used to signal the start of chariot races at the Hippodrome. Ivory panel from his consular diptych.

On the left: Emperor Honorius on the consular diptych of Anicius Petronius Probus (406)
On the right: Consular diptych of Constantius III (a co-emperor with Honorius in 421), produced for his consulate of the Western Roman Empire in 413 or 417

Consular diptych Probus 406
Consular diptych Constantius III

Although throughout the early years of the Principate, the consuls were still formally elected by the Comitia Centuriata, they were in fact nominated by the princeps.[9] As the years progressed, the distinction between the Comitia Centuriata and the Comitia Tributa (which elected the lower magisterial positions) appears to have disappeared, and so for the purposes of the consular elections, there came to be just a single "assembly of the people" which elected all the magisterial positions of the state, while the consuls continued to be nominated by the princeps.[10]

The imperial consulate during the period of the High Empire (until the 3rd century) was an important position, albeit as the method through which the Roman aristocracy could progress through to the higher levels of imperial administration – only former consuls could become consular legates, the proconsuls of Africa and Asia, or the urban prefect of Rome.[11] It was a post that would be occupied by a man halfway through his career, in his early thirties for a patrician, or in his early forties for most others.[9] Emperors frequently appointed themselves, or their protégés or relatives, consuls, even without regard to the age requirements. For example, Emperor Honorius was given the consulship at birth. Cassius Dio states that Caligula intended to make his horse Incitatus consul, but was assassinated before he could do so.[12]

The need for a pool of men to fill the consular positions forced Augustus to remodel the suffect consulate, allowing more than the two elected for the ordinary consulate.[9] During the reigns of the Julio-Claudians, the ordinary consuls who began the year usually relinquished their office mid-year, with the election for the suffect consuls occurring at the same time as that for the ordinary consuls. During reigns of the Flavian and Antonine emperors, the ordinary consuls tended to resign after a period of four months, and the elections were moved to 12 January of the year in which they were to hold office. Election of the consuls were transferred to the Senate during the Flavian or Antonine periods, although through to the 3rd century, the people were still called on to ratify the Senate's selections.[13]

The proliferation of suffect consuls through this process, and the allocation of this office to homines novi tended, over time, to devalue the office.[11] However, the high regard placed upon the ordinary consulate remained intact, as it was one of the few offices that one could share with the emperor, and during this period it was filled mostly by patricians or by individuals who had consular ancestors.[9] If they were especially skilled or valued, they may even have achieved a second (or rarely, a third) consulate. Prior to achieving the consulate, these individuals already had a significant career behind them, and would expect to continue serving the state, filling in the post upon which the state functioned.[14] Consequently, holding the ordinary consulship was a great honor and the office was the major symbol of the still relatively republican constitution. Probably as part of seeking formal legitimacy, the break-away Gallic Empire had its own pairs of consuls during its existence (260–274). The list of consuls for this state is incomplete, drawn from inscriptions and coins.

By the end of the 3rd century, much had changed. The loss of many pre-consular functions and the gradual encroachment of the equites into the traditional senatorial administrative and military functions, meant that senatorial careers virtually vanished prior to their appointment as consuls.[14] This had the effect of seeing a suffect consulship granted at an earlier age, to the point that by the 4th century, it was being held by men in their early twenties, and possibly younger, without the significant political careers behind them that was normal previously.[14] As time progressed, second consulates, usually ordinary, became far more common than had been the case during the first two centuries, while the first consulship was usually a suffect consulate. Also, the consulate during this period was no longer just the province of senators – the automatic awarding of a suffect consulship to the equestrian praetorian prefects (who were given the ornamenta consularia upon achieving their office) allowed them to style themselves cos. II when they were later granted an ordinary consulship by the emperor.[14] All this had the effect of further devaluing the office of consul, to the point that by the final years of the 3rd century, holding an ordinary consulate was occasionally left out of the cursus inscriptions, while suffect consulships were hardly ever recorded by the first decades of the 4th century.[14]

One of the reforms of Constantine I (r. 306–337) was to assign one of the consuls to the city of Rome, and the other to Constantinople. Therefore, when the Roman Empire was divided into two halves on the death of Theodosius I (r. 379–395), the emperor of each half acquired the right of appointing one of the consuls—although on occasion an emperor did allow his colleague to appoint both consuls for various reasons. The consulship, bereft of any real power, continued to be a great honor, but the celebrations attending it – above all the chariot races – had come to involve considerable expense, which only a few citizens could afford, to the extent that part of the expense had to be covered by the state.[15] In the 6th century, the consulship was increasingly sparsely given, until it was allowed to lapse under Justinian I (r. 527–565): the western consulship lapsed in 534, with Decius Paulinus the last holder, and the consulship of the East in 541, with Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius. Consular dating had already been abolished in 537, when Justinian introduced dating by the emperor's regnal year and the indiction.[16] In the eastern court, the appointment to consulship became a part of the rite of proclamation of a new emperor from Justin II (r. 565–578) on, and is last attested in the proclamation of the future Constans II (r. 641–668) as consul in 632.[17] In the late 9th century, Emperor Leo the Wise (r. 886–912) finally abolished consular dating with Novel 94. By that time, the Greek titles for consul and ex-consul, "hypatos" and "apo hypaton", had been transformed to relatively lowly honorary dignities.[18]

In the west, the rank of consul was occasionally bestowed upon individuals by the Papacy. In 719, the title of Roman consul was offered by the Pope to Charles Martel, although he refused it.[19] About 853, Alfred the Great, then a child aged four or five, was made a Roman consul by the Pope.

Powers and responsibilities

Republican duties

After the expulsion of the kings and the establishment of the Republic, all the powers that had belonged to the kings were transferred to two offices: that of the consuls and the Rex Sacrorum. While the Rex Sacrorum inherited the kings’ position as high priest of the state, the consuls were given the civil and military responsibilities (imperium). However, to prevent abuse of the kingly power, the imperium was shared by two consuls, each of whom could veto the other's actions.

The consuls were invested with the executive power of the state and headed the government of the Republic. Initially, the consuls held vast executive and judicial power. In the gradual development of the Roman legal system, however, some important functions were detached from the consulship and assigned to new officers. Thus, in 443 BC, the responsibility to conduct the census was taken from the consuls and given to the censors. The second function taken from the consulship was their judicial power. Their position as chief judges was transferred to the praetors in 366 BC. After this time, the consul would only serve as judges in extraordinary criminal cases and only when called upon by decree of the Senate.

Civil sphere

For the most part, power was divided between civil and military spheres. As long as the consuls were in the pomerium (the city of Rome), they were at the head of government, and all the other magistrates, with the exception of the tribunes of the plebeians, were subordinate to them, but retained independence of office. The internal machinery of the Republic was under the consuls’ superintendence. In order to allow the consuls greater authority in executing laws, the consuls had the right of summons and arrest, which was limited only by the right of appeal from their judgment. This power of punishment even extended to inferior magistrates.

As part of their executive functions, the consuls were responsible for carrying into effect the decrees of the Senate and the laws of the assemblies. Sometimes, in great emergencies, they might even act on their own authority and responsibility. The consuls also served as the chief diplomat of the Roman state. Before any foreign ambassadors reached the Senate, they met with the consuls. The consul would introduce ambassadors to the Senate, and they alone carried on the negotiations between the Senate and foreign states.

The consuls could convene the Senate, and presided over its meetings. Each consul served as president of the Senate for a month. They could also summon any of the three Roman assemblies (Curiate, Centuriate, and Tribal) and presided over them. Thus, the consuls conducted the elections and put legislative measures to the vote. When neither consul was within the city, their civic duties were assumed by the praetor urbanus.

Each consul was accompanied in every public appearance by twelve lictors, who displayed the magnificence of the office and served as his bodyguards. Each lictor held a fasces, a bundle of rods that contained an axe. The rods symbolized the power of scourging, and the axe the power of capital punishment. When inside the pomerium, the lictors removed the axes from the fasces to show that a citizen could not be executed without a trial. Upon entering the Comitia Centuriata, the lictors would lower the fasces to show that the powers of the consuls derive from the people (populus romanus).

Military sphere

Outside the walls of Rome, the powers of the consuls were far more extensive in their role as commanders-in-chief of all Roman legions. It was in this function that the consuls were vested with full imperium. When legions were ordered by a decree of the Senate, the consuls conducted the levy in the Campus Martius. Upon entering the army, all soldiers had to take their oath of allegiance to the consuls. The consuls also oversaw the gathering of troops provided by Rome's allies.[20]

Within the city a consul could punish and arrest a citizen, but had no power to inflict capital punishment. When on campaign, however, a consul could inflict any punishment he saw fit on any soldier, officer, citizen, or ally.

Each consul commanded an army, usually two legions strong, with the help of military tribunes and a quaestor who had financial duties. In the rare case that both consuls marched together, each one held the command for a day respectively. A typical consular army was about 20,000 men strong and consisted of two citizen and two allied legions. In the early years of the Republic, Rome's enemies were located in central Italy, so campaigns lasted a few months. As Rome's frontiers expanded, in the 2nd century BC, the campaigns became lengthier. Rome was a warlike society, and very seldom did not wage war.[21] So the consul upon entering office was expected by the Senate and the People to march his army against Rome's enemies, and expand the Roman frontiers. His soldiers expected to return to their homes after the campaign with spoils. If the consul won an overwhelming victory, he was hailed as imperator by his troops, and could request to be granted a triumph.

The consul could conduct the campaign as he saw fit, and had unlimited powers. However, after the campaign, he could be prosecuted for his misdeeds (for example for abusing the provinces, or wasting public money, as Scipio Africanus was accused by Cato in 205 BC).

Abuse prevention

Abuse of power by consuls was prevented with each consul given the power to veto his colleague. Therefore, except in the provinces as commanders-in-chief where each consul's power was supreme, the consuls could only act not against each other's determined will. Against the sentence of one consul, an appeal could be brought before his colleague, which, if successful, would see the sentence overturned. In order to avoid unnecessary conflicts, only one consul would actually perform the office's duties every month and could act without direct interference. In the next month, the consuls would switch roles with one another. This would continue until the end of the consular term.

Another point which acted as a check against consuls was the certainty that after the end of their term they would be called to account for their actions while in office.

There were also three other restrictions on consular power. Their term in office was short (one year); their duties were pre-decided by the Senate; and they could not stand again for election immediately after the end of their office. Usually a period of ten years was expected between consulships.


After leaving office, the consuls were assigned by the Senate to a province to administer as governor. The provinces to which each consul was assigned were drawn by lot and determined before the end of his consulship. Transferring his consular imperium to proconsular Imperium, the consul would become a proconsul and governor of one (or several) of Rome's many provinces. As a proconsul, his imperium was limited to only a specified province and not the entire Republic. Any exercise of proconsular imperium in any other province was illegal. Also, a proconsul was not allowed to leave his province before his term was complete or before the arrival of his successor. Exceptions were given only on special permission of the Senate. Most terms as governor lasted between one and five years.

Appointment of the dictator

In times of crisis, when Rome's territory was in immediate danger, a dictator was appointed by the consuls for a period of no more than six months, after the proposition of the Senate.[22] While the dictator held office, the imperium of the consuls was subordinate to the dictator.

Imperial duties

After Augustus became the first Roman emperor in 27 BC with the establishment of the principate, the consuls lost most of their powers and responsibilities under the Roman Empire. Though still officially the highest office of the state, with the emperor's superior imperium they were merely a symbol of Rome's republican heritage. One of the two consular positions was often occupied by emperors themselves and eventually became reserved solely for the Emperor. However, the imperial consuls still maintained the right to preside at meetings of the Senate, exercising this right at the pleasure of the Emperor. They partially administered justice in extraordinary cases, and presented games in the Circus Maximus and all public solemnities in honor of the Emperor at their own expense. After the expiration of their offices, the ex-consuls (proconsuls) went on to govern one of the provinces that were administered by the Senate. They usually served proconsular terms of three to five years.

Consular dating

Roman dates were customarily kept according to the names of the two consuls who took office that year, much like a regnal year in a monarchy. For instance, the year 59 BC in the modern calendar was called by the Romans "the consulship of Caesar and Bibulus", since the two colleagues in the consulship were Gaius Julius Caesar and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus — although Caesar dominated the consulship so thoroughly that year that it was jokingly referred to as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar".[23] The date the consuls took office varied: from 222 BC to 153 BC they took office 15 March, and from 153 BC onwards it was on 1 January.[24] The practice of dating years ab urbe condita (from the supposed foundation date of Rome) was less frequently used.

In Latin, the ablative absolute construction is frequently used to express the date, such as "M. Messalla et M. Pupio Pisone consulibus", translated literally as "Marcus Messalla and Marcus Pupius Piso being the consuls", which appears in Caesar's De Bello Gallico.


Antoninianus Philip - Philip
An antoninianus commemorating the third consulate ("COS III") of the emperor Philip (248 AD).

The word consul is abbreviated as COS.[25] The disappearance of the N is explained by the fact that in Classical Latin an N before a fricative is pronounced as a nasalization of the previous vowel (meaning consul is pronounced /kõːsul/).

Also, consul is pronounced [ko:sul], as shown in ancient writing, "COSOL", whereas the classical spelling (consul) seems like an etymological reminder of the nasal consonant.[26] If a senator held the consulship twice then: COS becomes COS II; thrice becomes COS III, etc.

Lists of Roman consuls

For a complete list of Roman consuls, see:

See also


  1. ^ Lintott, Andrew (2004). The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0198150687.
  2. ^ a b Kübler, B. (1900). "Consul". Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft. Band IV, Halbband 7, Claudius mons-Cornificius. pp. 1112–1138.
  3. ^ Gizewski, Christian (2013). "Consul(es)". Brill’s New Pauly. Brill Online. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  4. ^ Forsythe, Gary (2005). A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press. p. 236. ISBN 0520226518.
  5. ^ Forsythe, Gary (2005). A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. University of California Press. p. 237. ISBN 0520226518.
  6. ^ Wirszubzki, Ch. Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate. Reprint. Cambridge University Press, 1960, p. 15.
  7. ^ Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A. edd., s.v. Iunius Brutus, Lucius
  8. ^ T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, chapter 10.4.
  9. ^ a b c d Bagnall et al. 1987, p. 1.
  10. ^ Bury, John B, A History of the Roman Empire from its Foundation to the Death of Marcus Aurelius (1893), pg. 29
  11. ^ a b Bagnall et al. 1987, pp. 1–2.
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 59:14:7
  13. ^ Michael Gagarin, Elaine Fantham; The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, Volume 1 (2010), pgs. 296-297
  14. ^ a b c d e Bagnall et al. 1987, p. 2.
  15. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, p. 527, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  16. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, pp. 526–527, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  17. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, p. 526, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  18. ^ Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, pp. 526, 963–964, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  19. ^ e. The Frankish Kingdom. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History Archived 2009-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Polybius - Histories book VI
  21. ^ War and society in the Roman World ed. Rich & Shipley
  22. ^ Arthur Keaveney, in Sulla, the Last Republican (Routledge, 1982, 2nd edition 2005), p. 162ff online, discusses the appointment of a dictator in regard to Sulla, in which case exceptions were made.
  23. ^ Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars: Julius Caesar Chapter XX.
  24. ^ E.J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968), p. 64
  25. ^ (in French) Mireille Cébeillac-Gervasoni, Maria Letizia Caldelli, Fausto Zevi, Épigraphie latine. Ostie : cent inscriptions dans leur contexte, Armand Colin, 2006, ISBN 2-200-21774-9, p. 34.
  26. ^ (in French) Pierre Monteil, Éléments de phonétique et de morphologie du latin, Nathan, 1970, p. 75.

Further reading

  • Bagnall, Roger S; Cameron, Alan; Schwartz, Seth R; Worp, Klaus Anthony (1987). Consuls of the later Roman Empire. Volume 36 of Philological monographs of the American Philological Association. London: Scholar Press.
20s BC

This article concerns the period 29 BC – 20 BC.

87 BC

Year 87 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Octavius and Cinna/Merula (or, less frequently, year 667 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 87 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Anastasius (consul 517)

Flavius Anastasius Paulus Probus Sabinianus Pompeius Anastasius (floruit 517) was a politician of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Constans (consul 414)

Flavius Constans (floruit 412-414) was a general of the Eastern Roman Empire.


Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages, then revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic. The related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis.

This usage contrasts with modern terminology, where a consul is a type of diplomat.

Eumenes III

Eumenes III (; Greek: Εὐμένης Γʹ; originally named Aristonicus; in Greek Aristonikos Ἀριστόνικος) was a pretender to the throne of Pergamon. He led a revolt against the Pergamene regime and found success early on, seizing various cities near the coast of Anatolia, including the island of Samos, and killing the Roman consul Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus. However, the revolt was eventually quelled by the Roman Republic in 129 BCE when it dispatched the experienced Marcus Perperna to the region.

Feriae Latinae

The Feriae Latinae or Latin Festival was an ancient Roman religious festival held in April on the Alban Mount. The date varied, and was determined and announced by the consuls each year when they took office. It was one of the most ancient festivals celebrated by the Roman state and is supposed to have predated the founding of Rome—in historical terms, to have dated to a pre-urban pastoral age. It continued to be held into the 3rd century AD, and perhaps later.The rite was a reaffirmation of the alliance among members of the Latin League, and a truce was honored throughout the festival. Each Latin city sent a representative and offerings such as sheep, cheese, or other pastoral products. The presiding Roman consul offered a libation of milk, and conducted the sacrifice of a pure white heifer that had never been yoked. The flesh was consumed as part of a communal meal as a sacrament. As part of the festivities, the figurines called oscilla were hung from trees.The consuls were required to attend, leaving a praefectus urbi in charge of the city. If the consuls had to be absent (if, for instance, they were waging war), a dictator was appointed to oversee the festival. Consuls were not supposed to depart for their provinces until after the festival.

First Punic War

The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa.

The war began in 264 BC with the Roman conquest of the Carthaginian-controlled city of Messina in Sicily, granting Rome a military foothold on the island. The Romans built up a navy to challenge Carthage, the greatest naval power in the Mediterranean, for control over the waters around Sicily. In naval battles and storms, 700 Roman and 500 Carthaginian quinqueremes were lost, along with hundreds of thousands of lives. Command of the sea was won and lost by both sides repeatedly. A Roman invasion of Carthaginian Africa was destroyed in battle at the Bagradas and the Roman consul Marcus Atilius Regulus was captured by the Carthaginians in 255. In 23 years, the Romans slowly conquered Sicily and drove the Carthaginians to the west end of the island.

After both sides had been brought to a state of near exhaustion, the Romans mobilized their citizenry's private wealth and created a new fleet under consul Gaius Lutatius Catulus. The Carthaginian fleet was destroyed at the Aegates Islands in 241, forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to give up. A peace treaty was signed in which Carthage was made to pay a heavy indemnity and Rome ejected Carthage from Sicily, annexing the island as a Roman province.

The war was followed by a failed revolt against the Carthaginian Empire. The Romans exploited Carthage's weakness to seize the Carthaginian possessions of Sardinia and Corsica in violation of the peace treaty. The unresolved strategic competition between Rome and Carthage would lead to the eruption of the Second Punic War in 218 BC.

Fulk II, Count of Anjou

Fulk II of Anjou (c. 905 — 960), called le Bon ("the Good") was Count of Anjou from 942 to his death.


Gavignano is a town in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio, central Italy. Gavignano is approximately 50 km south east of Rome, on a hill in the Lepini Mountains.

The name of the town is believed to be derived from the Roman consul and general Aulus Gabinius, a friend of Pompey and ally of Julius Caesar.

The nearest train station is located in the town of Colleferro. Nearby, within the communal territory, is an archaeological site of a Roman villa from the Republican era, the villa "Rossilli", believed to be a country home of the Julii family. At Rossilli there is also a historical abbey, built by the Benedictines in the 12th century.

Pope Innocent III was born there in 1160.

Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou

Geoffrey I of Anjou (c. 938/940 – 21 July 987), known as Grisegonelle ("Grey Gown" or "Greymantle"), was count of Anjou from 960 to 987.

Isinda (Pisidia)

Isinda (Ancient Greek: Ἴσινδα) was a town of ancient Pisidia.

Its site is located near Korkuteli, Asiatic Turkey. More precisely, the site is now thought to be at the village of Kişla, though formerly identified with Yazır. In the 1840s, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt and Edward Forbes visited Kişla, an hour's ride from Korkuteli (referred to as Stenez), with extensive walls of soft stone and burnt brick, and identified it as the city of Isinda, which the Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, on his victorious march through Asia Minor in 189 BCE, found besieged by Termessus. At the city's request he raised the siege and fined the Termessians 50 talents.Isinda stood in a strategic position at the western end of the pass leading from Pamphylia by Termessus to Pisidia. Samples of the extensive coinage of Isinda are extant, which give evidence that it considered itself an Ionian colony.Isinda was later included in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. At an early stage, it became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Perge, the capital of the province. Of its bishops, Cyrillus took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325, Edesius in the Council of Ephesus in 431, Marcellinus in the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Talleleus in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Ignatius in the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).No longer a residential bishopric, Isinda is now listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (consul 133 BC)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (sometimes Censorinus), born around 180 BC, was a Roman politician and historian of plebeian origin.

Magnesia ad Sipylum

Magnesia ad Sipylum (Greek: Mαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Σιπύλῳ or Mαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Σιπύλου; modern Manisa, Turkey), was a city of Lydia, situated about 65 km northeast of Smyrna (now İzmir) on the river Hermus (now Gediz) at the foot of Mount Sipylus. The city should not be confused with its older neighbor, Magnesia on the Maeander, both founded by colonists from the Greek region of Magnesia.

The first famous mention of the city is in 190 BC, when Antiochus the Great was defeated in the battle of Magnesia by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. It became a city of importance under Roman rule and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire. It was an important regional centre through the Byzantine Empire, and during the 13th century interregnum of the Empire of Nicea. Magnesia housed the Imperial mint, the Imperial treasury, and served as the functional capital of the empire until the recovery of Constantinople in 1261. Magnesia was one of the few towns in this part of Anatolia which remained prosperous under the Turkish rule.

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 232 BC)

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (died 216 BC) was the Roman consul for 232 BC, and according to Livy served again as suffect consul, possibly in 221. He also served at one time as augur. He died in 216.It was in Lepidus' honor that the first gladiatorial games (munera) were held, on the occasion of his death. He was survived by his three sons; Lucius, Quintus, and Marcus. The latter was most likely the Marcus Aemilius Lepidus who was a Roman consul and Pontifex Maximus in the early 2nd century BC.

Mithridates V of Pontus

Mithridates V Euergetes (Greek: Μιθριδάτης ὁ εὐεργέτης, which means "Mithridates the benefactor"; fl. 2nd century BC, r. 150–120 BC); also known as Mithridates V of Pontus, Mithradates V of Pontus and Mithradates V Euergetes, was a Prince and seventh King of the wealthy Kingdom of Pontus.

Mithridates V was of Greek Macedonian and Persian ancestry. He was the son of the King Pharnaces I of Pontus and Queen Nysa, while his sister was Nysa of Cappadocia. His mother is believed to have died during childbirth, while giving birth to either him or his sister. He was born and raised in the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates V succeeded his paternal aunt Laodice and paternal uncle Mithridates IV of Pontus on the Pontian throne, but the circumstance of his accession is uncertain.

Mithridates V continued the alliance with the Roman Republic started by his predecessors. He supported them with some ships and a small auxiliary force during the Third Punic War (149–146 BC) and at a subsequent period rendered them useful assistance in the war against the King of Pergamon, Eumenes III (131–129 BC).

For his services on this occasion, Mithridates V was rewarded by the Roman consul Manius Aquillius with the province of Phrygia. However the acts of the Roman consul were rescinded by the Roman Senate on the grounds of bribery, but it appears that he maintained his possession of Phrygia until his death. Mithridates V also increased the power of the Kingdom of Pontus by the marriage of his eldest child, his daughter Laodice of Cappadocia to King Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia. The end of his reign can only be approximately determined based on statements concerning the accession of his son Mithridates VI, which is assigned to the year 120 BC, signaling the end of the reign of Mithridates V.

Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held.

Mithridates V, was a great benefactor to the Hellenic culture which shows on surviving coinage and honorific inscriptions stating his donations in Athens and Delos and held the Greek God Apollo in great veneration. A bilingual inscription dedicated to him is displayed at the Capitoline Museums in Rome. Mithridates V was buried in the royal tombs of his ancestors at Amasya.

Mithridates V married the Greek Seleucid Princess Laodice VI, who was the daughter of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV. Mithridates V and Laodice VI were related, thus he was connected to the Seleucid dynasty.

Laodice bore Mithridates V seven children: Laodice of Cappadocia, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Mithridates Chrestus, Laodice, Nysa (sometimes spelt as Nyssa), Roxana and Statira. Roxana and Statira were compelled to kill themselves with poison after the fall of the Kingdom of Pontus in 63 BC. Nysa was taken prisoner by the Romans and made to march in the triumphs of two Roman generals.

Roman Consul Stakes

The Roman Consul Stakes is an Australian Turf Club Group 2 Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-olds, at set weights, over a distance of 1200 metres. It is held annually at Randwick Racecourse, Sydney, Australia in early October. Total prize money for the race is A$300,000.


Taurus is Latin for "Bull" and may refer to:

Taurus (constellation), one of the constellations of the zodiac

Bull (mythology), the mythological references around Taurus

Taurus (astrology), the astrological sign

Bos taurus, a species of cattle

Taurus cattle, a breed of cattle


Vinicius is a Portuguese given name from the Roman family name Vinicius, possibly derived from Latin vinum "wine". Notable people with the name include:

Lucius Vinicius, Roman consul in 33 BC.

Marcus Vinicius, Roman consul in 19 BC. A Roman general and friend of the emperor Augustus.

Lucius Vinicius, Roman consul in 5 BC.

Publius Vinicius, Roman consul in 2 AD.

Marcus Vinicius, Roman consul in 30 AD. In 33 AD he married Julia Livilla.

Vinicius de Moraes (born 1913), Brazilian musician, poet, composer, playwright and diplomat.

Vinícius (footballer, born 1964), Brazilian footballer known as Vinicius.

Vinícius Bergantin (born 1980), Brazilian footballer known as Vinícius.

Vinícius (footballer, born 1986), Brazilian footballer known as Vinicius.

Vinícius Goes, (born 1991), Brazilian footballer known as Vinicius.

Carlos Vinícius (born 1995), Brazilian footballer known as Vinicius.

Vinícius (Portuguese footballer) (born 1995), Portuguese footabller

Vinícius Júnior (born 2000), Brazilian footballer

Paulo Vinícius (born 1990), Hungarian foootballer

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