Romain Rolland (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃]; 29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915 "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings".
He is also noted for his correspondence with and influence on Sigmund Freud.
|Born||29 January 1866|
Clamecy, Nièvre, France
|Died||30 December 1944 (aged 78)|
|Occupation||Dramatist, essayist, Art historian, novelist, musicologist|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Literature |
|Spouse||Maria Pavlovna Kudachova|
Rolland was born in Clamecy, Nièvre into a family that had both wealthy townspeople and farmers in its lineage. Writing introspectively in his Voyage intérieur (1942), he sees himself as a representative of an "antique species". He would cast these ancestors in Colas Breugnon (1919).
Accepted to the École normale supérieure in 1886, he first studied philosophy, but his independence of spirit led him to abandon that so as not to submit to the dominant ideology. He received his degree in history in 1889 and spent two years in Rome, where his encounter with Malwida von Meysenbug–who had been a friend of Nietzsche and of Wagner–and his discovery of Italian masterpieces were decisive for the development of his thought. When he returned to France in 1895, he received his doctoral degree with his thesis Les origines du théâtre lyrique moderne. Histoire de l’opéra en Europe avant Lulli et Scarlatti (The origins of modern lyric theatre. A History of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti). For the next two decades, he taught at various lycées in Paris before directing the newly established music school École des Hautes Études Sociales from 1902–11. In 1903 he was appointed to the first chair of music history at the Sorbonne, he also directed briefly in 1911 the musical section at the French Institute in Florence.
His first book was published in 1902, when he was 36 years old. Through his advocacy for a 'people's theatre', he made a significant contribution towards the democratization of the theatre. As a humanist, he embraced the work of the philosophers of India ("Conversations with Rabindranath Tagore" and Mohandas Gandhi). Rolland was strongly influenced by the Vedanta philosophy of India, primarily through the works of Swami Vivekananda.
A demanding, yet timid, young man, he did not like teaching. He was not indifferent to youth: Jean-Christophe, Olivier and their friends, the heroes of his novels, are young people. But with real-life persons, youths as well as adults, Rolland maintained only a distant relationship. He was first and foremost a writer. Assured that literature would provide him with a modest income, he resigned from the university in 1912.
Romain Rolland was a lifelong pacifist. He was one of the few major French writers to retain his pacifist internationalist values; he moved to Switzerland. He protested against the first World War in Au-dessus de la mêlée (1915), Above the Battle (Chicago, 1916). In 1924, his book on Gandhi contributed to the Indian nonviolent leader's reputation and the two men met in 1931.
In 1928 Rolland and Hungarian scholar, philosopher and natural living experimenter Edmund Bordeaux Szekely founded the International Biogenic Society to promote and expand on their ideas of the integration of mind, body and spirit. In 1932 Rolland was among the first members of the World Committee Against War and Fascism, organized by Willi Münzenberg. Rolland criticized the control Münzenberg assumed over the committee and was against it being based in Berlin.
Rolland moved to Villeneuve, on the shores of Lac Léman (Lake Geneva) to devote himself to writing. His life was interrupted by health problems, and by travels to art exhibitions. His voyage to Moscow (1935), on the invitation of Maxim Gorky, was an opportunity to meet Joseph Stalin, whom he considered the greatest man of his time. Rolland served unofficially as ambassador of French artists to the Soviet Union. However, as a pacifist, he was uncomfortable with Stalin's brutal repression of the opposition. He attempted to discuss his concerns with Stalin, and was involved in the campaign for the release of the Left Opposition activist/writer Victor Serge and wrote to Stalin begging clemency for Nikolai Bukharin. During Serge's imprisonment (1933–1936), Rolland had agreed to handle the publications of Serge's writings in France, despite their political disagreements.
In 1937, he came back to live in Vézelay, which, in 1940, was occupied by the Germans. During the occupation, he isolated himself in complete solitude.
Never stopping his work, in 1940, he finished his memoirs. He also placed the finishing touches on his musical research on the life of Ludwig van Beethoven. Shortly before his death, he wrote Péguy (1944), in which he examines religion and socialism through the context of his memories. He died on 30 December 1944 in Vézelay.
In 1921, his close friend, the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig, published his biography (in English Romain Rolland: The Man and His Works). Zweig profoundly admired Rolland, whom he once described as "the moral consciousness of Europe" during the years of turmoil and War in Europe. Zweig wrote at length about his friendship with Rolland in his own autobiography (in English The World of Yesterday).
Rolland's most significant contribution to the theatre lies in his advocacy for a "popular theatre" in his essay The People's Theatre (Le Théâtre du peuple, 1902). "There is only one necessary condition for the emergence of a new theatre", he wrote, "that the stage and auditorium should be open to the masses, should be able to contain a people and the actions of a people". The book was not published until 1913, but most of its contents had appeared in the Revue d'Art Dramatique between 1900 and 1903. Rolland attempted to put his theory into practice with his melodramatic dramas about the French Revolution, Danton (1900) and The Fourteenth of July (1902), but it was his ideas that formed a major reference point for subsequent practitioners.
|"The people have been gradually conquered by the bourgeois class, penetrated by their thoughts and now want only to resemble them. If you long for a people's art, begin by creating a people!"|
|Romain Rolland, Le Théâtre du peuple (1903).|
The essay is part of a more general movement around the turn of that century towards the democratization of the theatre. The Revue had held a competition and tried to organize a "World Congress on People's Theatre", and a number of People's Theatres had opened across Europe, including the Freie Volksbühne movement ('Free People's Theatre') in Germany and Maurice Pottecher's Théâtre du Peuple in France. Rolland was a disciple of Pottecher and dedicated The People's Theatre to him.
Rolland's approach is more aggressive, though, than Pottecher's poetic vision of theatre as a substitute 'social religion' bringing unity to the nation. Rolland indicts the bourgeoisie for its appropriation of the theatre, causing it to slide into decadence, and the deleterious effects of its ideological dominance. In proposing a suitable repertoire for his people's theatre, Rolland rejects classical drama in the belief that it is either too difficult or too static to be of interest to the masses. Drawing on the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he proposes instead "an epic historical theatre of 'joy, force and intelligence' which will remind the people of its revolutionary heritage and revitalize the forces working for a new society" (in the words of Bradby and McCormick, quoting Rolland). Rolland believed that the people would be improved by seeing heroic images of their past. Rousseau's influence may be detected in Rolland's conception of theatre-as-festivity, an emphasis that reveals a fundamental anti-theatrical prejudice: "Theatre supposes lives that are poor and agitated, a people searching in dreams for a refuge from thought. If we were happier and freer we should not feel hungry for theatre. [...] A people that is happy and free has need of festivities more than of theatres; it will always see in itself the finest spectacle".
Rolland's dramas have been staged by some of the most influential theatre directors of the twentieth century, including Max Reinhardt and Erwin Piscator. Piscator directed the world première of Rolland's pacifist drama The Time Will Come (Le Temps viendra, written in 1903) at Berlin's Central-Theater, which opened on 17 November 1922 with music by K Pringsheim and scenic design by O Schmalhausen and M Meier. The play addresses the connections between imperialism and capitalism, the treatment of enemy civilians, and the use of concentration camps, all of which are dramatised via an episode in the Boer War. Piscator described his treatment of the play as "thoroughly naturalistic", whereby he sought "to achieve the greatest possible realism in acting and decor". Despite the play's overly-rhetorical style, the production was reviewed positively.
Rolland's most famous novel is the 10-volume novel sequence Jean-Christophe (1904–1912), which brings "together his interests and ideals in the story of a German musical genius who makes France his second home and becomes a vehicle for Rolland's views on music, social matters and understanding between nations". His other novels are Colas Breugnon (1919), Clérambault (1920), Pierre et Luce (1920) and his second roman-fleuve, the 7-volume L'âme enchantée (1922–1933).
He became a history teacher at Lycée Henri IV, then at the Lycée Louis le Grand, and member of the École française de Rome, then a professor of the History of Music at the Sorbonne, and History Professor at the École Normale Supérieure.
1923 saw the beginning of a correspondence between psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and Rolland, who found that the admiration that he showed for Freud was reciprocated in equal measures (Freud proclaiming in a letter to him: "That I have been allowed to exchange a greeting with you will remain a happy memory to the end of my days."). This correspondence introduced Freud to the concept of the "oceanic feeling" that Rolland had developed through his study of Eastern mysticism. Freud opened his next book Civilization and its Discontents (1929) with a debate on the nature of this feeling, which he mentioned had been noted to him by an anonymous "friend". This friend was Rolland. Rolland would remain a major influence on Freud's work, continuing their correspondence right up to Freud's death in 1939.
|1891||Les Baglioni||Unpublished during his lifetime.|
|Unpublished during his lifetime.|
|1891||Orsino (play)||Unpublished during his lifetime.|
|1892||Le Dernier Procès de Louis Berquin
(The Last Trial of Louis Berquin)
|1895||Les Origines du théâtre lyrique moderne
(The origins of modern lyric theatre)
|Academic treatise, which won a prize from the Académie Française|
|1895||Histoire de l'opéra avant Lully et Scarlatti
(A History of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti)
|Dissertation for his doctorate in Letters|
|1895||Cur ars picturae apud Italos XVI saeculi deciderit||Latin-language thesis on the decline in Italian oil painting in the course of the sixteenth century|
|1899||Le Triomphe de la raison
(The Triumph of Reason)
|1899||Georges Danton||Historical/philosophical drama|
|1900||Le Poison idéaliste|
|1901||Les Fêtes de Beethoven à Mayence
(The Celebrations of Beethoven in Mainz)
|1902||Le Quatorze Juillet
(14 July–Bastille Day)
|1903||Vie de Beethoven
(Life of Beethoven)
|1903||Le temps viendra
(The Time Will Come)
|1903||Le Théâtre du peuple
(The People's Theatre)
|Seminal essay in the democratization of theatre.|
|1904||La Montespan||Historical/philosophical drama|
|1904–1912||Jean-Christophe||Cycle of ten volumes divided into three series–Jean-Christophe, Jean-Christophe à Paris, and la Fin du voyage, published by Cahiers de la Quinzaine|
|1904||L'Aube||First volume of the series Jean-Christophe|
|Second volume of the series Jean-Christophe|
|Third volume of the series Jean-Christophe|
|Fourth volume of the series Jean-Christophe|
|1907||Vie de Michel-Ange
(Life of Michelangelo)
|Collection of articles and essays about music|
(Musicians of the Past)
|Collection of articles and essays about music|
|1908||La Foire sur la place||First volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris|
|1908||Antoinette||Second volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris|
|1908||Dans la maison
|Third volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris|
|First volume of the series la Fin du voyage|
|1911||La Vie de Tolstoï
(Life of Tolstoy)
|1911||Le Buisson ardent||Second volume of the series la Fin du voyage|
|1912||La Nouvelle Journée||Third volume of the series la Fin du voyage|
|1911||Jean-Christophe: Dawn . Morning . Youth . Revolt||In English, first four volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan|
|1911||Jean-Christophe in Paris: The Market Place . Antoinette . The House||In English, second three volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan|
|1915||Jean-Christophe: Journey's End: Love and Friendship . The Burning Bush . The New Dawn||In English, final three volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan|
|1912||L'Humble Vie héroïque
(The Humble Life of the Hero)
|1915||Au-dessus de la mêlée
(Above the Battle)
|1915||—||Received the Nobel Prize in Literature|
|1917||Salut à la révolution russe
(Salute to the Russian Revolution)
|1918||Pour l'internationale de l'Esprit
(For the International of the Spirit)
|1918||L'Âge de la haine
(The Age of Hatred)
|1919||Colas Breugnon||Burgundian story, and basis for Colas Breugnon, the opera by Dmitry Kabalevsky|
|1920||Pierre et Luce|
|1921||La Révolte des machines
(The Revolt of the Machines)
|1922||Annette et Sylvie||First volume of l'Âme enchantée|
(The Enchanted Soul)
|1923||—||Founded the review Europe|
|Second volume of l'Âme enchantée|
|1925||Le Jeu de l'amour et de la mort
(The Game of Love and Death)
|basis for Hra o láske a smrti, the opera by Ján Cikker|
|1927||Mère et fils
(Mother and Child)
|Third volume of l'Âme enchantée|
|1928||De l'Héroïque à l'Appassionata
(From the Heroic to the Passionate)
|1929||Essai sur la mystique de l'action
(A study of the Mystique of Action)
|1929||Vie de Ramakrishna
(Life of Ramakrishna)
|1930||Vie de Vivekananda
(Life of Vivekananda)
|1930||Goethe et Beethoven
(Goethe and Beethoven)
|1933||L'Annonciatrice||Fourth volume of l'Âme enchantée|
|1935||Quinze ans de combat|
|1936||Compagnons de route|
|1937||Le Chant de la Résurrection
(Song of the Resurrection)
|1938||Les Pages immortelles de Rousseau
(The Immortal Pages of Rousseau)
|1942||Le Voyage intérieur
(The Interior Voyage)
|1943||La Cathédrale interrompue
(The Interrupted Cathedral)
|Volumes I and II|
|1945||La Cathédrale interrompue||Volume III, posthumous|
1269 Rollandia, provisional designation 1930 SH, is a dark Hildian asteroid from the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 105 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 September 1930, by Soviet astronomer Grigory Neujmin at the Simeiz Observatory on the Crimean peninsula. The asteroid was named after French writer Romain Rolland. It was one of the last 100-kilometer sized asteroids discovered in the main belt.1866 in France
Events from the year 1866 in France.Chinmoy Guha
Chinmoy Guha (born in September 1958 in Kolkata, India) is a professor and former Head of Department of English at the University of Calcutta, a Bengali essayist and translator, and a scholar of French language and literature. He has been the Vice-Chancellor of Rabindra Bharati University and Director of Publications, Embassy of France, New Delhi. Earlier he taught English at Vijaygarh Jyotish Ray College in Kolkata for more than two decades, and French at the Alliance Française and the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture for eleven and five years respectively.He has won the Lila Ray award of the Government of West Bengal in 2008 and the Derozio bicentenary award in 2010. He has been awarded knighthoods by the ministries of Education and Culture of the Government of France, in 2010 and 2013. Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi and the Government of West Bengal conferred on him Vidyasagar Puroshkar in 2017.Clérambault (novel)
Clérambault is a 1920 novel by the Nobel Prize-winning French author Romain Rolland. It concerns a father's personal outcry against the militarism of the First World War, after his son dies in combat.Dilipkumar Roy
Dilipkumar Roy (22 January 1897 – 6 January 1980) was a Bengali Indian musician, musicologist, novelist, poet and essayist. He was the son of Dwijendralal Ray.
In 1965, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama, awarded him its highest honour for lifetime achievement, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship.Florindo
Der beglückte Florindo (HWV 3) is an opera composed by Handel at the request of Reinhard Keiser, the manager of the Hamburg Opera. It was first performed (after Handel had left for Italy) at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in January 1708. It was probably directed from the harpsichord by Christoph Graupner.
The opera was the first part of a double opera, with the second part, Die verwandelte Daphne, intended to be performed on the following evening. Keiser inserted a play in low German, called die lustige Hochzeit, into the opera, afraid that the audience would get tired otherwise. Handel was not pleased, according to Romain Rolland. Only fragments of the score survive, but a copy of the libretto exists in the Library of Congress.The libretto was by Hinrich Hinsch, a lawyer, who also wrote the text for Keiser's first opera in Hamburg: Mahumet II (1696), based on the life of Mehmet II. Hinsch had been writing librettos since 1681. He died in 1712.Frans Masereel
Frans Masereel (31 July 1889 – 3 January 1972) was a Flemish painter and graphic artist who worked mainly in France. He is known especially for his woodcuts. His greatest work is generally said to be the wordless novel Passionate Journey. He completed over 20 other wordless novels in his career.
Masereel's woodcuts influenced Lynd Ward and later graphic artists such as Clifford Harper and Eric Drooker.Jean-Christophe
Jean-Christophe (1904‒1912) is the novel in 10 volumes by Romain Rolland for which he received the Prix Femina in 1905 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915. It was translated into English by Gilbert Cannan.
The first four volumes are sometimes grouped as Jean-Christophe, the next three as Jean-Christophe à Paris, and the last three as La fin du voyage ("Journey's End").
L'Aube ("Dawn", 1904)
Le Matin ("Morning", 1904)
L'Adolescent ("Youth", 1904)
La Révolte ("Revolt", 1905)
La Foire sur la place ("The Marketplace", 1908)
Dans la maison ("The House", 1908)
Les Amies ("Love and Friendship", 1910)
Le Buisson ardent ("The Burning Bush", 1911)
La Nouvelle Journée ("The New Dawn", 1912)The English translations appeared between 1911 and 1913.Lycée Romain Rolland
Lycée Romain Rolland may refer to the following French schools:
Lycée Romain Rolland (Amiens) - Amiens
Lycée Romain Rolland (Clamecy) - Clamecy, Nièvre
Lycée Romain Rolland (Goussainville, Val-d'Oise)
Lycée Romain Rolland (Ivry-sur-Seine) - Ivry-sur-SeineLycée Romain Rolland (Goussainville, Val-d'Oise)
Lycée Romain Rolland is a senior high school in Goussainville, Val-d'Oise, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.Oblicze Dnia
Oblicze Dnia ('The Face of the Day') was a Polish weekly literary and political newspaper published from Warsaw. The periodical was launched in and published during 1936. It was directed towards the intelligentsia and was inspired by the Popular Front victories in Spain and France. For a short period of time, the publication attracted various prominent cultural figures. Collaborators of the newspaper included Adam Strug, Zofia Nałkowska, Maria Dąbrowska, Romain Rolland, Louis Aragon and Paul Langevin. The editors of the newspaper belonged to the Communist Party of Poland and the left-wing tendency of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS).Wanda Wasilewska served as the editor-in-chief, and the periodical was named after one of her novels, published in 1934. The book dealt with a worker strike in Kraków and had obtained cult status amongst Polish left intellectuals. Wasilewska was a member of the Socialist Party but was considered a close ally of the Communist Party. At the time, negotiations on forming a Popular Front were taking place between the two parties. However, the launching of Oblicze Dnia led to the breakdown of these talks, as the Socialist Party felt that the Communist Party had launched this newspaper under the supposed cover of a PPS sympathizer. The publication remained close to the Communist Party; in particular, it was associated with the communist front organ Czerwona Pomoc ("Red Aid"). As with other publications linked to the Communist Party, Oblicze Dnia was confiscated by the state authorities from time to time.Oceanic feeling
In a 1927 letter to Sigmund Freud, Romain Rolland coined the phrase "oceanic feeling" to refer to the sensation of being one with the universe. According to Rolland, this feeling is the source of all the religious energy that permeates in various religious systems, and one may justifiably call oneself religious on the basis of this oceanic feeling alone, even if one renounces every belief and every illusion. Freud discusses the feeling in his Future of an Illusion (1927) and Civilization and Its Discontents (1929). There he deems it a fragmentary vestige of a kind of consciousness possessed by an infant who has not yet differentiated himself or herself from other people and things.Orchestre national d'Île-de-France
The Orchestre national d'Île de France is a French symphony orchestra with its administrative base in Alfortville. The orchestra gives concerts in a number of cities and venues, including the following:
Philharmonie de Paris, Paris
Théâtre Alexandre Dumas, Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Théâtre Espace Coluche, Plaisir
Théâtre Romain Rolland, Villejuif
Opéra de Massy, Massy
Centre culturel Jacques Prévert, Villeparisis
Théâtre Sénart, Lieusaint
Centre des Bords de Marne, Le Perreux-sur-Marne
Conservatoire Jean-Baptiste Lully, Puteaux
Centre culturel Saint-Ayoul, ProvinsThe orchestra receives funding from the Conseil régional d’Île-de-France and the French Ministry of Culture.
The precursor orchestra to the current ensemble was the Orchestre symphonique d'Île de France. In 1974, at the instigation of the culture minister Marcel Landowski, this orchestra was reorganised into the Orchestre national d'Île de France. Since 1996, the orchestra has been administratively situated in Alfortville.
Past music directors include Jacques Mercier (1982-2002) and Yoel Levi (2005-2012). Since 2012, the current music director is Enrique Mazzola. Mazzola is scheduled to conclude his tenure with the orchestra after the 2018-2019 season. In October 2018, the orchestra announced the appointment of Case Scaglione as its next music director, effective with the 2019-2020 season.Orsino
Orsino may refer to:
Orsino, Florida, United States
Orsino (play), a play by Romain Rolland
Orsino (Twelfth Night), a character in the Shakespearean comedy Twelfth Night
Orsino, the name of an elven mage in Dragon Age IIPalais de justice historique de Lyon
The Palais de justice historique de Lyon is a building located Quai Romain Rolland, on the right bank of the Saône, in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon. In 1996, it was classified as monument historique.Pierre et Luce
Pierre et Luce is a 1920 novel by the Nobel Prize-winning French author Romain Rolland. It focuses on the impact of the First World War on two lovers, Pierre and Luce. The older brother of Pierre is off fighting on the Western Front. The novel also seems to depict the Paris Gun attack on the St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church.Romain Rolland Library
The Romain Rolland Library, earlier known as Bibliothèque Publique, is one of the oldest Libraries of India located in the union territory of Puducherry. In the year 1966 when the birth centenary of the Great French Scholar, Romain Rolland who was also a contemporary and a close friend of Mahatma Gandhi was celebrated, the Library was renamed after him and ever since it is known as ‘Romain Rolland Library’.Siddhartha (novel)
Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. The book, Hesse's ninth novel, was written in German, in a simple, lyrical style. It was published in the U.S. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. Hesse dedicated the first part of it to Romain Rolland and the second part to Wilhelm Gundert, his cousin.
The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in Sanskrit language, siddha (achieved) + artha (what was searched for), which together means "he who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". In fact, the Buddha's own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilavastu. In this book, the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama".Views on Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna (1836–1886), is a 19th-century Indian mystic whose teachings form the foundation of the Ramakrishna religious movement and the Ramakrishna Mission.
|Works and philosophy|
|Disciples and friends|
|Educational institutions |
named after Vivekananda
|Books on Vivekananda|