Romain Rolland

Romain Rolland (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃]; 29 January 1866 – 30 December 1944) was a French dramatist, novelist, essayist, art historian and mystic who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915 "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings".[1]

He is also noted for his correspondence with and influence on Sigmund Freud.

Romain Rolland
Romain Rolland-1914
Born29 January 1866
Clamecy, Nièvre, France
Died30 December 1944 (aged 78)
OccupationDramatist, essayist, Art historian, novelist, musicologist
Notable awardsNobel Prize in Literature
SpouseMaria Pavlovna Kudachova


Rolland was born in Clamecy, Nièvre into a family that had both wealthy townspeople and farmers in its lineage. Writing introspectively in his Voyage intérieur (1942), he sees himself as a representative of an "antique species". He would cast these ancestors in Colas Breugnon (1919).

Accepted to the École normale supérieure in 1886, he first studied philosophy, but his independence of spirit led him to abandon that so as not to submit to the dominant ideology. He received his degree in history in 1889 and spent two years in Rome, where his encounter with Malwida von Meysenbug–who had been a friend of Nietzsche and of Wagner–and his discovery of Italian masterpieces were decisive for the development of his thought. When he returned to France in 1895, he received his doctoral degree with his thesis Les origines du théâtre lyrique moderne. Histoire de l’opéra en Europe avant Lulli et Scarlatti (The origins of modern lyric theatre. A History of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti). For the next two decades, he taught at various lycées in Paris before directing the newly established music school École des Hautes Études Sociales from 1902–11. In 1903 he was appointed to the first chair of music history at the Sorbonne, he also directed briefly in 1911 the musical section at the French Institute in Florence.[2]

His first book was published in 1902, when he was 36 years old. Through his advocacy for a 'people's theatre', he made a significant contribution towards the democratization of the theatre. As a humanist, he embraced the work of the philosophers of India ("Conversations with Rabindranath Tagore" and Mohandas Gandhi). Rolland was strongly influenced by the Vedanta philosophy of India, primarily through the works of Swami Vivekananda.[3]

A demanding, yet timid, young man, he did not like teaching. He was not indifferent to youth: Jean-Christophe, Olivier and their friends, the heroes of his novels, are young people. But with real-life persons, youths as well as adults, Rolland maintained only a distant relationship. He was first and foremost a writer. Assured that literature would provide him with a modest income, he resigned from the university in 1912.

Romain Rolland was a lifelong pacifist. He was one of the few major French writers to retain his pacifist internationalist values; he moved to Switzerland. He protested against the first World War in Au-dessus de la mêlée (1915), Above the Battle (Chicago, 1916). In 1924, his book on Gandhi contributed to the Indian nonviolent leader's reputation and the two men met in 1931.

In May 1922 he attended the International Congress of Progressive Artists and signed the "Founding Proclamation of the Union of Progressive International Artists".[4]

In 1928 Rolland and Hungarian scholar, philosopher and natural living experimenter Edmund Bordeaux Szekely founded the International Biogenic Society to promote and expand on their ideas of the integration of mind, body and spirit. In 1932 Rolland was among the first members of the World Committee Against War and Fascism, organized by Willi Münzenberg. Rolland criticized the control Münzenberg assumed over the committee and was against it being based in Berlin.[5]

Rolland moved to Villeneuve, on the shores of Lac Léman (Lake Geneva) to devote himself to writing. His life was interrupted by health problems, and by travels to art exhibitions. His voyage to Moscow (1935), on the invitation of Maxim Gorky, was an opportunity to meet Joseph Stalin, whom he considered the greatest man of his time. Rolland served unofficially as ambassador of French artists to the Soviet Union. However, as a pacifist, he was uncomfortable with Stalin's brutal repression of the opposition. He attempted to discuss his concerns with Stalin, and was involved in the campaign for the release of the Left Opposition activist/writer Victor Serge and wrote to Stalin begging clemency for Nikolai Bukharin. During Serge's imprisonment (1933–1936), Rolland had agreed to handle the publications of Serge's writings in France, despite their political disagreements.

In 1937, he came back to live in Vézelay, which, in 1940, was occupied by the Germans. During the occupation, he isolated himself in complete solitude.

Never stopping his work, in 1940, he finished his memoirs. He also placed the finishing touches on his musical research on the life of Ludwig van Beethoven. Shortly before his death, he wrote Péguy (1944), in which he examines religion and socialism through the context of his memories. He died on 30 December 1944 in Vézelay.

In 1921, his close friend, the Austrian writer Stefan Zweig, published his biography (in English Romain Rolland: The Man and His Works). Zweig profoundly admired Rolland, whom he once described as "the moral consciousness of Europe" during the years of turmoil and War in Europe. Zweig wrote at length about his friendship with Rolland in his own autobiography (in English The World of Yesterday).

Hermann Hesse dedicated Siddhartha to Romain Rolland "my dear friend".

People's theatre

Rolland's most significant contribution to the theatre lies in his advocacy for a "popular theatre" in his essay The People's Theatre (Le Théâtre du peuple, 1902).[6] "There is only one necessary condition for the emergence of a new theatre", he wrote, "that the stage and auditorium should be open to the masses, should be able to contain a people and the actions of a people".[7] The book was not published until 1913, but most of its contents had appeared in the Revue d'Art Dramatique between 1900 and 1903. Rolland attempted to put his theory into practice with his melodramatic dramas about the French Revolution, Danton (1900) and The Fourteenth of July (1902), but it was his ideas that formed a major reference point for subsequent practitioners.[6]

"The people have been gradually conquered by the bourgeois class, penetrated by their thoughts and now want only to resemble them. If you long for a people's art, begin by creating a people!"
Romain Rolland, Le Théâtre du peuple (1903).[8]

The essay is part of a more general movement around the turn of that century towards the democratization of the theatre. The Revue had held a competition and tried to organize a "World Congress on People's Theatre", and a number of People's Theatres had opened across Europe, including the Freie Volksbühne movement ('Free People's Theatre') in Germany and Maurice Pottecher's Théâtre du Peuple in France. Rolland was a disciple of Pottecher and dedicated The People's Theatre to him.

Rolland's approach is more aggressive, though, than Pottecher's poetic vision of theatre as a substitute 'social religion' bringing unity to the nation. Rolland indicts the bourgeoisie for its appropriation of the theatre, causing it to slide into decadence, and the deleterious effects of its ideological dominance. In proposing a suitable repertoire for his people's theatre, Rolland rejects classical drama in the belief that it is either too difficult or too static to be of interest to the masses. Drawing on the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, he proposes instead "an epic historical theatre of 'joy, force and intelligence' which will remind the people of its revolutionary heritage and revitalize the forces working for a new society" (in the words of Bradby and McCormick, quoting Rolland).[9] Rolland believed that the people would be improved by seeing heroic images of their past. Rousseau's influence may be detected in Rolland's conception of theatre-as-festivity, an emphasis that reveals a fundamental anti-theatrical prejudice: "Theatre supposes lives that are poor and agitated, a people searching in dreams for a refuge from thought. If we were happier and freer we should not feel hungry for theatre. [...] A people that is happy and free has need of festivities more than of theatres; it will always see in itself the finest spectacle".[10]

Piscator Programmzettel 1922
Programme sheet for Piscator's 1922 production of Rolland's drama The Time Will Come (1903), at the Central-Theater in Berlin.

Rolland's dramas have been staged by some of the most influential theatre directors of the twentieth century, including Max Reinhardt and Erwin Piscator.[11] Piscator directed the world première of Rolland's pacifist drama The Time Will Come (Le Temps viendra, written in 1903) at Berlin's Central-Theater, which opened on 17 November 1922 with music by K Pringsheim and scenic design by O Schmalhausen and M Meier.[12] The play addresses the connections between imperialism and capitalism, the treatment of enemy civilians, and the use of concentration camps, all of which are dramatised via an episode in the Boer War.[13] Piscator described his treatment of the play as "thoroughly naturalistic", whereby he sought "to achieve the greatest possible realism in acting and decor".[14] Despite the play's overly-rhetorical style, the production was reviewed positively.[13]


Rolland's most famous novel is the 10-volume novel sequence Jean-Christophe (1904–1912), which brings "together his interests and ideals in the story of a German musical genius who makes France his second home and becomes a vehicle for Rolland's views on music, social matters and understanding between nations".[15] His other novels are Colas Breugnon (1919), Clérambault (1920), Pierre et Luce (1920) and his second roman-fleuve, the 7-volume L'âme enchantée (1922–1933).

Academic career

The Soviet Union 1966 CPA 3311 stamp (Birth Centenary French Writer Romain Rolland (1866-1944) (after Anatoly Yar-Kravchenko) and Scene from 'Jean-Christophe')
Stamp from the USSR which commemorates the 100th anniversary of Romain Rolland's birth in 1966.

He became a history teacher at Lycée Henri IV, then at the Lycée Louis le Grand, and member of the École française de Rome, then a professor of the History of Music at the Sorbonne, and History Professor at the École Normale Supérieure.

Correspondence with Freud

1923 saw the beginning of a correspondence between psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud and Rolland, who found that the admiration that he showed for Freud was reciprocated in equal measures (Freud proclaiming in a letter to him: "That I have been allowed to exchange a greeting with you will remain a happy memory to the end of my days.").[16] This correspondence introduced Freud to the concept of the "oceanic feeling" that Rolland had developed through his study of Eastern mysticism. Freud opened his next book Civilization and its Discontents (1929) with a debate on the nature of this feeling, which he mentioned had been noted to him by an anonymous "friend". This friend was Rolland. Rolland would remain a major influence on Freud's work, continuing their correspondence right up to Freud's death in 1939.[17]


Romain Rolland de face au balcon, Meurisse, 1914 retouche
Romain Rolland in 1914, on the balcony of his home
Romain Rolland au balcon, Meurisse, 1914 retouche
Romain Rolland in 1914, on the balcony of his home
Year Work Notes
1888 Amour d'enfants  
1891 Les Baglioni Unpublished during his lifetime.
1891 Empédocle
Unpublished during his lifetime.
1891 Orsino (play) Unpublished during his lifetime.
1892 Le Dernier Procès de Louis Berquin
(The Last Trial of Louis Berquin)
1895 Les Origines du théâtre lyrique moderne
(The origins of modern lyric theatre)
Academic treatise, which won a prize from the Académie Française
1895 Histoire de l'opéra avant Lully et Scarlatti
(A History of Opera in Europe before Lully and Scarlatti)
Dissertation for his doctorate in Letters
1895 Cur ars picturae apud Italos XVI saeculi deciderit Latin-language thesis on the decline in Italian oil painting in the course of the sixteenth century
1897 Saint-Louis  
1897 Aërt Historical/philosophical drama
1898 Les Loups
(The Wolves)
Historical/philosophical drama
1899 Le Triomphe de la raison
(The Triumph of Reason)
Historical/philosophical drama
1899 Georges Danton Historical/philosophical drama
1900 Le Poison idéaliste  
1901 Les Fêtes de Beethoven à Mayence
(The Celebrations of Beethoven in Mainz)
1902 Le Quatorze Juillet
(14 July–Bastille Day)
Historical/philosophical drama
1902 François-Millet  
1903 Vie de Beethoven
(Life of Beethoven)
1903 Le temps viendra
(The Time Will Come)
1903 Le Théâtre du peuple
(The People's Theatre)
Seminal essay in the democratization of theatre.
1904 La Montespan Historical/philosophical drama
1904–1912 Jean-Christophe Cycle of ten volumes divided into three series–Jean-Christophe, Jean-Christophe à Paris, and la Fin du voyage, published by Cahiers de la Quinzaine
1904 L'Aube First volume of the series Jean-Christophe
1904 Le Matin
Second volume of the series Jean-Christophe
1904 L'Adolescent
(The Adolescent)
Third volume of the series Jean-Christophe
1905 La Révolte
(The Revolt)
Fourth volume of the series Jean-Christophe
1907 Vie de Michel-Ange
(Life of Michelangelo)
1908 Musiciens d'aujourd'hui
(Contemporary Musicians)
Collection of articles and essays about music
1908 Musiciens d'autrefois
(Musicians of the Past)
Collection of articles and essays about music
1908 La Foire sur la place First volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris
1908 Antoinette Second volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris
1908 Dans la maison
(At Home)
Third volume of the series Jean-Christophe à Paris
1910 Haendel
1910 Les Amies
First volume of the series la Fin du voyage
1911 La Vie de Tolstoï
(Life of Tolstoy)
1911 Le Buisson ardent Second volume of the series la Fin du voyage
1912 La Nouvelle Journée Third volume of the series la Fin du voyage
1911 Jean-Christophe: Dawn . Morning . Youth . Revolt In English, first four volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan
1911 Jean-Christophe in Paris: The Market Place . Antoinette . The House In English, second three volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan
1915 Jean-Christophe: Journey's End: Love and Friendship . The Burning Bush . The New Dawn In English, final three volumes published in one. Henry Holt and Company. Translated by Gilbert Cannan
1912 L'Humble Vie héroïque
(The Humble Life of the Hero)
1915 Au-dessus de la mêlée
(Above the Battle)
Pacifist manifesto
1915 Received the Nobel Prize in Literature
1917 Salut à la révolution russe
(Salute to the Russian Revolution)
1918 Pour l'internationale de l'Esprit
(For the International of the Spirit)
1918 L'Âge de la haine
(The Age of Hatred)
1919 Colas Breugnon Burgundian story, and basis for Colas Breugnon, the opera by Dmitry Kabalevsky
1919 Liluli Play
1919 Les Précurseurs
(The Precursors)
1920 Clérambault  
1920 Pierre et Luce  
1921 Pages choisies
(Selected Pages)
1921 La Révolte des machines
(The Revolt of the Machines)
1922 Annette et Sylvie First volume of l'Âme enchantée
1922 Les Vaincus  
1922–1933 L'Âme enchantée
(The Enchanted Soul)
Seven volumes
1923 Founded the review Europe
1924 L'Été
Second volume of l'Âme enchantée
1924 Mahatma Gandhi  
1925 Le Jeu de l'amour et de la mort
(The Game of Love and Death)
basis for Hra o láske a smrti, the opera by Ján Cikker
1926 Pâques fleuries  
1927 Mère et fils
(Mother and Child)
Third volume of l'Âme enchantée
1928 Léonides  
1928 De l'Héroïque à l'Appassionata
(From the Heroic to the Passionate)
1929 Essai sur la mystique de l'action
(A study of the Mystique of Action)
1929 L'Inde vivante
(Living India)
1929 Vie de Ramakrishna
(Life of Ramakrishna)
1930 Vie de Vivekananda
(Life of Vivekananda)
1930 L'Évangile universel Essays
1930 Goethe et Beethoven
(Goethe and Beethoven)
1933 L'Annonciatrice Fourth volume of l'Âme enchantée
1935 Quinze ans de combat  
1936 Compagnons de route  
1937 Le Chant de la Résurrection
(Song of the Resurrection)
1938 Les Pages immortelles de Rousseau
(The Immortal Pages of Rousseau)
1939 Robespierre Historical/philosophical drama
1942 Le Voyage intérieur
(The Interior Voyage)
1943 La Cathédrale interrompue
(The Interrupted Cathedral)
Volumes I and II
1945 Péguy Posthumous publication
1945 La Cathédrale interrompue Volume III, posthumous


  1. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Romain Rolland". Books and Writers ( Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 24 September 2014.
  2. ^ Robert Henderson. "Romain Rolland". In Deane L. Root. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ van Doesburg, Theo. "De Stijl, "A Short Review of the Proceedings [of the Congress of International Progressive Artists], Followed by the Statements Made by the Artists' Groups" (1922)". Ross Lawrence Wolfe. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  5. ^ Ceplair, Larry (1987). Under the Shadow of War: Fascism, Anti-Fascism, and Marxists, 1918–1939. Columbia University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-231-06532-0. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  6. ^ a b David Bradby, "Rolland, Romain". In The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Ed. Martin Banham. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). ISBN 0-521-43437-8. p.930.
  7. ^ Romain Rolland, Le Théâtre du peuple (Paris: Albin Michel) p.121. Quoted by David Bradby and John McCormick, People's Theatre (London: Croom Helm and Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978). ISBN 0-8476-6073-7. p.16.
  8. ^ Quoted by David Bradby and John McCormick, People's Theatre (London: Croom Helm and Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978). ISBN 0-8476-6073-7. p.32.
  9. ^ David Bradby and John McCormick, People's Theatre (London: Croom Helm and Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978). ISBN 0-8476-6073-7. p.32.
  10. ^ Quoted by David Bradby and John McCormick, People's Theatre (London: Croom Helm and Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1978). ISBN 0-8476-6073-7. p.32-33.
  11. ^ See John Willett, The Theatre of Erwin Piscator: Half a Century of Politics in the Theatre, London: Methuen, 1978 (p.15, 35, 46–7, 179). ISBN 0-413-37810-1.
  12. ^ Piscator (1929, 353).
  13. ^ a b Hugh Rorrison, in Piscator (1929, 55–56).
  14. ^ Piscator (1929, 58).
  15. ^ John Cruickshank, "Rolland, Romain", in Anthony Thorlby (ed.), The Penguin Companion to Literature 2: European Literature. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969, p. 661.
  16. ^ William B. Parsons, The Enigma of the Oceanic Feeling: Revisioning the Psychoanalytic Theory of Mysticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) 23, Questia, 2 Apr. 2007.
  17. ^ William B. Parsons, The Enigma of the Oceanic Feeling: Revisioning the Psychoanalytic Theory of Mysticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999) 19, Questia, 2 Apr. 2007.

Further reading

  • Fisher, David James. Romain Rolland and the Politics of the Intellectual Engagement (2003)
  • Zweig, Stephan. Romain Rolland: The Man and His Work (1921) (online)

External links

1269 Rollandia

1269 Rollandia, provisional designation 1930 SH, is a dark Hildian asteroid from the outermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 105 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 September 1930, by Soviet astronomer Grigory Neujmin at the Simeiz Observatory on the Crimean peninsula. The asteroid was named after French writer Romain Rolland. It was one of the last 100-kilometer sized asteroids discovered in the main belt.

1866 in France

Events from the year 1866 in France.

Chinmoy Guha

Chinmoy Guha (born in September 1958 in Kolkata, India) is a professor and former Head of Department of English at the University of Calcutta, a Bengali essayist and translator, and a scholar of French language and literature. He has been the Vice-Chancellor of Rabindra Bharati University and Director of Publications, Embassy of France, New Delhi. Earlier he taught English at Vijaygarh Jyotish Ray College in Kolkata for more than two decades, and French at the Alliance Française and the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture for eleven and five years respectively.He has won the Lila Ray award of the Government of West Bengal in 2008 and the Derozio bicentenary award in 2010. He has been awarded knighthoods by the ministries of Education and Culture of the Government of France, in 2010 and 2013. Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi and the Government of West Bengal conferred on him Vidyasagar Puroshkar in 2017.

Clérambault (novel)

Clérambault is a 1920 novel by the Nobel Prize-winning French author Romain Rolland. It concerns a father's personal outcry against the militarism of the First World War, after his son dies in combat.

Dilipkumar Roy

Dilipkumar Roy (22 January 1897 – 6 January 1980) was a Bengali Indian musician, musicologist, novelist, poet and essayist. He was the son of Dwijendralal Ray.

In 1965, the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama, awarded him its highest honour for lifetime achievement, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship.


Der beglückte Florindo (HWV 3) is an opera composed by Handel at the request of Reinhard Keiser, the manager of the Hamburg Opera. It was first performed (after Handel had left for Italy) at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in January 1708. It was probably directed from the harpsichord by Christoph Graupner.

The opera was the first part of a double opera, with the second part, Die verwandelte Daphne, intended to be performed on the following evening. Keiser inserted a play in low German, called die lustige Hochzeit, into the opera, afraid that the audience would get tired otherwise. Handel was not pleased, according to Romain Rolland. Only fragments of the score survive, but a copy of the libretto exists in the Library of Congress.The libretto was by Hinrich Hinsch, a lawyer, who also wrote the text for Keiser's first opera in Hamburg: Mahumet II (1696), based on the life of Mehmet II. Hinsch had been writing librettos since 1681. He died in 1712.

Frans Masereel

Frans Masereel (31 July 1889 – 3 January 1972) was a Flemish painter and graphic artist who worked mainly in France. He is known especially for his woodcuts. His greatest work is generally said to be the wordless novel Passionate Journey. He completed over 20 other wordless novels in his career.

Masereel's woodcuts influenced Lynd Ward and later graphic artists such as Clifford Harper and Eric Drooker.


Jean-Christophe (1904‒1912) is the novel in 10 volumes by Romain Rolland for which he received the Prix Femina in 1905 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1915. It was translated into English by Gilbert Cannan.

The first four volumes are sometimes grouped as Jean-Christophe, the next three as Jean-Christophe à Paris, and the last three as La fin du voyage ("Journey's End").

L'Aube ("Dawn", 1904)

Le Matin ("Morning", 1904)

L'Adolescent ("Youth", 1904)

La Révolte ("Revolt", 1905)

La Foire sur la place ("The Marketplace", 1908)

Antoinette (1908)

Dans la maison ("The House", 1908)

Les Amies ("Love and Friendship", 1910)

Le Buisson ardent ("The Burning Bush", 1911)

La Nouvelle Journée ("The New Dawn", 1912)The English translations appeared between 1911 and 1913.

Lycée Romain Rolland

Lycée Romain Rolland may refer to the following French schools:

Lycée Romain Rolland (Amiens) - Amiens

Lycée Romain Rolland (Clamecy) - Clamecy, Nièvre

Lycée Romain Rolland (Goussainville, Val-d'Oise)

Lycée Romain Rolland (Ivry-sur-Seine) - Ivry-sur-Seine

Lycée Romain Rolland (Goussainville, Val-d'Oise)

Lycée Romain Rolland is a senior high school in Goussainville, Val-d'Oise, France, in the Paris metropolitan area.

Oblicze Dnia

Oblicze Dnia ('The Face of the Day') was a Polish weekly literary and political newspaper published from Warsaw. The periodical was launched in and published during 1936. It was directed towards the intelligentsia and was inspired by the Popular Front victories in Spain and France. For a short period of time, the publication attracted various prominent cultural figures. Collaborators of the newspaper included Adam Strug, Zofia Nałkowska, Maria Dąbrowska, Romain Rolland, Louis Aragon and Paul Langevin. The editors of the newspaper belonged to the Communist Party of Poland and the left-wing tendency of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS).Wanda Wasilewska served as the editor-in-chief, and the periodical was named after one of her novels, published in 1934. The book dealt with a worker strike in Kraków and had obtained cult status amongst Polish left intellectuals. Wasilewska was a member of the Socialist Party but was considered a close ally of the Communist Party. At the time, negotiations on forming a Popular Front were taking place between the two parties. However, the launching of Oblicze Dnia led to the breakdown of these talks, as the Socialist Party felt that the Communist Party had launched this newspaper under the supposed cover of a PPS sympathizer. The publication remained close to the Communist Party; in particular, it was associated with the communist front organ Czerwona Pomoc ("Red Aid"). As with other publications linked to the Communist Party, Oblicze Dnia was confiscated by the state authorities from time to time.

Oceanic feeling

In a 1927 letter to Sigmund Freud, Romain Rolland coined the phrase "oceanic feeling" to refer to the sensation of being one with the universe. According to Rolland, this feeling is the source of all the religious energy that permeates in various religious systems, and one may justifiably call oneself religious on the basis of this oceanic feeling alone, even if one renounces every belief and every illusion. Freud discusses the feeling in his Future of an Illusion (1927) and Civilization and Its Discontents (1929). There he deems it a fragmentary vestige of a kind of consciousness possessed by an infant who has not yet differentiated himself or herself from other people and things.

Orchestre national d'Île-de-France

The Orchestre national d'Île de France is a French symphony orchestra with its administrative base in Alfortville. The orchestra gives concerts in a number of cities and venues, including the following:

Philharmonie de Paris, Paris

Théâtre Alexandre Dumas, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Théâtre Espace Coluche, Plaisir

Théâtre Romain Rolland, Villejuif

Opéra de Massy, Massy

Centre culturel Jacques Prévert, Villeparisis

Théâtre Sénart, Lieusaint

Centre des Bords de Marne, Le Perreux-sur-Marne

Conservatoire Jean-Baptiste Lully, Puteaux

Centre culturel Saint-Ayoul, ProvinsThe orchestra receives funding from the Conseil régional d’Île-de-France and the French Ministry of Culture.

The precursor orchestra to the current ensemble was the Orchestre symphonique d'Île de France. In 1974, at the instigation of the culture minister Marcel Landowski, this orchestra was reorganised into the Orchestre national d'Île de France. Since 1996, the orchestra has been administratively situated in Alfortville.

Past music directors include Jacques Mercier (1982-2002) and Yoel Levi (2005-2012). Since 2012, the current music director is Enrique Mazzola. Mazzola is scheduled to conclude his tenure with the orchestra after the 2018-2019 season. In October 2018, the orchestra announced the appointment of Case Scaglione as its next music director, effective with the 2019-2020 season.


Orsino may refer to:

Orsino, Florida, United States

Orsino (play), a play by Romain Rolland

Orsino (Twelfth Night), a character in the Shakespearean comedy Twelfth Night

Orsino, the name of an elven mage in Dragon Age II

Palais de justice historique de Lyon

The Palais de justice historique de Lyon is a building located Quai Romain Rolland, on the right bank of the Saône, in the 5th arrondissement of Lyon. In 1996, it was classified as monument historique.

Pierre et Luce

Pierre et Luce is a 1920 novel by the Nobel Prize-winning French author Romain Rolland. It focuses on the impact of the First World War on two lovers, Pierre and Luce. The older brother of Pierre is off fighting on the Western Front. The novel also seems to depict the Paris Gun attack on the St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church.

Romain Rolland Library

The Romain Rolland Library, earlier known as Bibliothèque Publique, is one of the oldest Libraries of India located in the union territory of Puducherry. In the year 1966 when the birth centenary of the Great French Scholar, Romain Rolland who was also a contemporary and a close friend of Mahatma Gandhi was celebrated, the Library was renamed after him and ever since it is known as ‘Romain Rolland Library’.

Siddhartha (novel)

Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha. The book, Hesse's ninth novel, was written in German, in a simple, lyrical style. It was published in the U.S. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. Hesse dedicated the first part of it to Romain Rolland and the second part to Wilhelm Gundert, his cousin.

The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in Sanskrit language, siddha (achieved) + artha (what was searched for), which together means "he who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". In fact, the Buddha's own name, before his renunciation, was Siddhartha Gautama, Prince of Kapilavastu. In this book, the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama".

Views on Ramakrishna

Ramakrishna (1836–1886), is a 19th-century Indian mystic whose teachings form the foundation of the Ramakrishna religious movement and the Ramakrishna Mission.

Works and philosophy
Disciples and friends
Artistic depictions
Educational institutions
named after Vivekananda
Books on Vivekananda

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.