Roman Ritual

The Roman Ritual (Latin: Rituale Romanum) is one of the official ritual works of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. It contains all of the services which may be performed by a priest or deacon which are not contained within either the Missale Romanum or the Breviarium Romanum. The book also contains some of the rites which are contained in only one of these books for convenience.

History

When first ritual functions books were written, the Sacramentary in the West and the Euchologion in the East, they contained all the priest's (and bishop's) part of whatever functions they performed, not only for the Mass or Divine Liturgy, but for all other sacraments, blessings, sacramentals, and rites of every kind as well.[1]

From one book to many

The contents of the Ritual and Pontifical were in the Sacramentaries. In the Eastern Churches this state of things still to a great extent remains. In the West a further development led to the distinction of books, not according to the persons who use them, but according to the services for which they are used. The Missal, containing the whole Mass, succeeded by the Sacramentary. Some early Missals added other rites, for the convenience of the priest or bishop; but on the whole this later arrangement involved the need of other books to supply the non-Eucharistic functions of the Sacramentary. These books, when they appeared, were the predecessors of the Pontifical and Ritual. The bishop's functions (ordination, confirmation, et cetera) filled the Pontifical, the priest's offices (baptism, penance, matrimony, extreme unction, etc.) were contained in a great variety of little handbooks, finally replaced by the Ritual.[1]

Codification

The Pontifical emerged first. The book under this name occurs already in the eighth century (Pontifical of Egbert). From the ninth there is a multitude of Pontificals. For the priest's functions there was no uniform book till 1614. Some of these are contained in the Pontificals; often the chief ones were added to Missals and Books of Hours. Then special books were arranged, but there was no kind of uniformity in arrangement or name. Through the Middle Ages a vast number of handbooks for priests having the care of souls was written. Every local rite, almost every diocese, had such books; indeed many were compilations for the convenience of one priest or church. Such books were called by many names--Manuale, Liber agendarum, Agenda, Sacramentale, sometimes Rituale. Specimens of such medieval predecessors of the Ritual are the Manuale Curatorum of Roeskilde in Denmark (first printed 1513, ed. J. Freisen, Paderborn, 1898), and the Liber Agendarum of Schleswig (printed 1416, Paderborn, 1898). The Roeskilde book contains the blessing of salt and water, baptism, marriage, blessing of a house, visitation of the sick with viaticum and extreme unction, prayers for the dead, funeral service, funeral of infants, prayers for pilgrims, blessing of fire on Holy Saturday, and other blessings. The Schleswig book has besides much of the Holy Week services, and that for All Souls, Candlemas, and Ash Wednesday. In both many rites differ from the Roman forms.[1]

16th century

In the sixteenth century, while the other liturgical books were being revised and issued as a uniform standard, there was naturally a desire to substitute an official book that should take the place of these varied collections. But the matter did not receive the attention of the Holy See itself for some time. First, various books were issued at Rome with the idea of securing uniformity, but without official sanction. Albert Castellani in 1537 published a Sacerdotale of this kind; in 1579 at Venice another version appeared, arranged by Grancesco Samarino, Canon of the Lateran; it was re-edited in 1583 by Angelo Rocca. In 1586 Giulio Antonio Santorio, Cardinal of St. Severina, printed a handbook of rites for the use of priests, which, as Paul V says, "he had composed after long study and with much industry and labor" (Apostolicae Sedis). This book is the foundation of our Roman Ritual. In 1614 Paul V published the first edition of the official Ritual by the Constitution "Apostolicae Sedis" of 17 June. In this he points out that Clement VIII had already issued a uniform text of the Pontifical and the Caerimoniale Episcoporum (The Ceremonial of Bishops), which determines the functions of many other ecclesiastics besides bishops. (That is still the case. The Caerimoniale Episcoporum forms the indispensable complement of other liturgical books for priests too.) "It remained", the pope continues, "that the sacred and authentic rites of the Church, to be observed in the administration of sacraments and other ecclesiastical functions by those who have the care of souls, should also be included in one book and published by authority of the Apostolic See; so that they should carry out their office according to a public and fixed standard, instead of following so great a multitude of Rituals".[1]

Post-Tridentine uniformity

But, unlike the other books of the Roman Rite, the Ritual has never been imposed as the only standard. Paul V did not abolish all other collections of the same kind, nor command every one to use only his book. He says: "Wherefore we exhort in the Lord" that it should be adopted. The result of this is that the old local Rituals have never been altogether abolished. After the appearance of the Roman edition these others were gradually more and more conformed to it. They continued to be used, but had many of their prayers and ceremonies modified to agree with the Roman book. This applies especially to the rites of Baptism, Holy Communion, the form of absolution, Extreme Unction. The ceremonies also contained in the Missal (holy water, the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday, etc.), and the prayers also in the Breviary (the Office of the Dead) are necessarily identical with those of Paul V's Ritual; these have the absolute authority of the Missal and Breviary. On the other hand, many countries have local customs for Marriage, the visitation of the sick, etc., numerous special blessings, processions and sacramentals not found in the Roman book, still printed in various diocesan Rituals. It is then by no means the case that every priest of the Roman Rite uses the Roman Ritual. Very many dioceses or provinces still have their own local handbooks under the name of Rituale or another (Ordo administrandi sacramenta, etc.), though all of these conform to the Roman text in the chief elements. Most contain practically all the Roman book, and have besides local additions.[1]

18th–20th centuries

The further history of the Rituale Romanum is this: Benedict XIV in 1752 revised it, together with the Pontifical and Cærimoniale Episcoporum. His new editions of these three books were published by the Brief "Quam ardenti" (25 March 1752), which quotes Paul V's Constitution at length and is printed, as far as it concerns this book, in the beginning of the Ritual. He added to Paul V's text two forms for giving the papal blessing (V, 6; VIII, 31). Meanwhile, a great number of additional blessings were added in an appendix. This appendix is now nearly as long as the original book. Under the title Benedictionale Romanum it is often issued separately. Leo XIII approved an editio typica published by Pustet at Ratisbon in 1884.[1]

1964–present

With the advent of the Second Vatican Council there was a push to revise all of the official books of the Catholic Church, including the Pontifical, the Ceremonial of Bishop, The Roman Ritual, the Missal and the Breviary. The initial changes were made to the Missal, and the changes followed on from there, with each rite of the church being strenuously revised. The Roman Ritual itself was split up into Two volumes, published in 1976 with the most recent edition dating from 1990, now called "The Rites." The first volume contains the majority of the old Roman Ritual, it covers all of the sacraments with the exception of Ordination, and it covers funerary rites. The second volume covers more episcopal ceremonies including the consecration of altars, the order of ordaining Deacons, Priests and Bishops and consecrating the oils for use in the church.

The second section of the old Roman Ritual, the Benedictionale, was also extensively revised. It is now published as "The Book of Blessings", or in Latin De Benedictionibus. This was published initially in 1987 with the most recent edition dating from 1990. It contains many blessings, however they are far less florid in comparison to those in the Ritual. The blessings in the new book follow more the structure of the Mass, with general intercessions, readings, and other features which in the older blessings were not included.

The Rite of Exorcism also underwent a series of revisions and was finally promulgated in 1999, as De exorcismis et supplicationibus quibusdam (Concerning Exorcisms and Certain Supplications).

Following the motu proprio of Pope Benedict XVI Summorum Pontificum Fr. Philip T. Weller's translation of the ritual of 1964, in three volumes, was reprinted.

Contents

The Rituale Romanum is divided into ten "titles" (tituli). All, except the first, are subdivided into chapters. In each title (except I and X), the first chapter gives the general rules for the sacrament or function, while the others give the exact ceremonies and prayers for various cases of administration.[1]

Other rituals

The Ambrosian Rite has its own ritual (Rituale Ambrosianum, published by Giacomo Agnelli at the Archiepiscopal Press, Milan).[1]

In the Byzantine Rite, the contents of the ritual are contained in the Euchologion.[1]

The Armenians have a ritual book (Mashdotz) similar to the Roman Ritual.[1]

Other churches not in communion with the Holy See have not yet arranged the various parts of this book in one collection. Nearly all the Eastern Catholic Churches, however, now have ritual books formed on the Roman model.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Ritual". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

Criticism of the revised rites

1789 in Ireland

Events from the year 1789 in Ireland.

Abraham in the Catholic liturgy

Abraham figures prominently in Catholic liturgy. Of all the names of the Old Testament used in the liturgies of the Roman Rite, a special prominence accrues to those of Abel, Melchisedech, and Abraham through their association with the idea of sacrifice and their employment in this connection in the most solemn part of the Canon of the Mass. Abraham's name occurs so often and in such a variety of connections as to give him, among Old Testament figures, a position of eminence in the liturgy, perhaps surpassed by David alone.

Agenda (liturgy)

The name Agenda (“Things to be Done”; Germ. Agende or Kirchenagende) is given, particularly in the Lutheran Church, to the official books dealing with the forms and ceremonies of divine service.

Baptismal vows

Baptismal vows are the renunciations required of an adult candidate for baptism just before the sacrament is conferred. In the case of an infant baptism they are given by the godparents.

According to the Roman Ritual, three questions are addressed to the person to be baptized: "Dost thou renounce Satan? and all his works? and all his pomps?" To each of these interrogation the person, or the sponsor in his name, replies: "I do renounce".The practice of renewing the baptismal promises is more or less widespread and often happens in association with other sacraments of First Holy Communion and Confirmation.

Canonical coronation

A canonical coronation (Latin: coronatio canonica) is a pious institutional act of the Pope, duly expressed in a Papal bull in which oftentimes a Papal legate or Papal nuncio, or at rare occasions the Pontiff himself designates a crown, tiara, or stellar halo to a Christological, Marian, or Josephian image with a specific devotional title that is prominently venerated in a particular diocese or locality.Previously, the Holy Office issued the authorization of a canonical coronation through a dicastery called the "Vatican Chapter", and later the Sacred Congregation of Rites was assigned this duty. Since 1989, the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments executes the act that the decree authorizes.

Cistercian Rite

The Cistercian Rite is the liturgical rite, distinct from the Roman Rite and specific to the Cistercian Order of the Roman Catholic Church.

Confiteor

The "Confiteor" (so named from its first word, or incipit in Latin, meaning "I confess" or "I acknowledge") is one of the prayers that can be said during the Penitential Act at the beginning of Mass of the Roman Rite in the Catholic Church. It is also said in the Lutheran Church at the beginning of the Divine Service, and by some Anglo-catholic Anglicans before Mass. The prayer is started by the priest and ended by the people.

Eanbald (floruit 798)

Eanbald (died c. 808) was an eighth century Archbishop of York and correspondent of Alcuin.

Exorcism in Christianity

Exorcism in Christianity is the practice of casting out demons from a person they are believed to have possessed. The person performing the exorcism, known as an exorcist, is often a member of the Christian Church, or an individual thought to be graced with special powers or skills. The exorcist may use prayers and religious material, such as set formulas, gestures, symbols, icons, amulets, etc. The exorcist often invokes God, Jesus and/or several different angels and archangels to intervene with the exorcism. A survey of Christian exorcists found that most exorcists believe that any mature Christian can perform an exorcism, not just members of clergy. Christian exorcists most commonly believe the authority given to them by the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (the Trinity) is the source of their ability to cast out demons.The term became prominent in Early Christianity from the early 2nd century onward.In general, people considered to be possessed are not regarded as evil in themselves, nor wholly responsible for their actions, because possession is considered to be unwilling manipulation by a demon resulting in harm to self or others. Therefore, practitioners regard exorcism as more of a cure than a punishment. The mainstream rituals usually take this into account, making sure that there is no violence to the possessed, only that they be tied down if there is potential for violence.

Exorcism in the Catholic Church

The Catholic Church authorizes the use of exorcism for those who are believed to be the victims of demonic possession. In Roman Catholicism, exorcism is sacramental but not a sacrament, unlike baptism or confession. Unlike a sacrament, exorcism's "integrity and efficacy do not depend ... on the rigid use of an unchanging formula or on the ordered sequence of prescribed actions. Its efficacy depends on two elements: authorization from valid and licit Church authorities, and the faith of the exorcist." The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "When the Church asks publicly and authoritatively in the name of Jesus Christ that a person or object be protected against the power of the Evil One and withdrawn from his dominion, it is called exorcism."The Catholic Church revised the Rite of Exorcism in January 1999, though the traditional Rite of Exorcism in Latin is allowed as an option. The ritual assumes that possessed persons retain their free will, though the demon may hold control over their physical body, and involves prayers, blessings, and invocations with the use of the document Of Exorcisms and Certain Supplications.

Solemn exorcisms, according to the Canon law of the Church, can be exercised only by an ordained priest (or higher prelate), with the express permission of the local bishop, and only after a careful medical examination to exclude the possibility of mental illness. The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) enjoined: "Superstition ought not to be confounded with religion, however much their history may be interwoven, nor magic, however white it may be, with a legitimate religious rite." Things listed in the Roman Ritual as being indicators of possible demonic possession include: speaking foreign or ancient languages of which the possessed has no prior knowledge; supernatural abilities and strength; knowledge of hidden or remote things which the possessed has no way of knowing; an aversion to anything holy; and profuse blasphemy and/or sacrilege.

Forty Hours' Devotion

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Forty Hours' Devotion" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.Forty Hours' Devotion, in Italian called Quarant'ore or written in one word Quarantore, is a Roman Catholic exercise of devotion in which continuous prayer is made for forty hours before the Blessed Sacrament in solemn exposition. It often occurs in a succession of churches, with one finishing prayers at the same time as the next takes it up.

A celebration of such a devotion is begun by a Solemn Mass or "Mass of Exposition", and ended by a "Mass of Reposition". The latter concludes with a procession and benediction. The Blessed Sacrament is reposed in the tabernacle for the daily Mass, and then returned for exposition after Mass.

It is assumed that the exposition and prayer should be kept up by night as well as by day, but permission is given to dispense with this requirement when enough watchers cannot be obtained. In such a case the interruption of the devotion by night does not forfeit the indulgences conceded by the Holy See to those who take part in it.

Liturgical books of the Roman Rite

The liturgical books of the Roman Rite are the official books containing the words to be recited and the actions to be performed in the celebration of Catholic liturgy as done in Rome. The Roman Rite of the Latin or Western Church of the Catholic Church is the most widely celebrated of the scores of Catholic liturgical rites. The titles of some of these books contain the adjective "Roman", e.g. the "Roman Missal", to distinguish them from the liturgical books for the other rites of the Church, .

Lituus

The word lituus originally meant a curved augural staff, or a curved war-trumpet in the ancient Latin language. This Latin word continued in use through the 18th century as an alternative to the vernacular names of various musical instruments.

Mary, Mother of Grace

Mary, Mother of Grace (Latin: Maria Mater Gratiae) is a Roman Catholic prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Mary,Mother of grace,Mother of mercy, Shield me from the enemyAnd receive me at the hour of my death.Amen.(From the Roman ritual)

Norbertine Rite

The Premonstratensian Rite or Norbertine Rite is the liturgical rite, distinct from the Roman Rite, specific to the Premonstratensian Order of the Roman Catholic Church

Prayer to Saint Michael

The Prayer to Saint Michael usually refers to one specific Catholic prayer to Michael the Archangel, among the various prayers in existence that are addressed to him. From 1886 to 1964, this prayer was recited after Low Mass in the Catholic Church, although not incorporated into the text or the rubrics of the Mass.

Other prayers to Saint Michael have also been officially approved and printed on prayer cards.

To Hope! A Celebration

To Hope! A Celebration is a 1996 live album by the American jazz pianist Dave Brubeck.The audio CD consists of a recording of a live performance of the Catholic mass as arranged and composed by Brubeck - it is the second recording Brubeck did of this piece.

The earlier original vinyl LP 1980 recording (Pastoral Arts Associates (PAA) LP record DRP-8318) of "To Hope! A Celebration By Dave Brubeck (A Mass in the Revised Roman Ritual)" - featuring Dave Brubeck on Piano, Jerry Bergonzi on Tenor Saxophone, Chris Brubeck on Bass Guitar, Randy Jones on Drums, Daisy Newman - Soprano (cantor), Tim Noble - Baritone (cantor), William McGraw - Baritone (priest), The Cincinnati May Festival Chorus (directed by John Leman), The Mt. Washington [Ohio] Presbyterian Church Handbell Choir (directed by Wylene Davies), conducted by Erich Kunzel, recorded in Providence, Rhode Island, has not been re-issued on audio CD.

The later June 12, 1995 recording - released on audio CD by Telarc (Telarc 20 CD-80430), was performed by the Duke Ellington School Of The Arts Show Choir, the Cathedral Choral Society (directed by J. Reilly Lewis) and Orchestra (conducted by Russell Gloyd), at Washington National Cathedral, accompanied by Brubeck and his quartet featuring Bobby Militello on Saxophone.

Tubilustrium

In Ancient Rome the month of March was the traditional start of the campaign season, and the Tubilustrium was a ceremony to make the army fit for war. The ceremony involved sacred trumpets called tubae.

Johannes Quasten, however, argues that the common term for war trumpets being tubae is not the same as the tubi form here. He states that tubi was only used for trumpets used in sacrifices and goes on to show how this ceremony was a feast to cleanse and purify the trumpets used in sacrifices - it is a good example, he argues, of the special connection between music and cult in Roman ritual.The festival was held on March 23, the last day of the Quinquatria festival held in tribute to the Roman God Mars and Nerine, a Sabine goddess. The event took place again on May 23.The ceremony was held in Rome in a building called the Hall of the Shoemakers (atrium sutorium) and involved the sacrifice of a ewe lamb. Romans who did not attend the ceremony would be reminded of the occasion by seeing the Salii dancing through the streets of the city.

Verrius Flaccus

Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. 55 BC – AD 20) was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.

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